Publications by authors named "Lorraine Campbell"

11 Publications

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Corrigendum to "Rapid detection of Enterobacterales that produce carbapenemases" [Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2020;98(2):115120].

Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2021 Feb 16;99(2):115278. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada; Clinical section of Microbiology, Calgary Laboratory Services, Calgary, Alberta, Canada; Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2020.115278DOI Listing
February 2021

Rapid detection of carbapenemase-producing organisms directly from blood cultures positive for Gram-negative bacilli.

Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2021 Feb 11;40(2):381-384. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.

Introduction: The rapid detection of carbapenemase-producing organisms (CPOs) directly from blood cultures (BCs) positive for Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) may accelerate the appropriate treatment of at-risk patients.

Objective: To evaluate the performance of two commercial assays in the rapid detection of CPOs directly from BC positive for GNB.

Methods: BC positive for GNB were tested for the presence of CPOs with β CARBA® and NG-Test® CARBA 5. A subset of sterile BC samples was seeded with multidrug-resistant (MDR) GNB. Positive BCs from clinical and seeded samples were tested directly with β CARBA and CARBA 5 from BC pellets.

Results: Sixty-five samples were tested (30 clinical, 35 seeded). β CARBA had a sensitivity, specificity, NPV, and PPV of 100%, 65.7%, 100%, and 71.4%, respectively. CARBA 5 had a sensitivity, specificity, NPV, and PPV of 90.0%, 100%, 92.1%, and 100%. False negatives for CARBA 5 occurred with 1 GES, 1 VIM-1, and 1 IMP-14.

Conclusions: This study demonstrates that the detection of CPOs directly from positive BC can be accurately achieved. β CARBA had excellent sensitivity but suffered from poor specificity. CARBA 5 had good sensitivity and specificity but is unable to detect certain CPOs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10096-020-04005-4DOI Listing
February 2021

Rapid detection of Enterobacterales that produce carbapenemases.

Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2020 Oct 26;98(2):115120. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada; Clinical section of Microbiology, Calgary Laboratory Services, Calgary, Alberta, Canada; Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa. Electronic address:

Purpose: The rapid detection of carbapenemases among Enterobacterales in clinical laboratories is critical for management of patients, and infection prevention and control efforts.

Methods: A study was designed to evaluate the performances of the RAPIDEC CARBA NP®, β-CARBA®, NG-Test CARBA 5®, modified carbapenem-inactivation method, and EDTA version (eCIM) assays against a global collection of Enterobacterales (n = 216) with diverse carbapenemases.

Results: The RAPIDEC CARBA NP® assay had a sensitivity of 98.6% and specificity of 19.6% and β-CARBA® a sensitivity of 94% and specificity of 97.8%, but showed low sensitivity with Klebsiella Pneumoniae Carbapenemase (KPC)-containing isolates. The NG-Test CARBA 5® had an overall sensitivity of 96.3% and specificity of 100% and failed to detect isolates with bla, bla. The eCIM gave false- positive results with Oxacillinase (OXA)-48-like enzymes.

Conclusion: The NG-Test CARBA 5® assay was technically simple and provided rapid accurate results on the types of carbapenemases. Such information has potential treatment benefits for patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2020.115120DOI Listing
October 2020

Early experience with influenza A H1N109 in an Australian intensive care unit.

Intensive Crit Care Nurs 2010 Aug;26(4):207-14

ICU, Royal Perth Hospital, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.

Influenza is a common seasonal viral infection that affects large numbers of people. In early 2009, many people were admitted to hospitals in Mexico with severe respiratory failure following an influenza-like illness, subtyped as H1N1. An increased mortality rate was observed. By June 2009, H1N1 was upgraded to pandemic status. In June-July, Australian ICUs were experiencing increased activity due to the influenza pandemic. While hospitals implemented plans for the pandemic, the particularly heavy demand to provide critical care facilities to accommodate an influx of people with severe respiratory failure became evident and placed a great burden on provision of these services. This paper describes the initial experience (June to mid September) of the pandemic from the nursing perspective in a single Australian ICU. Patients were noted to be younger with a higher proportion of women, two of whom were pregnant. Two patients had APACHE III comorbidity. Of the 31 patients admitted during this period, three patients died in ICU and one patient died in hospital. Aerosol precautions were initiated for all patients. The requirement for single room accommodation placed enormous demands for bed management in ICU. Specific infection control procedures were developed to deal with this new pandemic influenza.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.iccn.2010.05.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7125814PMC
August 2010

Molecular characteristics of extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli isolates causing bacteremia in the Calgary Health Region from 2000 to 2007: emergence of clone ST131 as a cause of community-acquired infections.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2009 Jul 20;53(7):2846-51. Epub 2009 Apr 20.

Division of Microbiology, Calgary Laboratory Services, #9, 3535 Research Road NW, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

A study was designed to characterize extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli isolates causing bacteremia over an 8-year period (2000 to 2007) in a large well-defined geographical region. Molecular characterization was done by using isoelectric focusing; PCR; and sequencing of the bla(CTX-M)-, bla(TEM)-, bla(OXA)-, bla(SHV)-, and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants. Genetic relatedness was determined by pulsed-field electrophoresis with XbaI and multilocus sequence typing. A total of 67 patients with incident bloodstream infections were identified, and the majority presented with community-acquired infections involving the urinary and biliary tracts. Of the 67 ESBL-producing E. coli isolates recovered, 60 (90%) were positive for bla(CTX-M) genes; 32 (48%) produced CTX-M-15, 25 (37%) produced CTX-M-14, 1 (2%) produced CTX-M-24, 1 (2%) produced CTX-M-2, and 1 (2%) produced CTX-M-3, while 2 (3%) produced TEM-52 and 5 (7%) produced SHV-2. Twenty-four (36%) isolates were positive for aac(6')-Ib-cr. The majority of isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin (60 [90%] isolates) and gentamicin (40 [60%] isolates). The occurrence of ESBL-producing isolates was stable during the first 5 years, but there was a substantial increase from 2005 to 2007, mostly due to clone ST131, which produces CTX-M-15 and CTX-M-14, in blood cultures submitted from the community. Our results illustrated that E. coli clone ST131, which coproduces CTX-M-15, OXA-1, TEM-1, and aac(6')-Ib-cr, has emerged as an important cause of community-onset bacteremia caused by ESBL-producing E. coli isolates; and this is the first study to identify CTX-M-14 in E. coli clone ST131.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.00247-09DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2704701PMC
July 2009

Molecular characteristics of travel-related extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli isolates from the Calgary Health Region.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2009 Jun 13;53(6):2539-43. Epub 2009 Apr 13.

Division of Microbiology, Calgary Laboratory Services, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

Extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli has recently emerged as a major risk factor for community-acquired, travel-related infections in the Calgary Health Region. Molecular characterization was done on isolates associated with infections in returning travelers using isoelectric focusing, PCR, and sequencing for bla(CTX-M)s, bla(TEM)s, bla(SHV)s, bla(OXA)s, and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants. Genetic relatedness was determined with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis using XbaI and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). A total of 105 residents were identified; 6/105 (6%) presented with hospital-acquired infections, 9/105 (9%) with health care-associated community-onset infections, and 90/105 (86%) with community-acquired infections. Seventy-seven of 105 (73%) of the ESBL-producing E. coli isolates were positive for bla(CTX-M) genes; 55 (58%) produced CTX-M-15, 13 (14%) CTX-M-14, six (6%) CTX-M-24, one (1%) CTX-M-2, one (1%) CTX-M-3, and one (1%) CTX-M-27, while 10 (10%) produced TEM-52, three (3%) TEM-26, 11 (11%) SHV-2, and four (4%) produced SHV-12. Thirty-one (30%) of the ESBL-producing E. coli isolates were positive for aac(6')-Ib-cr, and one (1%) was positive for qnrS. The majority of the ESBL-producing isolates (n = 95 [90%]) were recovered from urine samples, and 83 (87%) were resistant to ciprofloxacin. The isolation of CTX-M-15 producers belonging to clone ST131 was associated with travel to the Indian subcontinent (India, Pakistan), Africa, the Middle East, and Europe, while clonally unrelated strains of CTX-M-14 and -24 were associated with travel to Asia. Our study suggested that clone ST131 coproducing CTX-M-15, OXA-1, TEM-1, and AAC(6')-Ib-cr and clonally unrelated CTX-M-14 producers have emerged as important causes of community-acquired, travel-related infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.00061-09DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2687226PMC
June 2009

Using a commercial DiversiLab semiautomated repetitive sequence-based PCR typing technique for identification of Escherichia coli clone ST131 producing CTX-M-15.

J Clin Microbiol 2009 Apr 9;47(4):1212-5. Epub 2009 Feb 9.

Division of Microbiology, Calgary Laboratory Services, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

A study was designed to evaluate the ability of the DiversiLab fingerprinting kit, a type of repetitive element PCR (rep-PCR), to identify Escherichia coli clone ST131 producing beta-lactamase CTX-M-15. A set of 53 nonduplicate isolates of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing E. coli underwent rep-PCR, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and multilocus sequence typing. The DiversiLab system successfully identified E. coli clone ST131 producing CTX-M-15 and provides a simple standardized typing protocol for monitoring the spread of this clone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.02265-08DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2668328PMC
April 2009

Pharmacological profile of antipsychotics at monoamine receptors: atypicality beyond 5-HT2A receptor blockade.

CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets 2006 Aug;5(4):445-52

Psychiatry Centre for Excellence in Drug Discovery, GlaxoSmithKline, New Frontiers Science Park, Harlow, Essex, UK.

Antipsychotic drugs (APD) are widely prescribed for the treatment of schizophrenia. The APD are differentiated into typical and atypical based on the lower incidence of extra-pyramidal side-effects associated with the newer atypical APD. It was suggested that atypicality may arise from an interaction with the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)(2) receptor and specifically on the 5-HT(2):dopamine D(2) affinity ratio. It is now realised that multiple subtypes of these receptors exist and that in addition, atypical APD interact with many monoamine receptors. The aim of the present study was to characterise the interaction of APD with a variety of monoamine receptors in terms of both affinity and efficacy. The data produced has highlighted that the atypical profile of APD such as olanzapine and clozapine may reflect antagonism of the 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2C) receptors, whilst that of, ziprasidone and quetiapine may reflect partial agonist activity at the 5-HT(1A) receptor, and that of aripiprazole may reflect partial agonist activity at the 5-HT(1A) receptor as well as is its claimed partial agonist activity at the dopamine D(2) receptor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/187152706777950693DOI Listing
August 2006

A series of bisaryl imidazolidin-2-ones has shown to be selective and orally active 5-HT2C receptor antagonists.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2005 Nov;15(22):4989-93

Psychiatry Centre of Excellence in Drug Discovery, GlaxoSmithkline Pharmaceuticals, Third Avenue, Harlow, Essex CM19 5AW, UK.

Bisaryl cyclic ureas have been identified as high affinity 5-HT2C receptor antagonists with selectivity over 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B. Compounds such as 8 and 22 have shown oral activity in a centrally mediated pharmacodynamic model of 5-HT2C function in rodents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2005.08.004DOI Listing
November 2005

Bicyclic heteroarylpiperazines as selective brain penetrant 5-HT6 receptor antagonists.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2005 Nov;15(21):4867-71

Neurology and GI Centre of Excellence for Drug Discovery, GlaxoSmithKline, New Frontiers Science Park, Third Avenue, Harlow, Essex CM19 5AW, UK.

Starting from the potent and selective but poorly brain penetrant 5-HT6 receptor antagonist SB-271046, a successful strategy for improving brain penetration was adopted involving conformational constraint with concomitant reduction in hydrogen bond count. This provided a series of bicyclic heteroarylpiperazines with high 5-HT6 receptor affinity. 5-Chloroindole 699929 combined high 5-HT6 receptor affinity with excellent brain penetration and also had good oral bioavailability in both rat and dog.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2005.06.107DOI Listing
November 2005

Identification of a novel series of selective 5-HT7 receptor antagonists.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2003 Mar;13(6):1055-8

GlaxoSmithKline, New Frontiers Science Park, Third Avenue, Harlow, Essex CM19 5AW, UK.

Novel 5-HT(7) receptor antagonists containing the benzocycloheptanone core were identified from high throughput screening. Molecular modelling and SAR studies have converted these intractable hits into a more potent, selective and tractable series, exemplified by compound (25), SB-691673.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0960-894x(03)00077-5DOI Listing
March 2003