Publications by authors named "Louie Shou"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

A Novel Technique to Treat Hallux Rigidus in Athletic Patients With Central Osteochondral Defects: Preliminary Report on 12 Cases.

J Foot Ankle Surg 2020 Dec 31. Epub 2020 Dec 31.

Podiatric Physician and Surgeon, Reconstructive Orthopedics, Sewell, NJ.

Osteochondral defects, often caused by traumatic injuries, are focal areas of articular damage resulting in joint pain and stiffness ultimately leading to degenerative joint disease. This has not been well studied in the first metatarsal head, but is an often encountered problem in the active population in other joints. In this study, we prospectively evaluated the results of 12 patients who received autogenous bone grafting for repair of osteochondral defects of the first metatarsal head. Clinical outcomes were evaluated by the visual analog scale for pain and the Roles and Maudsley (RM) score. Between the years of 2009 and 2016, 12 patients received treatment for this particular surgical intervention and their outcomes were measured. The patients' average age was 43.5 ± 10.6 years and were followed from 52.3 ± 26.7 months postoperatively. Average return to activity was 4.7 ± 1.1 months. The average preoperative RM score was 4.0 ± 0.0 and postoperative RM score was 1.4 ± 0.7 (p = .0001). The encouraging outcomes of this study suggest that autogenous bone grafting for osteochondral defects of the first metatarsal head is an effective treatment to help restore the function of the first metatarsophalangeal joint.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.jfas.2019.11.011DOI Listing
December 2020

Systematic study of mitochondrial toxicity of environmental chemicals using quantitative high throughput screening.

Chem Res Toxicol 2013 Sep 15;26(9):1323-32. Epub 2013 Aug 15.

National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, National Institutes of Health , Bethesda, Maryland 20892, United States.

A goal of the Tox21 program is to transit toxicity testing from traditional in vivo models to in vitro assays that assess how chemicals affect cellular responses and toxicity pathways. A critical contribution of the NIH Chemical Genomics center (NCGC) to the Tox21 program is the implementation of a quantitative high throughput screening (qHTS) approach, using cell- and biochemical-based assays to generate toxicological profiles for thousands of environmental compounds. Here, we evaluated the effect of chemical compounds on mitochondrial membrane potential in HepG2 cells by screening a library of 1,408 compounds provided by the National Toxicology Program (NTP) in a qHTS platform. Compounds were screened over 14 concentrations, and results showed that 91 and 88 compounds disrupted mitochondrial membrane potential after treatment for 1 or 5 h, respectively. Seventy-six compounds active at both time points were clustered by structural similarity, producing 11 clusters and 23 singletons. Thirty-eight compounds covering most of the active chemical space were more extensively evaluated. Thirty-six of the 38 compounds were confirmed to disrupt mitochondrial membrane potential using a fluorescence plate reader, and 35 were confirmed using a high content imaging approach. Among the 38 compounds, 4 and 6 induced LDH release, a measure of cytotoxicity, at 1 or 5 h, respectively. Compounds were further assessed for mechanism of action (MOA) by measuring changes in oxygen consumption rate, which enabled the identification of 20 compounds as uncouplers. This comprehensive approach allows for the evaluation of thousands of environmental chemicals for mitochondrial toxicity and identification of possible MOAs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/tx4001754DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4154066PMC
September 2013

Application of a homogenous membrane potential assay to assess mitochondrial function.

Physiol Genomics 2012 May 20;44(9):495-503. Epub 2012 Mar 20.

NIH Chemical Genomics Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-3370, USA.

Decreases in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) have been associated with mitochondrial dysfunction that could lead to cell death. The MMP is generated by an electrochemical gradient via the mitochondrial electron transport chain coupled to a series of redox reactions. Measuring the MMP in living cells is commonly used to assess the effect of chemicals on mitochondrial function; decreases in MMP can be detected using lipophilic cationic fluorescent dyes. To identify an optimal dye for use in a high-throughput screening (HTS) format, we compared the ability of mitochondrial membrane potential sensor (Mito-MPS), 5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3' tetraethylbenzimidazolylcarbocyanine iodide, rhodamine 123, and tetramethylrhodamine to quantify a decrease in MMP in chemically exposed HepG2 cells cultured in 1,536-well plates. Under the conditions used, the optimal dye for this purpose is Mito-MPS. Next, we developed and optimized a homogenous cell-based Mito-MPS assay for use in 1,536-well plate format and demonstrated the utility of this assay by screening 1,280 compounds in the library of pharmacologically active compounds in HepG2 cells using a quantitative high-throughput screening platform. From the screening, we identified 14 compounds that disrupted the MMP, with half-maximal potencies ranging from 0.15 to 18 μM; among these, compound clusters that contained tyrphostin and 3'-substituted indolone analogs exhibited a structure-activity relationship. Our results demonstrate that this homogenous cell-based Mito-MPS assay can be used to evaluate the ability of large numbers of chemicals to decrease mitochondrial function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/physiolgenomics.00161.2011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3426425PMC
May 2012

A new homogeneous high-throughput screening assay for profiling compound activity on the human ether-a-go-go-related gene channel.

Anal Biochem 2009 Nov 5;394(1):30-8. Epub 2009 Jul 5.

NIH Chemical Genomics Center, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

Long QT syndrome, either inherited or acquired from drug treatments, can result in ventricular arrhythmia (torsade de pointes) and sudden death. Human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) channel inhibition by drugs is now recognized as a common reason for the acquired form of long QT syndrome. It has been reported that more than 100 known drugs inhibit the activity of the hERG channel. Since 1997, several drugs have been withdrawn from the market due to the long QT syndrome caused by hERG inhibition. Food and Drug Administration regulations now require safety data on hERG channels for investigative new drug (IND) applications. The assessment of compound activity on the hERG channel has now become an important part of the safety evaluation in the process of drug discovery. During the past decade, several in vitro assay methods have been developed and significant resources have been used to characterize hERG channel activities. However, evaluation of compound activities on hERG have not been performed for large compound collections due to technical difficulty, lack of throughput, and/or lack of biological relevance to function. Here we report a modified form of the FluxOR thallium flux assay, capable of measuring hERG activity in a homogeneous 1536-well plate format. To validate the assay, we screened a 7-point dilution series of the LOPAC 1280 library collection and reported rank order potencies of ten common hERG inhibitors. A correlation was also observed for the hERG channel activities of 10 known hERG inhibitors determined in this thallium flux assay and in the patch clamp experiment. Our findings indicate that this thallium flux assay can be used as an alternative method to profile large-volume compound libraries for compound activity on the hERG channel.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ab.2009.07.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2766802PMC
November 2009