Publications by authors named "Lori Lishman"

5 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Structural, physicochemical and microbial properties of flocs and biofilms in integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFFAS) systems.

Water Res 2012 Oct 13;46(16):5085-101. Epub 2012 Jul 13.

School of Environmental Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 2W1.

Integrated fixed-film activated sludge systems (IFFAS) may achieve year-round nitrification or gain additional treatment capacity due to the presence of both flocs and biofilms, and the potential for multiple redox states and long solids retention time. Flocs and biofilms are distinctive microbial structures and characterization of the physicochemical and structural properties of these may provide insight into their respective roles in wastewater treatment and contaminant removal in IFFAS. Flocs and biofilms were examined from five different pilot media systems being evaluated for potential full scale implementation at a large municipal wastewater treatment plant. Flocs and biofilms within the same system possessed different surface characteristics; flocs were found to have a higher negative surface charge (-0.35 to -0.65 meq./g VSS) and are more hydrophobic (60%-75%) than biofilms (-0.05 to -0.07 meq/g VSS; 19-34%). The EPS content of flocs was significantly higher (range of 2.1-4.5 folds) than that of biofilms. In floc-derived extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), protein (PN) was clearly dominant; whereas in biofilm-derived EPS, PN and polysaccharide (PS) were present in approximately equal proportions. Biofilm EPS had a higher proportion of DNA when compared to flocs. Biofilm growth was preferential on the protected internal surfaces of the media. Colonization of the external surfaces of the media was evident by the presence of small microcolonies. The structural heterogeneity of the biofilms examined was supported by observed differences in biomass content, thickness and roughness of biofilm surface. The biofilm on the interior surface of media was found to be patchy with clusters of cells connected by an irregular arrangement of interconnecting EPS projections. Biofilm thickness ranged between 139 μm and 253 μm. The pattern of oxygen penetration is expected to be complex. Nitrifiers and denitrifiers were predominantly associated with the biofilms, and the latter were found to be dispersed throughout the film and arranged in micro-clusters, suggesting partial oxygen penetration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2012.05.058DOI Listing
October 2012

Effects of fluctuating iron dosage on nitrification in integrated fixed film and conventional activated sludge processes.

Water Environ Res 2009 Sep-Oct;81(9):907-21

Environment Canada, Water Science and Technology Directorate, Burlington, Ontario, Canada.

An integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFFAS) process with four media cells is operating in parallel with a conventional activated sludge (CAS) train at Lakeview Wastewater Treatment Plant (Ontario, Canada). During winter 2007, an intensive sampling campaign was conducted to monitor the temporal and spatial variations of the nitrification capacity within the two plug-flow reactors. At the beginning of the six-week study, the CAS train was partially nitrifying, whereas the IFFAS train was nitrifying completely using the first two IFFAS cells only. Within one week, the CAS train lost nitrification because of a drop in solids retention time and pH caused by the onset of iron overdosing. When the IFFAS train received an iron spike, the carriers at the injection point (first cell) became iron-coated and lost 80% of their nitrification capacity. However, this train maintained its total nitrification capacity using the reserve capacity in the three remaining cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2175/106143008x274275DOI Listing
November 2009

Comparison of performance and operation of side-by-side integrated fixed-film and conventional activated sludge processes at demonstration scale.

Water Environ Res 2009 Mar;81(3):219-32

Environment Canada, Water Science and Technology Directorate, Burlington, Ontario, Canada.

A full-scale demonstration of an integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFFAS) process with floating carriers has been conducted in Ontario, Canada, since August 2003. In this study, data collected on-site from July 2005 to December 2006 are analyzed and compared with the performance of a conventional activated sludge train operated in parallel. Both trains received similar loadings and maintained comparable mixed liquor concentrations; however, the IFFAS had 50% more biomass when the attached growth was considered. In the winter, the conventional train operated at the critical solids retention time (SRT) and had fluctuating partial nitrification. The IFFAS nitrified more consistently and had a doubled average capacity. In the summer, the suspended SRT was less limiting, and the benefit of IFFAS for nitrification was marginal. The lessons learned from the operational requirements and challenges of the IFFAS process (air flow, carrier management, and seasonal foaming) are discussed, and design recommendations are proposed for whole plant retrofit.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2175/106143008x325692DOI Listing
March 2009

Sample storage and extraction efficiencies in determination of polycyclic and nitro musks in sewage sludge.

Chemosphere 2007 Feb 6;67(2):267-75. Epub 2006 Dec 6.

Environment Canada, Water Science and Technology Directorate, 867 Lakeshore Road, P.O. Box 5050, Burlington, Ont., Canada L7R 4A6.

Analytical technology is continuously improving, developing better methods for isolating and concentrating trace compounds in environmental samples. Polycyclic and nitro musks (PNMs) are one group of emerging trace compounds detected in municipal wastewater. Differences in sample storage, preparation, and extraction methods for their measurement have led to variability in results. We analyzed 11 PNMs by GC/MS and compared the results of different storage times and extraction methods (supercritical fluid (SFE) or microwave-assisted (MAE)) for 202 samples of primary sludge, waste activated sludge (WAS), raw sludge, and aerobically/anaerobically digested biosolids collected from Canadian municipal wastewater treatment plants. Sixty-three air-dried samples were extracted by SFE, and 139 air-dried, centrifuged, or filtered samples were extracted by MAE. The mean surrogate recoveries were 89% (standard deviation (SD)=11%) for d(10)-anthracene by SFE and 88% (SD=14%) for d(10)-phenanthrene by MAE. Storage study results showed that PNM concentrations changed by a mean of 7% and 9% for primary sludge and WAS respectively after four weeks and decreased up to 25% after 13.5 months of storage in amber glass containers at -18 degrees C. Air-drying of sludge at room temperature caused losses of about 50% of PNM concentrations compared to centrifugation. The proportions of PNMs present in the liquid phase of sludge samples were less than 5% compared to proportions in the sludge solids. The most complete liquid-solid separation was achieved by filtration of frozen/thawed sludge samples, producing a liquid phase that contained less than 1% of the total musk content of the sample.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2006.10.031DOI Listing
February 2007

Occurrence and reductions of pharmaceuticals and personal care products and estrogens by municipal wastewater treatment plants in Ontario, Canada.

Sci Total Environ 2006 Aug 12;367(2-3):544-58. Epub 2006 May 12.

Environment Canada, National Water Research Institute, 867 Lakeshore Road, P. O. Box 5050, Burlington, Ontario, Canada L7R 4A6.

Over the last ten years there have been reports of pharmaceuticals and personal care product (PPCP) residuals in municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents. The principle goal of this study was specifically to expand and in some cases establish a Canadian database for the presence of selected acidic drugs, triclosan, polycyclic musks, and selected estrogens in MWWTP influent and effluent. The impact of treatment configuration (e.g. lagoons, conventional activated sludge (CAS), and CAS followed by media filtration (CAS+filtration)) was also examined. For CAS systems, the most prevalent treatment type, the effect of operating temperature and SRT was evaluated. Selected PPCPs included ten acidic pharmaceuticals (i.e. a group of pharmaceuticals that are extractable at a pH of 2 or less), triclosan, five polycyclic musks and two estrogens. The pharmaceuticals and musks were selected on the basis of levels of use in Canada; reported aquatic toxicity effects; and the ability to analyze for the compounds at low levels. Twelve MWWTPs discharging into the Thames River, the second largest river in southwestern Ontario, were surveyed. The only common characteristic of acidic drugs is their extraction pH as they differ in their intended biological function and chemical structure. Many organics degraded by WWTP processes benefit from warm temperatures and long SRTs so the impact of these variables warranted additional attention. Influent concentrations and reductions for acidic drugs reported by this study were compared to other Canadian studies, when available, and European investigations. The data of this study seems consistent with other reports. Ten acidic drugs were considered by this study. Three were consistently present at non-quantifiable levels (e.g. CLF, FNP and FNF). Additionally, one analyte, SYL, presented results that were so inconsistent that the values were not analysed. The remaining six acidic pharmaceuticals were placed into three categories. IBU and NPX members of the first category had consistently high reductions. At the level of reduction achieved (i.e. median reduction of greater than 93%) and any effect of treatment type or operating characteristics would be subtle and non-discernable given the analytical noise. In the second group are KTP and IND, and definitive comments are difficult to make on the impact of treatment type and operational considerations due to a sparse data set (i.e. many influent values were at non-quantifiable concentrations). Median reductions were in the 23% to 44% range. In the last category are GMF and DCF which have median reductions of 66% and -34%, respectively. Several negative reduction values in the data set (i.e. twelve of twenty six sampling events) suggest that DCF may be deconjugated under certain conditions. This warrants further evaluation when analytical methods for measuring human metabolites of DCF are available. For both GMF and DCF, reduction does not appear to be strongly influenced by SRTs up to 15 days, while SRTs over 30 days were associated with more frequent non-quantifiable effluent levels of DCF. This would suggest that better treatment would be provided by lagoons and CAS systems with extended aeration. Preliminary data suggests that temperature does not play a strong role in the reduction of these compounds. Triclosan (TCL) was detected at concentrations of 0.01-4.01 microg/L in influent samples and 0.01-0.324 microg/L in effluent samples. Reduction of TCL ranged from 74% to 98%. Lagoon treatment seems to be the best TCL reduction as it was present in the influent and effluent at quantifiable and non-quantifiable concentrations, respectively, on nine of nine sampling occasions. Influent and reduction values of five polycyclic musks (e.g. ADBI, AHMI, ATII, HHCB, and AHTN) were examined over the course of this study. AHMI was predominantly present at non-quantifiable concentrations. HHCB and AHTN were present at the highest concentrations. A comparison between Canadian values and those of European studies indicate that in general polycyclic musk concentrations in Canadian MWWTP effluents are 5-10 times lower. More extensive European and Canadian databases would be useful in confirming this initial observation. Median reductions for the five remaining musks range between 37% and 65% in CAS systems. CAS+filtration systems would be expected to have higher reductions if musks were bound to the effluent solids. This trend is not apparent but this may be due to the small size of the data set. In lagoon systems, musk reduction for HHCB and AHTN are approximately 98-99%. For ADBI and ATII musk, there are no numerical reduction values as most often the effluent concentration was non-quantifiable. In some instances, both the influent and effluent concentrations were non-quantifiable. The hormones 17-beta-estradiol (E2) and estrone (E1) were detected at concentrations of 0.006 to 0.014 and 0.016 to 0.049 microg/L, respectively. E2 was not detected in any effluent samples (<0.005 microg/L) whereas E1 was detected in effluent samples from CAS treatment plants (median of 0.008 microg/L), and in one sample from lagoons. These data demonstrate that there are detectable levels of PPCPs entering Canadian waterways at trace levels, and that only some of these compounds are being reduced in a significant proportion by municipal wastewater treatment processes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2006.03.021DOI Listing
August 2006
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