Publications by authors named "Lori D Fineman"

7 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Prevalence of ICU Delirium in Postoperative Pediatric Cardiac Surgery Patients.

Pediatr Crit Care Med 2021 Jan;22(1):68-78

University of California San Francisco, School of Nursing, San Francisco, CA.

Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of ICU delirium in children less than 18 years old that underwent cardiac surgery within the last 30 days. The secondary aim of the study was to identify risk factors associated with ICU delirium in postoperative pediatric cardiac surgical patients.

Design: A 1-day, multicenter point-prevalence study of delirium in pediatric postoperative cardiac surgery patients.

Setting: Twenty-seven pediatric cardiac and general critical care units caring for postoperative pediatric cardiac surgery patients in North America.

Patients: All children less than 18 years old hospitalized in the cardiac critical care units at 06:00 on a randomly selected, study day.

Interventions: Eligible children were screened for delirium using the Cornell Assessment of Pediatric Delirium by the study team in collaboration with the bedside nurse.

Measurement And Main Results: Overall, 181 patients were enrolled and 40% (n = 73) screened positive for delirium. There were no statistically significant differences in patient demographic information, severity of defect or surgical procedure, past medical history, or postoperative day between patients screening positive or negative for delirium. Our bivariate analysis found those patients screening positive had a longer duration of mechanical ventilation (12.8 vs 5.1 d; p = 0.02); required more vasoactive support (55% vs 26%; p = 0.0009); and had a higher number of invasive catheters (4 vs 3 catheters; p = 0.001). Delirium-positive patients received more total opioid exposure (1.80 vs 0.36 mg/kg/d of morphine equivalents; p < 0.001), did not have an ambulation or physical therapy schedule (p = 0.02), had not been out of bed in the previous 24 hours (p < 0.0002), and parents were not at the bedside at time of data collection (p = 0.008). In the mixed-effects logistic regression analysis of modifiable risk factors, the following variables were associated with a positive delirium screen: 1) pain score, per point increase (odds ratio, 1.3; 1.06-1.60); 2) total opioid exposure, per mg/kg/d increase (odds ratio, 1.35; 1.06-1.73); 3) SBS less than 0 (odds ratio, 4.01; 1.21-13.27); 4) pain medication or sedative administered in the previous 4 hours (odds ratio, 3.49; 1.32-9.28); 5) no progressive physical therapy or ambulation schedule in their medical record (odds ratio, 4.40; 1.41-13.68); and 6) parents not at bedside at time of data collection (odds ratio, 2.31; 1.01-5.31).

Conclusions: We found delirium to be a common problem after cardiac surgery with several important modifiable risk factors.
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January 2021

Nurse decision making regarding the use of analgesics and sedatives in the pediatric cardiac ICU.

Pediatr Crit Care Med 2014 Oct;15(8):691-7

1Department of Nursing, Lucile Packard Children's Hospital at Stanford, Palo Alto, CA. 2Cardiovascular and Critical Care Program, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA. 3Department of Nursing, UCSF Benioff Children's Hospital, San Francisco, CA. 4Department of Cardiology, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA. 5Department of Biostatistics, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA. 6Department of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA. 7Department of Family and Community Health, School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA. 8Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care, Perlman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.

Objective: To describe nurse decision making and patient responses associated with the administration of analgesics and sedatives in the pediatric cardiac ICU.

Design: Prospective nonexperimental mixed methods study of pediatric cardiac ICU nursing practice.

Setting: Three tertiary academic pediatric heart centers in the United States.

Subjects: Pediatric cardiac ICU nurses caring for 217 patients completed 1,330 surveys.

Interventions: Four-item open-ended nurse survey completed each time an as needed dose of an analgesic or sedative was administered, an analgesic or sedative infusion/dose was titrated, and/or a new analgesic or sedative was administered.

Measurements And Main Results: Responses to survey questions were entered verbatim and then collapsed using a consensus process. Collapsing of the data continued until there was a working set of "symptoms," "changes," and "clinical situation managed" categories. Nurses identified 28 symptoms managed with analgesia and sedation. The most frequent symptoms included hypertension, tachycardia, crying, pain, and agitation. Nurses identified 20 patient changes that resulted from their interventions. The most prevalent changes included improved hemodynamics, calm state, sleep, comfort, and relaxed state. Nurses identified 22 clinical situations that they were attempting to manage. The most frequent clinical situations included pain, hemodynamics, procedures, hypertension, and agitation. Nurses responded that 22% of their interventions were influenced by others.

Conclusions: Pediatric cardiac ICU nurses use many nonspecific indicators to describe patient level of comfort collectively. Decisions for managing patient comfort were influenced by their patients' overall hemodynamic stability.
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October 2014

Asking for parents' permission to enroll their child into a clinical trial: best practices.

Am J Crit Care 2013 Jul;22(4):351-6

University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-4217, USA.

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July 2013

Regional and central venous oxygen saturation monitoring following pediatric cardiac surgery: concordance and association with clinical variables.

Pediatr Crit Care Med 2007 Mar;8(2):154-60

Pediatric Heart Center, University of California, San Francisco, USA.

Objective: To compare changes in regional cerebral or flank oxygen saturation measured by near-infrared spectroscopy with changes in central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) and to determine clinical variables associated with these changes.

Design: Prospective observational cohort study.

Setting: University tertiary care center, pediatric cardiac intensive care unit.

Patients: Seventy postoperative congenital cardiac surgical patients (median age 0.3 yrs; interquartile range 0.02-0.46 yrs).

Interventions: None.

Measurements And Main Results: We measured temporally correlated regional oxygen saturation (rSO2) with hematologic (hematocrit), biochemical (arterial blood gas, ScvO2, and lactate) and physiologic (temperature, heart rate, mean blood pressure, and pulse oximetry) variables in the first postoperative day. Cerebral and flank rSO2 were strongly correlated with ScvO2, in both cyanotic or acyanotic patients and single- or two-ventricle physiology with and without aortic arch obstruction (all p < .001). However, individual values had wide limits of agreement on Bland-Altman analysis. The correlations of change in these measurements were weaker but still significant (all p < .0001), again with wide limits of agreement. Similar direction of change in cerebral rSO2 and ScvO2 was present 64% (95% confidence interval, 55-73%) of the time. Change in arterial pressure of carbon dioxide (delta PaCO2) was associated with cerebral delta rSO2 (delta PaCO2 beta = 0.35, p < .0001) but not flank delta rSO2 or delta ScvO2. A pattern of relative cerebral desaturation (flank rSO2 > cerebral rSO2) was noted in a majority of patients (81%) with two-site monitoring regardless of bypass method or age.

Conclusions: Neither individual values nor changes in rSO2 are interchangeable measures of ScvO2 in postoperative pediatric cardiac patients. The unique relationship between changes in PaCO2 and cerebral rSO2 supports the hypothesis that cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy monitors regional cerebral oxygenation. Clinical application of this monitor must include recognition of the clinical variables that affect regional brain oxygenation.
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March 2007

Prone positioning can be safely performed in critically ill infants and children.

Pediatr Crit Care Med 2006 Sep;7(5):413-22

Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care, University of California San Francisco Children's Hospital, USA.

Objective: To describe the effects of prone positioning on airway management, mechanical ventilation, enteral nutrition, pain and sedation management, and staff utilization in infants and children with acute lung injury.

Design: Secondary analysis of data collected in a multiple-center, randomized, controlled clinical trial of supine vs. prone positioning.

Setting: Seven pediatric intensive care units located in the United States.

Patients: One hundred and two pediatric patients (51 prone and 51 supine) with acute lung injury.

Interventions: Patients randomized to the supine group remained supine. Patients randomized to the prone group were positioned prone per protocol during the acute phase of their illness for a maximum of 7 days. Both groups were managed using ventilator and sedation protocols and nutrition and skin care guidelines.

Measurements And Main Results: Airway management and mechanical ventilatory variables before and after repositioning, enteral nutrition management, pain and sedation management, staff utilization, and adverse event data were collected for up to 28 days after enrollment. There were a total of 202 supine-prone-supine cycles. There were no differences in the incidence of endotracheal tube leak between the two groups (p = .30). Per protocol, 95% of patients remained connected to the ventilator during repositioning. The inadvertent extubation rate was 0.85 for the prone group and 1.03 for the supine group per 100 ventilator days (p = 1.00). There were no significant differences in the initiation of trophic (p = .24), advancing (p = .82), or full enteral feeds (p = .80) between the prone and supine groups; in the average pain (p = .81) and sedation (p = .18) scores during the acute phase; and in the amount of comfort medications received between the two groups (p = .91). There were no critical events during a turn procedure. While prone, two patients experienced an obstructed endotracheal tube. One patient, supported on high-frequency oscillatory ventilation, experienced persistent hypercapnea when prone and was withdrawn from the study. The occurrence of pressure ulcers was similar between the two groups (p = .71). Compared with the supine group, more staff (p
Conclusions: Our data show that prone positioning can be safely performed in critically ill pediatric patients and that these patients can be safely managed while in the prone position for prolonged periods of time.
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September 2006

Clinical trial design--effect of prone positioning on clinical outcomes in infants and children with acute respiratory distress syndrome.

J Crit Care 2006 Mar;21(1):23-32; discussion 32-7

Critical Care and Cardiovascular Nursing, Children's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

Purpose: This paper describes the methodology of a clinical trial of prone positioning in pediatric patients with acute lung injury (ALI). Nonrandomized studies suggest that prone positioning improves oxygenation in patients with ALI/acute respiratory distress syndrome without the risk of serious iatrogenic injury. It is not known if these improvements in oxygenation result in improvements in clinical outcomes. A clinical trial was needed to answer this question.

Materials And Methods: The pediatric prone study is a multicenter, randomized, noncrossover, controlled clinical trial. The trial is designed to test the hypothesis that at the end of 28 days, children with ALI treated with prone positioning will have more ventilator-free days than children treated with supine positioning. Secondary end points include the time to recovery of lung injury, organ failure-free days, functional outcome, adverse events, and mortality from all causes. Pediatric patients, 42 weeks postconceptual age to 18 years of age, are enrolled within 48 hours of meeting ALI criteria. Patients randomized to the prone group are positioned prone within 4 hours of randomization and remain prone for 20 hours each day during the acute phase of their illness for a maximum of 7 days. Both groups are managed according to ventilator protocol, extubation readiness testing, and sedation protocols and hemodynamic, nutrition, and skin care guidelines.

Conclusions: This paper describes the process, multidisciplinary input, and procedures used to support the design of the clinical trial, as well as the challenges faced by the clinical scientists during the conduct of the clinical trial.
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March 2006

Effect of prone positioning on clinical outcomes in children with acute lung injury: a randomized controlled trial.

JAMA 2005 Jul;294(2):229-37

Children's Hospital Boston, Medical-Surgical Intensive Care Unit, 300 Longwood Ave, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

Context: In uncontrolled clinical studies, prone positioning appeared to be safe and to improve oxygenation in pediatric patients with acute lung injury. However, the effect of prone positioning on clinical outcomes in children is not known.

Objective: To test the hypothesis that at the end of 28 days infants and children with acute lung injury treated with prone positioning would have more ventilator-free days than those treated with supine positioning.

Design, Setting, And Patients: Multicenter, randomized, controlled clinical trial conducted from August 28, 2001, to April 23, 2004, of 102 pediatric patients from 7 US pediatric intensive care units aged 2 weeks to 18 years who were treated with supine vs prone positioning. Randomization was concealed and group assignment was not blinded.

Intervention: Patients were randomized to either supine or prone positioning within 48 hours of meeting acute lung injury criteria, with those patients in the prone group being positioned within 4 hours of randomization and remaining prone for 20 hours each day during the acute phase of their illness for a maximum of 7 days, after which they were positioned supine. Both groups were treated using lung protective ventilator and sedation protocols, extubation readiness testing, and hemodynamic, nutrition, and skin care guidelines.

Main Outcome Measure: Ventilator-free days to day 28.

Results: The trial was stopped at the planned interim analysis on the basis of the prespecified futility stopping rule. There were no differences in the number of ventilator-free days between the 2 groups (mean [SD], 15.8 [8.5] supine vs 15.6 [8.6] prone; mean difference, -0.2 days; 95% CI, -3.6 to 3.2; P = .91). After controlling for age, Pediatric Risk of Mortality III score, direct vs indirect acute lung injury, and mode of mechanical ventilation at enrollment, the adjusted difference in ventilator-free days was 0.3 days (95% CI, -3.0 to 3.5; P = .87). There were no differences in the secondary end points, including proportion alive and ventilator-free on day 28 (P = .45), mortality from all causes (P>.99), the time to recovery of lung injury (P = .78), organ-failure-free days (P = .88), and cognitive impairment (P = .16) or overall functional health (P = .12) at hospital discharge or on day 28.

Conclusion: Prone positioning does not significantly reduce ventilator-free days or improve other clinical outcomes in pediatric patients with acute lung injury.
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July 2005