Publications by authors named "Lu Gao"

744 Publications

Rational design of ultrahigh sensitive sunset yellow sensor based on 3D hierarchical porous graphitic carbon with sub-nanopores.

Food Chem 2021 Jul 19;365:130631. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu 225002, PR China. Electronic address:

The content of sunset yellow (SY) in food must be strictly controlled, because its excessive intake may cause many adverse health effects. Herein, we proposed an ultrasensitive SY sensor by using hierarchical porous graphitic (HPG) carbon derived from polyaniline hydrogel. After a first step of polymerization, the HPG carbon was prepared through carbonization and further chemical activation. In particular, the activation process endowed the HPG carbon with a high content of optimized porous architecture (sub-nanoporous surface area accounts for more than 90% of microporous surface area), and thus providing a structural basis for high efficiency of SY pre-concentration on HPG carbon surface. Therefore, the proposed sensor showed record-high sensitivity (5285.7 A M cm) and ultra-low detection limit (0.15 nM), which represents a performance improvement in SY sensing. Furthermore, the sensor displays excellent selectivity, reproducibility and stability, exhibiting a great perspective in ultrasensitive monitoring of SY in commercial products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.130631DOI Listing
July 2021

Genetic variants of CYP4F12 gene are associated with glioma susceptibility.

Int J Cancer 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Neurosurgery, the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Shaanxi, China.

Glioma is a common and fatal primary malignant tumor of the central nervous system, and its prognosis is poor. To determine the susceptibility markers of gliomas in Chinese population we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of glioma in the Han Chinese population, with a total of 485 glioma cases and 485 controls. Genotyping was conducted using the Applied Biosystems Axiom Precision Medicine Diversity Array. Besides, we carried out imputation using IMPUTE 2.0 software, and the 1000 Genomes Phase 3 was used as the reference panel. The logistic regression model was used to analyze the association of each SNP with glioma risk, assuming an additive genetic model, which was implemented in PLINK version 1.9. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated from logistic regression analysis with adjustment for age and gender. The results revealed that the SNP (rs688755) in the exon region of CYP4F12 at 19p13.12 reached genome-wide significance associated with gliomas (p = 2.35×10 , OR= 3.55, 95% CI=2.20-5.74). Our findings provide deeper insight into the genetic contribution to glioma in different populations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.33755DOI Listing
July 2021

The Transcriptome of Paired Major and Minor Salivary Gland Tissue in Patients With Primary Sjögren's Syndrome.

Front Immunol 2021 6;12:681941. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands.

Background: While all salivary glands (SGs) can be involved in primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS), their respective role in pathogenesis remains unclear. Our objective was to assess immunopathway activation in paired parotid and labial gland tissue from biopsy-positive and biopsy-negative pSS and non-SS sicca patients.

Methods: Paraffin-embedded, paired parotid and labial salivary gland tissue and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were obtained from 39 pSS and 20 non-SS sicca patients. RNA was extracted, complementary DNA libraries were prepared and sequenced. For analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs), patients were subdivided based on fulfillment of ACR-EULAR criteria and histopathology.

Results: With principal component analysis, only biopsy-positive pSS could be separated from non-SS sicca patients based on SG gene expression. When comparing the transcriptome of biopsy-positive pSS and biopsy-negative non-SS sicca patients, 1235 and 624 DEGs (FDR<0.05, log2FC<-1 or >1) were identified for parotid and labial glands, respectively. The number of DEGs between biopsy-negative pSS and non-SS sicca patients was scarce. Overall, transcript expression levels correlated strongly between parotid and labial glands (R = 0.86, p-value<0.0001). Gene signatures present in both glands of biopsy-positive pSS patients included IFN-α signaling, IL-12/IL-18 signaling, CD3/CD28 T-cell activation, CD40 signaling in B-cells, DN2 B-cells, and FcRL4+ B-cells. Signature scores varied considerably amongst pSS patients.

Conclusion: Transcriptomes of paired major and minor SGs in pSS were overall comparable, although significant inter-individual heterogeneity in immunopathway activation existed. The SG transcriptome of biopsy-negative pSS was indistinguishable from non-SS sicca patients. Different patterns of SG immunopathway activation in pSS argue for personalized treatment approaches.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.681941DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8291032PMC
July 2021

3-Silaazetidine: An Unexplored yet Versatile Organosilane Species for Ring Expansion toward Silaazacycles.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 Jul 19;143(29):11141-11151. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Key Laboratory of Drug-Targeting and Drug Delivery System of the Education Ministry and Sichuan Province, Sichuan Engineering Laboratory for Plant-Sourced Drug and Sichuan Research Center for Drug Precision Industrial Technology, West China School of Pharmacy, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, People's Republic of China.

Small-ring silacycles are important organosilane species in main-group chemistry and have found numerous applications in organic synthesis. 3-Silaazetidine, a unique small silacycle bearing silicon and nitrogen atoms, has not been adequately explored due to the lack of a general synthetic scheme and its sensitivity to air. Here, we describe that 3-silaazetidine can be easily prepared from diverse air-stable precursors (RSONHCHSiRCHCl). 3-Silaazetidine shows excellent functional group tolerance in a palladium-catalyzed ring expansion reaction with terminal alkynes, giving 3-silatetrahydropyridines and diverse silaazacycle derivatives, which are promising ring frameworks for the discovery of Si-containing functional molecules.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.1c04667DOI Listing
July 2021

Effect of healthcare system reforms on public hospitals' revenue structures: Evidence from Beijing, China.

Soc Sci Med 2021 Jul 7;283:114210. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Beijing Public Health Information Center, Beijing, China.

To reduce the heavy reliance of public hospitals on drug sales and use of advanced technologies and to contain the escalating medical expenditures, Beijing implemented two rounds of comprehensive public hospital reform in 2017 and 2019, respectively. The first round focused on separating drug sales from hospital revenue (reform1), and the second round extended to include zero markup on medical consumables and price adjustments for medical services (reform2). To estimate how these two rounds of reform have affected public hospitals' revenue structures, we used observational data of medical revenues from 2016 to 2019 covering 354 healthcare facilities. A Panel-interrupted time-series (PITS) model was used to analyze the effects. The results suggest that the reforms have changed the structure of public hospitals' revenues. The proportion of drug sales in hospital revenues fell from 43.96% in 2016 (pre-reform) to 34.08% in 2019 (post-reform); the proportions of medical consumables decreased by 0.73% after reform 2; and the proportion of medical consultation service fees increased from 15.16% in 2016 to 24.51% in 2019. PITS analysis showed that the proportion of drug sales dropped by 5.46% in the month of reform 1, and it dropped by 0.20% per month on average after reform 2(p < 0.001). The proportion of medical consumables decreased by 0.04% per month on average after reform 2 (p < 0.001). The proportion of medical consultation service increased by 7.13% in the month of reform 1, and it increased by 0.14% per month on average after reform 2(p < 0.001). Similar trends were seen in hospital revenue structures from both inpatient services and from outpatient and accident and emergency services. Thus, Beijing's reforms successfully contained rising medical expenditures and optimized hospitals' revenue structures. These reforms can provide a reference for further public hospital reforms in China and other countries with similar systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2021.114210DOI Listing
July 2021

A Comparative Retrospective Study of Immunotherapy RANO Standard RANO Criteria in Glioblastoma Patients Receiving Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Therapy.

Front Oncol 2021 25;11:679331. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, United States.

Objectives: Real-time assessment of treatment response in glioblastoma (GBM) patients on immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) remains challenging because inflammatory effects of therapy may mimic progressive disease, and the temporal evolution of these inflammatory findings is poorly understood. We compare GBM patient response during ICB as assessed with the Immunotherapy Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (iRANO) and the standard Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (RANO) radiological criteria.

Methods: 49 GBM patients (seven newly diagnosed and 42 recurrent) treated with ICBs at a single institution were identified. Tumor burden was quantified on serial MR scans according to RANO criteria during ICB. Radiographic response assessment by iRANO and RANO were compared.

Results: 82% (40/49) of patients received anti-PD-1, 16% (8/49) received anti-PD-L1, and 2% (1/49) received anti-PD-1 and anti-CTLA4 treatment. Change in tumor burden and best overall response ranged from -100 to +557% (median: +48%). 12% (6/49) of patients were classified as concordant non-progressors by both RANO and iRANO (best response: one CR, one PR, and four SD). Another12% (6/49) had discordant assessments: 15% (6/41) of RANO grade progressive disease (PD) patients had iRANO grade of progressive disease unconfirmed (PDU). The final classification of these discordant patients was pseudoprogression (PsP) in three of six, PD in two of six, and PDU in one of six who went off study before the iRANO assessment of PDU. iRANO delayed diagnosis of PD by 42 and 93 days in the two PD patients. 76% (37/49) patients were classified as concordant PD by both RANO and iRANO. 12% (6/49) of all patients were classified as PsP, starting at a median of 12 weeks (range, 4-30 weeks) after ICB initiation.

Conclusions: Standard RANO and iRANO have high concordance for assessing PD in patients within 6 months of ICB initiation. iRANO was beneficial in 6% (3/49) cases later proven to be PsP, but delayed confirmation of PD by <3 months in 4% (2/49). PsP occurred in 12% of patients, starting at up to 7 months after initiation of ICB. Further study to define the utility of modified RANO compared with iRANO in ICB GBM patients is needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.679331DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8268004PMC
June 2021

Regulation of serum microRNA expression by acupuncture in patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome.

Acupunct Med 2021 Jul 7:9645284211027892. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Acupuncture and Rehabilitation, Jiangsu Province Hospital of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, China.

Objective: To screen for differentially expressed serum microRNAs (miRNAs) in patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) compared with healthy participants and explore the mechanism of acupuncture in the treatment of IBS-D based on miRNAs.

Methods: IBS-D patients that met the Rome III diagnostic criteria and age- and sex-matched healthy participants were enrolled between April 2017 and December 2017. Serum miRNA levels were initially determined using a TaqMan low-density array (TLDA) in pooled samples. Markedly altered miRNAs in IBS-D patients were subsequently validated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) on individual samples. All IBS-D patients accepted the acupuncture therapy for 6 weeks. The disease severity was assessed using the IBS symptom severity scale (IBS-SSS) questionnaire before and after treatment. After acupuncture, the patients' serum was re-analyzed for altered expression of the miRNAs by qRT-PCR.

Results: TLDA and qRT-PCR analysis revealed six upregulated miRNAs (miR-1305, miR-575, miR-149-5p, miR-190a-5p, miR-135a-5p, and miR-148a-3p;  < 0.05) and two downregulated miRNAs (miR-194-5p, miR-127-5p;  < 0.05) in IBS-D patients compared with healthy controls. Post acupuncture treatment, total IBS-SSS scores, severity of abdominal pain, duration of abdominal pain, severity of abdominal distention, dissatisfaction with bowel habits and disruption in quality of life decreased significantly ( < 0.001). Furthermore, the upregulated miR-148a-3p levels in IBS-D patients also decreased significantly after acupuncture ( < 0.05).

Conclusions: The over-expression or reduced expression of several miRNAs may contribute to IBS-D pathogenesis. Acupuncture might downregulate miR-148a-3p through multiple pathways to alleviate or relieve IBS-D symptoms.

Trial Registration Number: ChiCTR-IOR-17010860 (Chinese Clinical Trials Registry).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/09645284211027892DOI Listing
July 2021

Role of Race, Ethnicity, and Immigration in Perceived Stress and Depressive Symptomatology Trends During Pregnancy.

J Immigr Minor Health 2021 Jul 4. Epub 2021 Jul 4.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, 2001 N. Soto Street, Los Angeles, CA, 90032, USA.

Our goal was to examine the role of race, ethnicity, and immigration status on prenatal perceived stress and depressive symptomatology trends across pregnancy in a low-income, minority population of pregnant women in urban Los Angeles. Longitudinal data on 442 Hispanic and Black women were analyzed using mixed effects models with a random intercept for participant were employed to evaluate predictors of higher perceived stress levels and probable depression across pregnancy. Compared to U.S. born Hispanic women, Black women had higher perceived stress (β 2.24; 95% CI 0.41, 4.07) and higher odds of probable depression (OR 2.38; 95% CI 0.95, 5.95) while Hispanic immigrants with greater than 20 years of residency in the U.S. had higher odds of probable depression (OR 2.93; 95% CI 1.10, 7.79). Maternal mental health among Hispanic immigrants with longer U.S. residency and Black race warrants increased attention from public health and clinical agencies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10903-021-01235-2DOI Listing
July 2021

Application of exogenous salicylic acid reduces disease severity of Plasmodiophora brassicae in pakchoi (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis Makino).

PLoS One 2021 24;16(6):e0248648. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Horticultural Research Institute, Shanghai Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Shanghai, China.

Clubroot is one of the most serious diseases affecting Brassicaceae plants worldwide. However, there is no effective control method for clubroot. Salicylic acid (SA) is a plant hormone that plays a critical role in plant defense. In our study, we found the disease severity of a clubroot-sensitive cultivar of pakchoi, Xinxiaqing, was reduced with 0.6mM exogenous SA after the infection of P. brassicae. To investigate the mechanism of SA-reduced disease severity against clubroot, then we analyzed the plant growth, alteration of antioxidant enzyme system, and related gene expression of Xinxiaqing. Results showed that the clubroot incidence rate and disease index were decreased after being treated with 0.6 mM exogenous SA. Furthermore, plant growth, reactive oxygen species (ROS) contents, and membrane lipid peroxidation were changed. The activities of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbic acid-peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), and glutathione reductase (GR), were increased. Additionally, the production rates of malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and superoxide anion (O2·-) were also inhibited. The expression levels of genes, encoding SOD, APX, CAT, and GR, were increased. By summering all results, we conclude that 0.6 mM SA contributes to the reduction of disease severity to clubroot by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes, abilities of osmotic regulation, and ROS scavenging to reduce the clubroot-induced damage in pakchoi.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0248648PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8224854PMC
June 2021

Untargeted metabolomics analysis by gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry of human serum from methamphetamine abusers.

Addict Biol 2021 Jun 10:e13062. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

School of Food Science, State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, National Engineering Research Center for Functional Foods, School of Food Science Synergetic Innovation Center of Food Safety and Nutrition, Joint International Research Laboratory on Food Safety, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, China.

Methamphetamine (METH) abuse has become a global public health problem. However, the potential mechanisms involving METH-induced metabolic disorders have thus far remained poorly understood. Metabolomics can provide a clue for the cause of apparent changes and consequently be used to investigate the METH-induced dysregulation of metabolite expression and the mechanism of metabolic disorder mechanism. This laboratory investigation included 80 METH abusers and 80 healthy people. The serum metabolites were detected and analysed by gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Raw data were processed with the software MS DIAL, which includes deconvolution, peak alignment and compound identification. The data matrix was processed by univariate and multivariate analyses for significant metabolite screening with the criteria of variable importance in projection values > 1, fold change > 1.5 and the t test (p value < 0.05). Significant differences in 16 metabolites (deoxycholic acid, cholic acid, hydroxylamine, etc.) in serum were found between the METH abuse group and the control group. Energy metabolic pathways and several amino acid metabolic pathways (alanine, aspartic acid and glutamate metabolism and tryptophan metabolism) were primarily involved. Further analysis indicated that the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was 0.998 for these 16 metabolites. Among the metabolites, three carbohydrates (d-ribose, cellobiose and maltotriose) had an AUC of 0.975, which were determined as potential markers of abuse. We observed metabolic disturbances in METH abusers, particularly perturbation in energy metabolism and amino acid metabolism, which can provide new insights into the search for biomarkers and the mechanisms underlying the adverse effects of METH on human health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/adb.13062DOI Listing
June 2021

The stemness of hepatocytes is maintained by high levels of lipopolysaccharide via YAP1 activation.

Stem Cell Res Ther 2021 06 10;12(1):342. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Tumor Immunology and Gene Therapy Center, Third Affiliated Hospital of Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, 200438, China.

Background: The liver possesses a powerful regeneration ability, which is correlated with the stemness of hepatocytes in the portal vein (PV). However, the mechanism underlying the maintenance of hepatocyte stemness has not been elucidated. Here, we hypothesized that high levels of lipopolysaccharide from the portal vein might maintain the stemness of hepatocytes in the PV area.

Methods: First, we examined the location of hepatic stem cells and the concentration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the portal vein and inferior vena cava. Then, we assessed the effect of LPS on stemness maintenance in mice by using antibiotics to eliminate LPS and knocking out the LPS receptor, TLR4. In vitro, the effect of LPS on the stemness of hepatocytes was investigated by colony and sphere formation assays and assessment of pluripotent and stem cell marker expression. Furthermore, we studied the mechanism by which LPS regulates the stemness of hepatocytes. Finally, we ligated the portal vein branch to further verify the effect of LPS.

Results: We found that a high level of LPS from the portal vein was correlated with the location of hepatic stem cells in the PV area, and elimination of LPS by antibiotics inhibited the expression of the stemness marker. LPS promoted colony and sphere formation and induced the upregulation of pluripotent and stem cell markers in AML12 cells. Furthermore, in the reprogramming medium, LPS facilitated the dedifferentiation of mature hepatocytes into hepatic progenitor-like cells, which exhibited a bipotent differentiation capacity in vivo and in vitro. Mechanistically, LPS bound TLR4 to regulate stemness of hepatocytes via the activation of YAP1 signaling, and blockade of YAP1 abolished the LPS-induced cell stemness and upregulation of pluripotent markers.

Conclusions: Our study implies a correlation between LPS/TLR4/YAP1 signaling and cell stemness, and LPS was shown to be involved in stemness maintenance of hepatocytes in the PV area. LPS might be used to induce the dedifferentiation of mature hepatocytes into progenitor-like cells for repair of liver injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13287-021-02421-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8193885PMC
June 2021

Pharmacokinetics-Based Chronoefficacy of and Tripterygium Glycoside Tablet Against Rheumatoid Arthritis.

Front Pharmacol 2021 24;12:673263. Epub 2021 May 24.

Institute of Molecular Rhythm and Metabolism, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, China.

Rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by synovial inflammation and bone destruction. Identifying drugs with time-varying efficacy and toxicity, and elucidating the mechanisms would help to improve treatment efficacy and reduce adverse effects. Here, we aimed to determine the chronoefficacy of (SS) and tripterygium glycoside tablet (TGT) against rheumatoid arthritis in mice, and to investigate a potential role of circadian pharmacokinetics in generating chronoefficacy. SS extract and TGT suspension were prepared with ultrasonication. Effects of SS and TGT on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) were evaluated by measuring TNF-α and IL-6 levels. SS dosed at ZT18 was more effective in protecting against CIA than drug dosed at ZT6 (i.e., lower levels of key inflammatory factors at ZT18 than at ZT6). This was accompanied by higher systemic exposure levels of strychnine and brucine (two main putative active ingredients of SS) in ZT18-treated than in ZT6-treated CIA mice. TGT dosing at ZT2 showed a better efficacy against CIA as compared to herb doing at ZT14. Consistently, ZT2 dosing generated a higher exposure of triptolide (a main putative active ingredient of TGT) as compared to ZT14 dosing in CIA mice. Moreover, strychnine, brucine, and triptolide significantly inhibited the proliferation of fibroblast-like synoviocytes, and reduced the production of TNF-α and IL-6 and the mRNAs of TNF-α, IL-6, COX-2, and iNOS, suggesting that they possessed an anti-arthritis activity. In conclusion, SS and TGT display chronoefficacy against rheumatoid arthritis in mice, that is attributed to circadian pharmacokinetics of main active ingredients. Our findings have implications for improving treatment outcomes of SS and TGT timed delivery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.673263DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8181759PMC
May 2021

Oncostatin M promotes hepatic progenitor cell activation and hepatocarcinogenesis via macrophage-derived tumor necrosis factor-α.

Cancer Lett 2021 Oct 5;517:46-54. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Tumor Immunology and Gene Therapy Center, Third Affiliated Hospital of Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, 200438, China. Electronic address:

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) usually occurs at the late stage of chronic liver injury. Oncostatin M (OSM) is a tumor-associated cytokine highly expressed in cirrhosis and HCC patients; however, its role in hepatocarcinogenesis has not been clearly elucidated. In this study, we investigated the effect of OSM on HCC occurrence in a rat model of N-diethylnitrosamine-induced HCC. OSM overexpression significantly increased the number of tumor nodules and shortened the overall survival of the rats. Notably, OSM promoted HPC activation in vivo but did not directly regulate the proliferation of the HPC cell line in vitro. Further, OSM induced tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) secretion and CD68 macrophage accumulation, which were positively correlated with HPC activation. Additionally, TNF-α or macrophage depletion inhibited the promoting effect of OSM on hepatocarcinogenesis and HPC activation. Furthermore, OSM expression in the peritumoral tissues of HCC was positively correlated with poor overall survival of patients. In conclusion, OSM plays an important role in hepatocarcinogenesis by regulating the liver inflammation environment. Hence, OSM could be used as a potential target for HCC prevention and therapy or as an indicator of HCC prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2021.05.039DOI Listing
October 2021

Identification of the hub genes and prognostic indicators of gastric cancer and correlation of indicators with tumor-infiltrating immune cell levels.

J Cancer 2021 13;12(13):4025-4038. Epub 2021 May 13.

Henan Institute of Medical and Pharmaceutical Science, Zhengzhou University, No. 40 Daxue Road, Zhengzhou 450052, China.

To identify the hub genes and prognostic indicators of gastric cancer (GC) and determine the correlation between prognostic indicators and the tumor-infiltrating immune cell levels so as to provide useful information for future GC diagnosis and treatment. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) stomach adenocarcinoma dataset and two microarray datasets were used to screen the overlapping differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between normal gastric and GC tissue samples. Hub genes were screened via protein-protein interaction networks and module analysis of the overlapping DEGs. Their expression was validated at the cell level and tissue level using the ONCOMINE database. The prognostic indicators of overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival was identified by Cox proportional hazards regression analysis based on tumor grade and cancer stage. The expression of hub genes was validated at the cell level. The correlation of prognostic indicators with the tumor-infiltrating immune cell levels was analyzed using Tumor IMmune Estimation Resource. Ten hub genes, namely , , , , , , , , , and , were screened and their upregulation in the GC tissue was verified. Three prognostic factors, namely , , and , were identified; their expression was higher in GC cells than in normal cells. , , and were correlated with tumor-infiltrating immune cell levels in GC. The identified hub genes and prognostic indicators of GC could be useful indicators for future GC diagnosis and treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/jca.52105DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8176244PMC
May 2021

Added value of spectral parameters for the assessment of lymph node metastasis of lung cancer with dual-layer spectral detector computed tomography.

Quant Imaging Med Surg 2021 Jun;11(6):2622-2633

Department of Radiology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

Background: Lymph node (LN) metastasis is an important factor affecting the treatment of lung cancer. The purpose of this article was to investigate the benefits of dual-layer spectral detector computed tomography (SDCT) for the evaluation of metastatic LNs in lung cancer.

Methods: Data from 93 patients with lung cancer who underwent dual-phase enhanced scanning with SDCT were retrospectively analyzed. According to the pathological findings, 166 LNs were grouped as metastatic (n=80) or non-metastatic (n=86). LNs in station 4 (n=80) and station 7 (n=35) accounted for the majority of the LNs (approximately 69.23%). The short-axis diameter of the LN, arterial enhancement fraction (AEF), normalized iodine concentration (NIC), and the slope of the spectral Hounsfield unit curve (λ) during the arterial phase (AP) and venous phase (VP) were measured. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to statistically compare these quantitative parameters. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were plotted to identify the cutoff values, and decision curve analysis (DCA) was performed to determine the net benefit of each parameter. The diagnostic performance, obtained by combining the short-axis diameter with each of the above parameters, was also studied.

Results: The short-axis LN diameter, AEF, NIC, and λ during the AP and VP all showed significant differences between the metastatic and non-metastatic groups (P<0.05). Of the parameters, the AEF had the greatest diagnostic efficiency for metastatic LNs [area under the ROC curve (AUC) =0.885] with a threshold of 86.40%. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and 95% confidence interval were 90.00%, 89.53%, 88.89%, 90.59%, and 0.830-0.944, respectively. When the quantitative parameters were combined with the short-axis diameter, the AUCs of the parameters, except the AEF, were significantly improved (P<0.05).

Conclusions: The iodine quantitative parameters from SDCT, such as the AEF, demonstrated high diagnostic performances in the differentiation of metastatic and non-metastatic LNs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/qims-20-1045DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8107347PMC
June 2021

M2 macrophage-derived exosomes carry miR-1271-5p to alleviate cardiac injury in acute myocardial infarction through down-regulating SOX6.

Mol Immunol 2021 Aug 28;136:26-35. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Geriatrics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China. Electronic address:

Background: Emerging evidence has indicated that exosomes serve as key regulators in acute myocardial infarction (AMI). This study was determined to investigate the effect of M2 macrophage-derived exosomes (M2-Exos) in AMI and the further mechanism.

Methods: M2 macrophages were induced and M2-exos were isolated and verified. The AMI mouse model was prepared by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) and then intravenously injected with the isolated M2-exos. The mouse cardiac function was assessed by echocardiography. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining and TUNEL assay were conducted to examine myocardial lesion and apoptosis in cardiac tissues. The expressions of associated molecules were detected by quantitative real time-PCR (qRT-PCR) and western blot. MTT assay, Flow cytometry and Dual-luciferase reporter assay were carried out to detect cell viability, apoptosis and the interaction of miRNA and the target.

Result: M2-Exos could promote cardiac repair in AMI mice. M2-Exos suppressed apoptosis and enhanced viability of hypoxia-induced cardiomyocytes through delivery of miR-1271-5p. SOX6 is a direct target of miR-1271-5p. miR-1271-5p decreased cardiomyocyte apoptosis induced by hypoxia and alleviated cardiac injury in AMI via down-regulating SOX6 expression.

Conclusion: We identified that M2-Exos could carry miR-1271-5p to reduce apoptosis of cardiomyocytes and promote cardiac repair via down-regulating SOX6.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molimm.2021.05.006DOI Listing
August 2021

Suppression of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Development by Mechanosensitive Protein Piezo1 Downregulation.

ACS Omega 2021 Apr 12;6(15):10196-10206. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

BGI College & Henan Institute of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhengzhou University, No. 40 Daxue Road, Zhengzhou 450052, China.

Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is a malignant epithelial cancer of the esophageal epithelium. Piezo-type mechanosensitive ion channel component 1 (Piezo1), an essential mechanosensitive protein, plays an important role in maintaining cell biological functions under the stimulation of physiological force. Immunohistochemical and bioinformatic analyses of ESCC tissue samples indicate that Piezo1 expression is higher in ESCC tissues than in paracancerous tissues. shRNA-mediated Piezo1 downregulation in the ESCC lines EC9706 and EC109 showed that proliferation, migration, and invasion were suppressed by Piezo1 knockdown. Piezo1 downregulation suppresses ESCC migration and invasion in both cells and tissues via the epithelial-mesenchymal transition pathway. Moreover, G0/G1 to S-phase cell cycle progression was inhibited, and cell apoptosis was induced by Piezo1 downregulation. Furthermore, we observed an interaction between Piezo1 and p53 using immunoprecipitation. The protein levels of p53, downstream factor Bax, apoptosis executioner cleaved-caspase3, and caspase3 were significantly upregulated by the downregulation of Piezo1. The inhibited growth rate and upregulated expression of these related factors were validated using tumor-bearing mice. Therefore, Piezo1 downregulation induces ESCC apoptosis via a Piezo1-p53-Bax-Caspase 3 axis. In conclusion, Piezo1 downregulation suppresses ESCC development, and mechanosensitive protein Piezo1 can be considered a new target for ESCC therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.1c00505DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8153669PMC
April 2021

Autophagy deficiency downregulates Omethylguanine-DNA methyltransferase and increases chemosensitivity of liver cancer cells.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 05 24;13(10):14289-14303. Epub 2021 May 24.

Tumor Immunology and Gene Therapy Center, Shanghai Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital, Shanghai 200438, China.

It is known that autophagy-deficient cells are prone to DNA damage, but the specific role of autophagy in DNA damage repair is not fully known. Here, we show that autophagy-deficient liver cancer cells exhibit increased DNA damage caused by the chemotherapeutic agent epirubicin. Autophagy deficiency promotes downregulation of the DNA repair enzyme Omethylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) in liver cancer cells. However, autophagy induction with epirubicin had no impact on MGMT gene or protein expression in liver cancer cells. In the absence of autophagy, the chemosensitivity of liver cancer cells was increased, but this was reversed by MGMT overexpression, indicating that autophagy mediates resistance to chemotherapy in liver cancer cells via MGMT. These findings demonstrate a direct link between autophagy, MGMT, and DNA damage repair in liver cancer cells, and show that MGMT not only regulates chemosensitivity to alkylating agents, but may also be involved in other DNA damage repair processes in autophagy-deficient cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.203044DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8202878PMC
May 2021

[Corrigendum] Identification of microRNAs associated with the aggressiveness of prolactin pituitary tumors using bioinformatic analysis.

Oncol Rep 2021 Jul 20;46(1). Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Neurosurgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Dongcheng, Beijing 100730, P.R. China.

Following the publication of this article, an interested reader contacted the authors about some possible anomalies in the presentation of the data in Table I, and they have realized that this Table contained some errors. Two different entries for the miRNA hsa‑miR‑886‑3p were inadvertently included in the Table, due to there being two different microarray IDs for this miRNA when performing differential analysis by GEO2R (Owing to an oversight, the repeated miRNA was not deleted; therefore, the row of data for the second has‑miR‑886‑3p entry, comprising P‑value 0.00235, t‑value, 3.82, B‑value, ‑4.58 and logFC, 3.2 has been deleted, and the correct data row for the miRNA hsa‑miR‑513a‑5p has been inserted.) A corrected version of the Table is shown opposite (the corrected data row entry is highlighted in bold). The authors sincerely apologize for the errors that were introduced during the preparation of this Table, and thank the reader of their article who drew this matter to their attention. Furthermore, they regret any inconvenience that this mistake has caused. [the original article was published in Oncology Reports 42: 533‑548, 2019; DOI: /10.3892/or.2019.7173].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/or.2021.8081DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8144937PMC
July 2021

Mapping of the acromegaly quality of life questionnaire to ED-5D-5L index score among patients with acromegaly.

Eur J Health Econ 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

JC School of Public Health and Primary Care, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

Objective: This study aimed to develop a mapping function that links the acromegaly quality of life (AcroQoL) questionnaire to EQ-5D-5L to obtain a preference-based utility value to inform economic evaluation.

Methods: A nationwide cross-sectional questionnaire survey among patients with acromegaly was conducted online in China during 17 December 2019 to 6 January 2020. The study sample was randomly divided into a training set and a validation set. Ordinary least squares (OLS), Tobit, beta-based mixture, and adjusted limited dependent variable mixture models were tested for development of the function in the training set. Total and subscale scores and individual items of AcroQoL were included as predictors in the models along with their squared terms and demographic and clinical characteristics, and selected by backward stepwise selection. The root mean square error, mean absolute error, Akaike's information criterion, Bayesian information criterion and adjusted R-square were used to assess goodness of fit and predictive ability of the models.

Results: There were 424 adult patients with acromegaly eligible for this analysis. Average EQ-5D-5L index score and AcroQoL score for them was 0.82 (SD = 0.15) and 44.3 (SD = 22.9), respectively. A total of 60 candidate models were tested. Considering model simplicity and predictive ability in both training and validation set, the best model was the OLS model using scores of physical dimension and its square term as predictors.

Conclusion: A validated mapping function was developed in this study for estimating EQ-5D scores using AcroQoL outcomes. Its external validity can be further tested in other population with Acromegaly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10198-021-01318-9DOI Listing
May 2021

Validation of the prognostic value of 9-gene ATE score for IDH wild-type glioblastoma.

Neuro Oncol 2021 Jul;23(7):1197-1199

Department of Neurosurgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuonc/noab058DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8248834PMC
July 2021

Assessment of the effects of four crosslinking agents on gelatin hydrogel for myocardial tissue engineering applications.

Biomed Mater 2021 May 26;16(4). Epub 2021 May 26.

College of Biomedical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, Sichuan, People's Republic of China.

Cardiomyocyte (CM) transplantation is a promising option for regenerating infarcted myocardium. However, poor cell survival and residence rates reduce the efficacy of cell transplantation. Gelatin (GA) hydrogel as a frequently-used cell carrier is a possible approach to increase the survival rate of CMs. In this study, microbial transglutaminase (mTG) and chemical crosslinkers glutaraldehyde, genipin, and 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl)-carbodiimide were employed to prepare GA hydrogels. The mechanical properties and degradation characteristics of these hydrogels were then evaluated. Neonatal rat CMs (NRCMs) were isolated and inoculated on the surface of these hydrogels or encapsulated in mTG-hydrogels. Cellular growth morphology and beating behavior were observed. Cellular viability and immunofluorescence were analyzed. Intracellular Catransient and membrane potential propagation were detected using fluorescence dyes (Fluo-3 and di-4-ANEPPS, respectively). Results showed that the chemical crosslinkers exhibited high cytotoxicity and resulted in high rates of cell death. By contrast, mTG-hydrogels showed excellent cell compatibility. The CMs cultured in mTG-hydrogels for a week expressed CM maturation markers. The NRCMs begun independently beating on the third day of culture, and their beating synchronized after a week of culture. Furthermore, intracellular Catransient events with periodicity were observed. In conclusion, the novel mTG-crosslinked GA hydrogel synthesized herein has good biocompatibility, and it supports CM adhesion, growth, and maturation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1748-605X/abfff2DOI Listing
May 2021

Exceptional Electrochemical HER Performance with Enhanced Electron Transfer between Ru Nanoparticles and Single Atoms Dispersed on a Carbon Substrate.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Jul 14;60(29):16044-16050. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, GU2 7XH, UK.

Precisely regulating the electronic structures of metal active species is highly desirable for electrocatalysis. However, carbon with inert surface provide weak metal-support interaction, which is insufficient to modulate the electronic structures of metal nanoparticles. Herein, we propose a new method to control the electrocatalytic behavior of supported metal nanoparticles by dispersing single metal atoms on an O-doped graphene. Ideal atomic metal species are firstly computationally screened. We then verify this concept by deposition of Ru nanoparticles onto an O-doped graphene decorated with single metal atoms (e.g., Fe, Co, and Ni) for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Consistent with theoretical predictions, such hybrid catalysts show outstanding HER performance, much superior to other reported electrocatalysts such as the state-of-the-art Pt/C. This work offers a new strategy for modulating the activity and stability of metal nanoparticles for electrocatalysis processes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202103557DOI Listing
July 2021

Proliferative diabetic retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes correlates with the presence of atherosclerosis cardiovascular disease.

Diabetol Metab Syndr 2021 Apr 26;13(1):48. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Geriatrics, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100730, China.

Background: Atherosclerosis cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) is the main cause of morbidity and mortality in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). As most diabetic patients with ASCVD are asymptomatic, it is most neglected in clinical practice. For this reason, identifying high-risk ASCVD population with intensified treatment is very important. In recent years, the relationship between diabetic retinopathy (DR) and ASCVD has caused much academic concern, but the results are inconsistent. Moreover, whether all grades of DR increase the risk of ASCVD remains controversial. Most importantly, very few data can be found in China.

Objective: Our aim is to discuss whether all grades of DR increase the risk of ASCVD after adjustment for the traditional cardiovascular risk factors and to assess the independent contribution of DR to cardiovascular events in patients with T2DM, hoping to provide more evidence for early identification of ASCVD.

Research Design And Methods: A total of 425 T2DM patients with complete physical and biochemical data were included in the study. The grade of DR was assessed with two 45 color digital retinal images. Based on the presence of history of ASCVD, 425 T2DM patients were divided into 2 groups: ASCVD group and non-ASCVD group.

Results: ASCVD patients were older and had a significantly higher fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and proportion of history of ASCVD. At the same time, they were more likely to be females, and had lower level of alcohol and calculated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) than non-ASCVD patients. Their trend to develop DR with ASCVD was significantly higher than patients with non-ASCVD (χ = 5.805, P  = 0.016). DR was an independent statistical indicator of the presence of ASCVD [odds ratio (OR) (95% CI): 2.321 (1.152-4.678), P = 0.018]. Furthermore, when DR was divided into non-proliferative retinopathy (NPDR) and proliferative retinopathy (PDR) according to its severity, only PDR was significantly associated with incident ASCVD [OR (95% CI): 8.333 (1.813-38.304), P = 0.006]. After adjusting for traditional ASCVD risk factors, such an association still existed [OR (95% CI): 7.466 (1.355-41.137), P = 0.021].

Conclusion: DR associates strongly with ASCVD in the Chinese population with T2DM. With the increasing severity of DR, the risk of ASCVD also increases. After adjustment for traditional risk factors, PDR is still an independent risk marker for ASCVD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13098-021-00666-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8077820PMC
April 2021

Large Anharmonic Effects on Tunneling and Kinetics: Reaction of Propane with Muonium.

J Phys Chem Lett 2021 May 23;12(17):4154-4159. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Center for Combustion Energy, Department of Energy and Power Engineering, and Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.

Calculations of kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) provide challenging tests of quantal mass effects on reaction rates, and muonium KIEs are the most challenging. Here, we show that it can be very important to include reaction-coordinate-dependent vibrational anharmonicity along the whole reaction path to calculate tunneling probabilities and KIEs. For the reaction of propane with Mu, this decreases both the height and width of the vibrationally adiabatic potential barrier, with both effects increasing the rate constants. Our results agree well with the experimental observations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpclett.1c01229DOI Listing
May 2021

Probing the Formation Kinetics and Thermodynamics with Rationally Designed Analytical Tools Enables One-Pot Synthesis and Purification of a Tetrahedral DNA Nanostructure.

Anal Chem 2021 05 22;93(18):7045-7053. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry & Technology of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Analytical & Testing Center, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064, P. R. China.

The development of robust analytical tools capable of probing the formation kinetics and thermodynamics of DNA nanostructures is a crucial step toward better understanding and manufacturing of diverse DNA-based materials. Herein, we introduce a real-time fluorescence anisotropy assay and rationally designed DNA reaction termination probes (DRTPs) as a set of new tools for exploring the formation mechanisms of DNA nanostructures. We deployed these tools for probing the formation of a classic tetrahedral DNA nanostructure (TDN) as a model system. Our tools revealed that the formation of TDN was dominated by simultaneous hybridization, whereas its undesired side products were caused mainly through step-wise hybridization. An optimal reaction temperature exists that favors the formation of TDN over side products. With insight into the TDN formation mechanism, we further engineered magnetic DRTPs to achieve single-step purification of TDN, enabling 10-fold improvement in the ratio between the targeted TDN and undesired side products without tedious procedures or bulky instruments. Combining the optimal reaction and purification conditions, we finally demonstrated the one-pot synthesis and purification of TDN. The analytical techniques offered in this work may hold potential to find wide applications and inspire new analytical methods for structural DNA nanotechnology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.1c00363DOI Listing
May 2021

Quantitative Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer Analysis on the Direct Interaction of Activation-2b with Histone H3/Switch-3B Protein in Arabidopsis Mesophyll Protoplasts.

J Fluoresc 2021 Jul 20;31(4):981-988. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science & College of Life Science, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, 510631, China.

Interaction between the alteration/deficiency in activation-2b (ADA2b) and histone H3/switch-3B (SWI3B) proteins was evaluated in arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts by quantitative fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) analysis. Microscopic image showed that ADA2b, SWI3B and H3 proteins colocalized in nucleus, and quantitative FRET measurements showed 0.31 of FRET efficiency (E) for the protoplasts coexpressing ECFP-ADA2b and EYFP-SWI3B, and 0.285 of E for the protoplasts coexpressing ECFP-H3 and EYFP-ADA2b, demonstrating the direct interaction of ADA2b with SWI3B/H3 protein. Collectively, SWI3B and H3 proteins are the inherent components of the ADA2b complex in which ADA2b directly interacts with SWI3B/H3 protein.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10895-021-02728-xDOI Listing
July 2021

Nkx2.5 Functions as a Conditional Tumor Suppressor Gene in Colorectal Cancer Cells Acting as a Transcriptional Coactivator in p53-Mediated p21 Expression.

Front Oncol 2021 1;11:648045. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

NK2 homeobox 5 (Nkx2.5), a homeobox-containing transcription factor, is associated with a spectrum of congenital heart diseases. Recently, Nkx2.5 was also found to be differentially expressed in several kinds of tumors. In colorectal cancer (CRC) tissue and cells, hypermethylation of Nkx2.5 was observed. However, the roles of Nkx2.5 in CRC cells have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we assessed the relationship between Nkx2.5 and CRC by analyzing the expression pattern of Nkx2.5 in CRC samples and the adjacent normal colonic mucosa (NCM) samples, as well as in CRC cell lines. We found higher expression of Nkx2.5 in CRC compared with NCM samples. CRC cell lines with poorer differentiation also had higher expression of Nkx2.5. Although this expression pattern makes Nkx2.5 seem like an oncogene, and tumor suppressive effects of Nkx2.5 were detected in HCT116 cells by establishing Nkx2.5-overexpressed CRC cells. However, Nkx2.5 overexpression was incapacitated in SW480 cells. To further assess the mechanism, different expression levels and mutational status of p53 were observed in HCT116 and SW480 cells. The expression of p21, a downstream antitumor effector of p53, in CRC cells depends on both expression level and mutational status of p53. Overexpressed Nkx2.5 could elevate the expression of p21 only in CRC cells with wild-type p53 (HCT116), rather than in CRC cells with mutated p53 (SW480). Mechanistically, Nkx2.5 could interact with p53 and increase the transcription of p21 without affecting the expression of p53. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that Nkx2.5 could act as a conditional tumor suppressor gene in CRC cells with respect to the mutational status of p53. The tumor suppressive effect of Nkx2.5 could be mediated by its role as a transcriptional coactivator in wild-type p53-mediated p21 expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.648045DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8047315PMC
April 2021

Modular Construction of Prussian Blue Analog and TiO Dual-Compartment Janus Nanoreactor for Efficient Photocatalytic Water Splitting.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 Apr 16;8(7):2001987. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

State Key Laboratory of Catalysis Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Dalian National Laboratory for Clean Energy 457 Zhongshan Road Dalian 116023 P. R. China.

Janus structures that include different functional compartments have attracted significant attention due to their specific properties in a diverse range of applications. However, it remains challenge to develop an effective strategy for achieving strong interfacial interaction. Herein, a Janus nanoreactor consisting of TiO 2D nanocrystals integrated with Prussian blue analog (PBA) single crystals is proposed and synthesized by mimicking the planting process. In situ etching of PBA particles induces nucleation and growth of TiO nanoflakes onto the concave surface of PBA particles, and thus enhances the interlayer interaction. The anisotropic PBA-TiO Janus nanoreactor demonstrates enhanced photocatalytic activities for both water reduction and oxidation reactions compared with TiO and PBA alone. As far as it is known, this is the first PBA-based composite that serves as a bifunctional photocatalyst for solar water splitting. The interfacial structure between two materials is vital for charge separation and transfer based on the spectroscopic studies. These results shed light on the elaborate construction of Janus nanoreactor, highlighting the important role of interfacial design at the microscale level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/advs.202001987DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8024990PMC
April 2021
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