Publications by authors named "Lorenzo Signorini"

15 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Universal and Selective Interventions to Prevent Poor Mental Health Outcomes in Young People: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Harv Rev Psychiatry 2021 May-Jun 01;29(3):196-215

From the Early Psychosis: Interventions and Clinical-Detection (EPIC) Laboratory, Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London (Drs. Salazar de Pablo, De Micheli, Catalan, Verdino, Di Maggio, Radua, Provenzani, Montealegre, Signorini, and Fusar-Poli, and Mr. Oliver); Departments of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (Dr. Salazar de Pablo) and of Psychosis Studies (Drs. Bonoldi and Baccaredda Boy), Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London; Institute of Psychiatry and Mental Health. Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón School of Medicine, Universidad Complutense, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Gregorio Marañón (IiSGM), CIBERSAM, Madrid (Drs. Salazar de Pablo and Arango); National Institute for Health Research, Maudsley Biomedical Research Centre, South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London (Drs. De Micheli and Fusar-Poli); Department of Brain and Behavioral Sciences, University of Pavia (Drs. Di Maggio, Provenzani, Ruzzi, Calorio, Nosari, Di Marco, Famularo, Molteni, Filosi, Mensi, Balottin, Politi, and Fusar-Poli); Neurosciences Department, University of Padova (Dr. Solmi); Mental Health Department, Biocruces Bizkaia Health Research Institute, Basurto University Hospital, Facultad de Medicina y Odontología, Campus de Leioa, University of the Basque Country, UPV/EHU, Barakaldo, Bizkaia, Spain (Dr. Catalan); Department of Molecular and Developmental Medicine, Division of Psychiatry, University of Siena (Dr. Verdino); Imaging of Mood- and Anxiety-Related Disorders (IMARD) group, Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), CIBERSAM, Barcelona (Dr. Radua); Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Centre for Psychiatric Research and Education, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Dr. Radua); Scientific Institute for Research, Hospitalization and Healthcare (IRCCS) Mondino Foundation, Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatric Unit (Dr. Mensi); Department of Paediatrics, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Dr. Shin); Zucker Hillside Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Northwell Health, Glen Oaks, NY (Dr. Correll); Department of Psychiatry and Molecular Medicine, Donald and Barbara Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell, Hempstead, NY (Dr. Correll); Center for Psychiatric Neuroscience, Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, Manhasset, NY (Dr. Correll); Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin (Dr. Correll); OASIS service, South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London (Dr. Fusar-Poli).

Background: Much is not known about the efficacy of interventions to prevent poor mental health outcomes in young people by targeting either the general population (universal prevention) or asymptomatic individuals with high risk of developing a mental disorder (selective prevention).

Methods: We conducted a PRISMA/MOOSE-compliant systematic review and meta-analysis of Web of Science to identify studies comparing post-test efficacy (effect size [ES]; Hedges' g) of universal or selective interventions for poor mental health outcomes versus control groups, in samples with mean age <35 years (PROSPERO: CRD42018102143). Measurements included random-effects models, I2 statistics, publication bias, meta-regression, sensitivity analyses, quality assessments, number needed to treat, and population impact number.

Results: 295 articles (447,206 individuals; mean age = 15.4) appraising 17 poor mental health outcomes were included. Compared to control conditions, universal and selective interventions improved (in descending magnitude order) interpersonal violence, general psychological distress, alcohol use, anxiety features, affective symptoms, other emotional and behavioral problems, consequences of alcohol use, posttraumatic stress disorder features, conduct problems, tobacco use, externalizing behaviors, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder features, and cannabis use, but not eating-related problems, impaired functioning, internalizing behavior, or sleep-related problems. Psychoeducation had the highest effect size for ADHD features, affective symptoms, and interpersonal violence. Psychotherapy had the highest effect size for anxiety features.

Conclusion: Universal and selective preventive interventions for young individuals are feasible and can improve poor mental health outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HRP.0000000000000294DOI Listing
May 2021

Erratum.

Nephrol Dial Transplant 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfaa345DOI Listing
April 2021

Corrigendum to "Real-world long-term outcomes in individuals at clinical risk for psychosis: The case for extending duration of care" [EClinicalMedicine 28 (2020) 100,578].

EClinicalMedicine 2021 Feb 4;32:100729. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

OASIS service, South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1016/j.eclinm.2020.100578.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eclinm.2021.100729DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7868808PMC
February 2021

Real-world long-term outcomes in individuals at clinical risk for psychosis: The case for extending duration of care.

EClinicalMedicine 2020 Nov 7;28:100578. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

OASIS service, South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

Background: Most services for individuals at Clinical High Risk for Psychosis (CHR-P) provide short-term clinical care. This study determines the real-world and long-term clinical outcomes beyond transition to psychosis in a large cohort of CHR-P individuals.

Method: Retrospective RECORD-compliant real-world Electronic Health Records (EHR) cohort study in secondary mental health care (the South London and the Maudsley -SLaM- NHS Foundation Trust). All CHR-P patients accessing the CHR-P service at SLaM in the period 2001-2018 were included. Main outcomes were long-term cumulative risk of first: (i) developing an ICD-10 psychotic disorder (primary outcome), receiving a treatment with (iia) antipsychotic medication, (iib) benzodiazepines, (iic) other psychotropic medications, (iid) psychotherapy, receiving an (iiia) informal or (iiib) compulsory admission into a mental health hospital, and the time to these events; (iiic) number of days spent in hospital and (iv) cumulative risk of death for any reason and age/gender Standardised Mortality Ratio (SMR). Data were extracted from the EHR and analysed with Kaplan Meier failure functions, Cox and zero-inflated negative binomial regressions.

Findings: 600 CHR-P patients (80.43% Attenuated Psychotic Symptoms, APS; 18.06%, Brief and Limited Intermittent Psychotic Symptoms, BLIPS, 1.51% Genetic Risk and Deterioration Syndrome) were included (mean age 22.63 years, range 13-36; 55.33% males; 46.44% white, mean duration of untreated attenuated psychotic symptoms 676.32 days, 1105.40 SD). The cumulative risk to first psychosis was 0.365 (95%CI 0.302-0.437) at 11 years; first antipsychotic 0.777 (95%CI 0.702-0.844) at 9 years; first benzodiazepine 0.259 (95%CI 0.183-0.359) at 12 years; first other types of medications 0.630 (95%CI 0.538-0.772) at 9 years; first psychotherapy 0.814 (95%CI 0.764-0.859) at 9 years; first informal admission 0.378 (95%CI 0.249-0.546) at 12 years; first compulsory admission 0.251 (95%CI 0.175-0.352) at 12 years; those admitted spent on average 94.84 (SD=169.94) days in hospital; the cumulative risk of death for any reason was 0.036 (95%CI 0.012-0.103) at 9 years, with an SMR of 3.9 (95%CI 1.20-6.6). Compared to APS, BLIPS had a higher risk of developing psychosis, being admitted compulsorily into hospital, receiving antipsychotics and benzodiazepines and lower probability of receiving psychotherapy. Other prognostic factors of long-term outcomes included age, symptoms severity, duration of untreated attenuated psychotic symptoms, ethnicity and employment status.

Interpretation: Duration of care provided by CHR-P services should be expanded to address long-term real-world outcomes.

Funding: This study was supported by the King's College London Confidence in Concept award from the Medical Research Council (MRC) (MC_PC_16048) to PF-P. GSP is supported by the Alicia Koplowitz Foundation. HB is supported by a National Institute for Health Research Maudsley Biomedical Research Centre studentship.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eclinm.2020.100578DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7700893PMC
November 2020

The challenge of early glomerular filtration rate decline in response to antihypertensive treatment and chronic kidney disease outcomes.

Nephrol Dial Transplant 2020 Nov 6. Epub 2020 Nov 6.

Renal Unit, Department of Medicine, University Hospital of Verona, Verona, Italia.

Hypertension and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are closely linked pathological processes. Combating high blood pressure (BP) is an essential part of preventing CKD progression and reducing cardiovascular (CV) risk. Data from recent randomized controlled trials on patients at high CV risk showed the beneficial effects of intensive action to meet BP targets on mortality related to CV disease. The impact of meeting such targets on renal function is still unclear, however, particularly for patients with CKD. This issue has been the object of several post hoc analyses because lowering BP definitely has a nephroprotective role, but the early decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) associated with antihypertensive therapies and strict BP targets is still a concern in nephrology clinical practice. The present review discusses the results of studies on this topic, focusing specifically on the clinical significance of early GFR decline in response to treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker, or to different BP targets, in terms of renal and CV outcomes, and how this tips the balance towards continuing or discontinuing antihypertensive therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfaa171DOI Listing
November 2020

Evidence of genetic isolation between two Mediterranean morphotypes of Parazoanthus axinellae.

Sci Rep 2020 08 18;10(1):13938. Epub 2020 Aug 18.

Dipartimento di Scienze Biologiche, Geologiche ed Ambientali (BiGeA) & Centro Interdipartimentale di Ricerca per le Scienze Ambientali (CIRSA), Università di Bologna, Via S. Alberto 163, 48123, Ravenna, Italy.

Coralligenous assemblages are among the most species-rich and vulnerable habitats of the Mediterranean Sea. Nevertheless, data on connectivity patterns on species inhabiting these habitats, crucial to define management and protection priorities, are largely lacking. Moreover, unreliable species-level taxonomy can confound ecological studies and mislead management strategies. In the northwestern Mediterranean two Parazoanthus axinellae morphotypes differing in size, color and preferred substrate are found in sympatry. In this study, we used COI and ITS sequence polymorphism to assess (1) the genetic divergence between the two morphotypes, (2) their connectivity patterns and (3) their phylogenetic position within the Parazoanthidae. Specimens of P. axinellae were sampled in 11 locations along the northwestern Mediterranean; in 6 locations, samples of the two morphotypes were collected in sympatry. Small genetic diversity and structure were found within morphotypes, while marked and consistent differentiation was detected between them. Moreover, the less widespread morphotype appeared to be closer to Pacific species as P. juanfernandezii and P. elongatus. Our findings confirmed the limited knowledge on Parazoanthus species complex, and how this gap can have important implication for the conservation strategies of this widespread and valuable genus in the Mediterranean Sea.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-70770-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7434761PMC
August 2020

Real-World Clinical Outcomes Two Years After Transition to Psychosis in Individuals at Clinical High Risk: Electronic Health Record Cohort Study.

Schizophr Bull 2020 Apr 18. Epub 2020 Apr 18.

OASIS Service, South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

The objective of this study is to describe the 2-year real-world clinical outcomes after transition to psychosis in patients at clinical high-risk. The study used the clinical electronic health record cohort study including all patients receiving a first index primary diagnosis of nonorganic International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 psychotic disorder within the early psychosis pathway in the South London and Maudsley (SLaM) National Health Service (NHS) Trust from 2001 to 2017. Outcomes encompassed: cumulative probability (at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months) of receiving a first (1) treatment with antipsychotic, (2) informal admission, (3) compulsory admission, and (4) treatment with clozapine and (5) numbers of days spent in hospital (at 12 and 24 months) in patients transitioning to psychosis from clinical high-risk services (Outreach and Support in south London; OASIS) compared to other first-episode groups. Analyses included logistic and 0-inflated negative binomial regressions. In the study, 1561 patients were included; those who had initially been managed by OASIS and had subsequently transitioned to a first episode of psychosis (n = 130) were more likely to receive antipsychotic medication (at 3, 6, and 24 months; all P < .023), to be admitted informally (at all timepoints, all P < .004) and on a compulsory basis (at all timepoints, all P < .013), and to have spent more time in hospital (all timepoints, all P < .007) than first-episode patients who were already psychotic when seen by the OASIS service (n = 310), or presented to early intervention services (n = 1121). The likelihood of receiving clozapine was similar across all groups (at 12/24 months, all P < .101). Transition to psychosis from a clinical high-risk state is associated with severe real-world clinical outcomes. Prevention of transition to psychosis should remain a core target of future research. The study protocol was registered on www.researchregistry.com; researchregistry5039).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/schbul/sbaa040DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7505186PMC
April 2020

Bioimpedance spectroscopy for fluid status assessment in patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis: Implications for peritoneal dialysis.

Sci Rep 2020 02 18;10(1):2869. Epub 2020 Feb 18.

Department of Internal Medicine III, Clinical Division of Nephrology and Dialysis, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) is routinely used in peritoneal dialysis patients and might aid fluid status assessment in patients with liver cirrhosis, but the effect of ascites volume removal on BIS-readings is unknown. Here we determined changes in BIS-derived parameters and clinical signs of fluid overload from before to after abdominal paracentesis. Per our pre-specified sample size calculation, we studied 31 cirrhotic patients, analyzing demographics, labs and clinical parameters along with BIS results. Mean volume of the abdominal paracentesis was 7.8 ± 2.6 L. From pre-to post-paracentesis, extracellular volume (ECV) decreased (20.2 ± 5.2 L to 19.0 ± 4.8 L), total body volume decreased (39.8 ± 9.8 L to 37.8 ± 8.5 L) and adipose tissue mass decreased (38.4 ± 16.0 kg to 29.9 ± 12.9 kg; all p < 0.002). Correlation of BIS-derived parameters from pre to post-paracentesis ranged from R² = 0.26 for body cell mass to R² = 0.99 for ECV. Edema did not correlate with BIS-derived fluid overload (FO ≥ 15% ECV), which occurred in 16 patients (51.6%). In conclusion, BIS-derived information on fluid status did not coincide with clinical judgement. The changes in adipose tissue mass support the BIS-model assumption that fluid in the peritoneal cavity is not detectable, suggesting that ascites (or peritoneal dialysis fluid) mass should be subtracted from adipose tissue if BIS is used in patients with a full peritoneal cavity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-59817-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7028989PMC
February 2020

Effects of Antirejection Drugs on Innate Immune Cells After Kidney Transplantation.

Front Immunol 2019 19;10:2978. Epub 2019 Dec 19.

Department of Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, United States.

Over the last decades, our understanding of adaptive immune responses to solid organ transplantation increased considerably and allowed development of immunosuppressive drugs targeting key alloreactive T cells mechanism. As a result, rates of acute rejection dropped and short-term graft survival improved significantly. However, long-term outcomes are still disappointing. Recently, increasing evidence supports that innate immune responses plays roles in allograft rejection and represents a valuable target to further improve long-term allograft survival. Innate immune cells are activated by molecules with stereotypical motifs produced during injury (i.e., damage-associated molecular patterns, DAMPS) or infection (i.e., pathogen-associated molecular patterns, PAMPs). Activated innate immune cells can exert direct pro- and anti-inflammatory effects, while also priming adaptive immune responses. These cells are activated after transplantation by multiple stimuli, including ischemia-reperfusion injury, rejection, and infections. Data from animal models of graft rejection, show that inhibition of innate immunity promotes development of tolerance. Therefore, understanding mechanisms of innate immunity is important to improve graft outcomes. This review discusses effects of currently used immunosuppressive agents on innate immune responses in kidney transplantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.02978DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6930910PMC
November 2020

Comparative transcriptome analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in renal transplant recipients in everolimus- and tacrolimus-based immunosuppressive therapy.

Eur J Pharmacol 2019 Sep 22;859:172494. Epub 2019 Jun 22.

Renal Unit, Department of Medicine, University-Hospital of Verona, Italy. Electronic address:

To better define the biological impact of immunosuppression on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), we employed RNASeq analysis to compare the whole transcriptomic profile of a group of renal transplant recipients undergoing maintenance treatment with Everolimus (EVE) with those treated with Tacrolimus (TAC). Then, obtained results were validated by classical biomolecular methodologies. The statistical analysis allowed the identification of four genes discriminating the 2 study groups: Sushi Domain Containing 4 (SUSD4, P = 0.02), T Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma 1A (TCL1A, P = 0.02), adhesion G protein-coupled receptor E3 (ADGRE3, P = 0.01), Immunoglobulin Heavy Constant Gamma 3 (IGHG3, P = 0.03). All of them were significantly down-regulated in patients treated with EVE compared to TAC. The Area under Receiver Operating Characteristic (AUROC) of the final model based on these 4 genes was 73.1% demonstrating its good discriminative power. RT-PCR and ELISA validated transcriptomic results. Additionally, an in vitro model confirmed that EVE significantly down-regulates (P<0.001) TCL1A, SUSD4, ADGRE3 and IgHG3 in PBMCs as well as in T cells and monocytes isolated from healthy subjects. Taken together, our data, revealed, for the first time, a new four gene-based transcriptomic fingerprint down-regulated by EVE in PBMCs of renal transplant patients that could improve the available knowledge regarding some of the biological/cellular effects of the mTOR-Is (including their antineoplastic and immune-regulatory properties).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2019.172494DOI Listing
September 2019

In vitro effects of interleukin (IL)-1 beta inhibition on the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of renal tubular and hepatic stellate cells.

J Transl Med 2019 01 7;17(1):12. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

Renal Unit, Department of Medicine, University-Hospital of Verona, Piazzale A. Stefani 1, 37126, Verona, VR, Italy.

Background: The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a multi-factorial biological mechanism involved in renal and hepatic fibrosis and the IL-1 beta has been assumed as a mediator of this process although data are not exhaustive. Therefore, the aim of our study was to evaluate the role of this cytokine in the EMT of renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2) and stellate cells (LX-2) and the protective/anti-fibrotic effect of its inhibition by Canakinumab (a specific human monoclonal antibody targeted against IL-1beta).

Methods: Both cell types were treated with IL-1 beta (10 ng/ml) for 6 and 24 h with and without Canakinumab (5 μg/ml). As control we used TGF-beta (10 ng/ml). Expression of EMT markers (vimentin, alpha-SMA, fibronectin) were evaluated through western blotting and immunofluorescence. Genes expression for matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 was measured by Real-Time PCR and enzymatic activity by zymography. Cellular motility was assessed by scratch assay.

Results: IL-1 beta induced a significant up-regulation of EMT markers in both cell types and increased the MMP-2 protein expression and enzymatic activity, similarly to TGF-beta. Moreover, IL-1 beta induced a higher rate of motility in HK-2. Canakinumab prevented all these modifications in both cell types.

Conclusions: Our results clearly demonstrate the role of IL-1 beta in the EMT of renal/stellate cells and it underlines, for the first time, the therapeutic potential of its specific inhibition on the prevention/minimization of organ fibrosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12967-019-1770-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6323803PMC
January 2019

Empagliflozin in posttransplantation diabetes mellitus: A prospective, interventional pilot study on glucose metabolism, fluid volume, and patient safety.

Am J Transplant 2019 03 25;19(3):907-919. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

Division of Nephrology and Dialysis, Department of Medicine III, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

The safety and efficacy of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors in posttransplantation diabetes mellitus is unknown. We converted stable kidney transplant patients to 10 mg empagliflozin, aiming at replacing their insulin therapy (<40 IU/d). N = 14 participants (the required sample size) completed the study visits through 4 weeks and N = 8 through 12 months. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)-derived 2-hour glucose (primary end point) increased from 232 ± 82 mg/dL (baseline) to 273 ± 116 mg/dL (4 weeks, P = .06) and to 251 ± 71 mg/dL (12 months, P = .41). Self-monitored blood glucose and hemoglobin A1c were also clinically inferior with empagliflozin monotherapy, such that insulin was reinstituted in 3 of 8 remaining participants. Five participants (2 of them dropouts) vs nine of 24 matched reference patients developed bacterial urinary tract infections (P = .81). In empagliflozin-treated participants, oral glucose insulin sensitivity decreased and beta-cell glucose sensitivity increased at the 4-week and 12-month OGTTs. Estimated glomerular filtration rate and bioimpedance spectroscopy-derived extracellular and total body fluid volumes decreased by 4 weeks, but recovered. All participants lost body weight. No participant developed ketoacidosis; 1 patient developed balanitis. In conclusion, although limited by sample size and therefore preliminary, these results suggest that empagliflozin can safely be used as add-on therapy, if posttransplant diabetes patients are monitored closely (NCT03113110).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ajt.15223DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6590167PMC
March 2019

mTOR Inhibition Role in Cellular Mechanisms.

Transplantation 2018 02;102(2S Suppl 1):S3-S16

Renal Unit, Department of Medicine, University of Verona, Verona, Italy.

The mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors (mTOR-I), drugs widely used in transplant medicine and oncology, exert their function by inhibiting a serine/threonine kinase with a pivotal role in cellular metabolism and in a wide range of eukaryotic biological/cellular functions and signaling networks. Additionally, as largely described, the inhibition of mTOR has a major impact on cellular metabolism by stimulating synthesis of proteins and lipids, inhibiting catabolic processes, such as lysosome biogenesis and autophagy, and controlling cell survival, cytoskeleton organization, lipogenesis, and gluconeogenesis. All these biological functions are essential to guarantee body homeostasis and survival. Therefore, it is necessary for clinicians and researchers to better understand this complex pathway to ameliorate patients' treatment empathizing therapeutic effects to minimize/avoid toxicities and to propose new valuable research strategies.The aim of this article has been to underline the complexity of the mTOR pathway and to review the recent literature describing the consequences of its inhibition on several cellular functions including (a) protein synthesis, (b) cell cycle,
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/TP.0000000000001806DOI Listing
February 2018

Mechanisms underlying human genetic diversity: consequence for antigraft antibody responses.

Transpl Int 2018 03 28;31(3):239-250. Epub 2017 Sep 28.

Division of Nephrology and Dialysis, Department of Internal Medicine III, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

This review focuses on the emerging concept of genomewide genetic variation as basis of an alloimmune response. Chronic antibody-mediated rejection is the major cause of long-term graft loss and growing evidence supports the clinical relevance of HLA but also non-HLA related alloimmune responses. Several polymorphic gene products have been identified as minor histocompatibility antigens. The formation of donor-specific alloantibodies is driven by indirect allorecognition of donor-derived peptides representing a form of conventional T-cell response. With the availability of high-throughput sequencing and genotyping technologies, the identification of genomewide genetic variation and thus mismatches between organ donors and graft recipients has become feasible. First clinical data linking genetic polymorphism and clinical outcome have been published and larger studies are currently under way. Protein arrays have successfully been used to identify a large variety of non-HLA antibodies in kidney transplant recipients and the availability of customizable peptide arrays made screening for linear epitopes on an individual patient level feasible. This review provides a summary of the recent findings in histocompatibility matching in the field of solid organ transplantation and complements it with a clear workflow for assessing the impact of genetic differences in protein-coding genes in solid organ transplantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tri.13059DOI Listing
March 2018

Naturally Occurring Compounds: New Potential Weapons against Oxidative Stress in Chronic Kidney Disease.

Int J Mol Sci 2017 Jul 10;18(7). Epub 2017 Jul 10.

Renal Unit, Department of Medicine, University-Hospital of Verona, Verona 37126, Italy.

Oxidative stress is a well-described imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the antioxidant defense system of cells and tissues. The overproduction of free radicals damages all components of the cell (proteins, lipids, nucleic acids) and modifies their physiological functions. As widely described, this condition is a biochemical hallmark of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and may dramatically influence the progression of renal impairment and the onset/development of major systemic comorbidities including cardiovascular diseases. This state is exacerbated by exposure of the body to uremic toxins and dialysis, a treatment that, although necessary to ensure patients' survival, exposes cells to non-physiological contact with extracorporeal circuits and membranes with consequent mitochondrial and anti-redox cellular system alterations. Therefore, it is undeniable that counteracting oxidative stress machinery is a major pharmacological target in medicine/nephrology. As a consequence, in recent years several new naturally occurring compounds, administered alone or integrated with classical therapies and an appropriate lifestyle, have been proposed as therapeutic tools for CKD patients. In this paper, we reviewed the recent literature regarding the "pioneering" in vivo testing of these agents and their inclusion in small clinical trials performed in patients affected by CKD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms18071481DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5535971PMC
July 2017