Publications by authors named "Lorenza Brocca"

27 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Acute and chronic tirasemtiv treatment improves in vivo and in vitro muscle performance in actin-based nemaline myopathy mice.

Hum Mol Genet 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Dept. of Physiology, Amsterdam UMC (location VUmc), The Netherlands.

Nemaline myopathy, a disease of the actin-based thin filament, is one of the most frequent congenital myopathies. To date, no specific therapy is available to treat muscle weakness in nemaline myopathy. We tested the ability of tirasemtiv, a fast skeletal troponin activator that targets the thin filament, to augment muscle force-both in vivo and in vitro-in a nemaline myopathy mouse model with a mutation (H40Y) in Acta1. In Acta1H40Y mice, treatment with tirasemtiv increased the force response of muscles to submaximal stimulation frequencies. This resulted in a reduced energetic cost of force generation, which increases the tolerance to fatigue. The inotropic effects of tirasemtiv were present in locomotor muscles and, albeit to a lesser extent, in respiratory muscles, and they persisted during chronic treatment, an important finding as respiratory failure is the main cause of death in patients with congenital myopathy. Finally, translational studies on permeabilized muscle fibers isolated from a biopsy of a patient with the ACTA1H40Y mutation revealed that at physiological Ca2+ concentrations, tirasemtiv increased force generation to values that were close to those generated in muscle fibers of healthy subjects. These findings indicate the therapeutic potential of fast skeletal muscle troponin activators to improve muscle function in nemaline myopathy due to the ACTA1H40Y mutation, and future studies should assess their merit for other forms of nemaline myopathy and for other congenital myopathies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddab112DOI Listing
April 2021

Recovery from 6-month spaceflight at the International Space Station: muscle-related stress into a proinflammatory setting.

FASEB J 2019 04 8;33(4):5168-5180. Epub 2019 Jan 8.

Institute of Aerospace Medicine, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Cologne, Germany; and.

The Sarcolab pilot study of 2 crewmembers, investigated before and after a 6-mo International Space Station mission, has demonstrated the substantial muscle wasting and weakness, along with disruption of muscle's oxidative metabolism. The present work aimed at evaluating the pro/anti-inflammatory status in the same 2 crewmembers (A, B). Blood circulating (c-)microRNAs (miRs), c-proteasome, c-mitochondrial DNA, and cytokines were assessed by real-time quantitative PCR or ELISA tests. Time series analysis was performed ( i.e., before flight and after landing) at 1 and 15 d of recovery (R+1 and R+15, respectively). C-biomarkers were compared with an age-matched control population and with 2-dimensional proteomic analysis of the 2 crewmembers' muscle biopsies. Striking differences were observed between the 2 crewmembers at R+1, in terms of inflamma-miRs (c-miRs-21-5p, -126-3p, and -146a-5p), muscle specific (myo)-miR-206, c-proteasome, and IL-6/leptin, thus making the 2 astronauts dissimilar to each other. Final recovery levels of c-proteasome, c-inflamma-miRs, and c-myo-miR-206 were not reverted to the baseline values in crewmember A. In both crewmembers, myo-miR-206 changed significantly after recovery. Muscle biopsy of astronaut A showed an impressive 80% increase of α-1-antitrypsin, a target of miR-126-3p. These results point to a strong stress response induced by spaceflight involving muscle tissue and the proinflammatory setting, where inflamma-miRs and myo-miR-206 mediate the systemic recovery phase after landing.-Capri, M., Morsiani, C., Santoro, A., Moriggi, M., Conte, M., Martucci, M., Bellavista, E., Fabbri, C., Giampieri, E., Albracht, K., Flück, M., Ruoss, S., Brocca, L., Canepari, M., Longa, E., Di Giulio, I., Bottinelli, R., Cerretelli, P., Salvioli, S., Gelfi, C., Franceschi, C., Narici, M., Rittweger, J. Recovery from 6-month spaceflight at the International Space Station: muscle-related stress into a proinflammatory setting.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.201801625RDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6436655PMC
April 2019

Sarcolab pilot study into skeletal muscle's adaptation to long-term spaceflight.

NPJ Microgravity 2018 17;4:18. Epub 2018 Sep 17.

15Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Padova, Padova, Italy.

Spaceflight causes muscle wasting. The Sarcolab pilot study investigated two astronauts with regards to plantar flexor muscle size, architecture, and function, and to the underlying molecular adaptations in order to further the understanding of muscular responses to spaceflight and exercise countermeasures. Two crew members (A and B) spent 6 months in space. Crew member A trained less vigorously than B. Postflight, A showed substantial decrements in plantar flexor volume, muscle architecture, in strength and in fiber contractility, which was strongly mitigated in B. The difference between these crew members closely reflected FAK-Y397 abundance, a molecular marker of muscle's loading history. Moreover, crew member A showed downregulation of contractile proteins and enzymes of anaerobic metabolism, as well as of systemic markers of energy and protein metabolism. However, both crew members exhibited decrements in muscular aerobic metabolism and phosphate high energy transfer. We conclude that countermeasures can be effective, particularly when resistive forces are of sufficient magnitude. However, to fully prevent space-related muscular deterioration, intersubject variability must be understood, and intensive exercise countermeasures programs seem mandatory. Finally, proteomic and metabolomic analyses suggest that exercise benefits in space may go beyond mere maintenance of muscle mass, but rather extend to the level of organismic metabolism.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41526-018-0052-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6141586PMC
September 2018

PlanHab : hypoxia does not worsen the impairment of skeletal muscle oxidative function induced by bed rest alone.

J Physiol 2018 08 17;596(15):3341-3355. Epub 2018 Apr 17.

Department of Medicine, University of Udine, Udine, Italy.

Key Points: Superposition of hypoxia on 21 day bed rest did not worsen the impairment of skeletal muscle oxidative function induced by bed rest alone. A significant impairment of maximal oxidative performance was identified downstream of cardiovascular O delivery, involving both the intramuscular matching between O supply and utilization and mitochondrial respiration. These chronic adaptations appear to be relevant in terms of exposure to spaceflights and reduced gravity habitats (Moon or Mars), as characterized by low gravity and hypoxia, in patients with chronic diseases characterized by hypomobility/immobility and hypoxia, as well as in ageing.

Abstract: Skeletal muscle oxidative function was evaluated in 11 healthy males (mean ± SD age 27 ± 5 years) prior to (baseline data collection, BDC) and following a 21 day horizontal bed rest (BR), carried out in normoxia (  = 133 mmHg; N-BR) and hypoxia (  = 90 mmHg; H-BR). H-BR was aimed at simulating reduced gravity habitats. The effects of a 21 day hypoxic ambulatory confinement (  = 90 mmHg; H-AMB) were also assessed. Pulmonary O uptake ( ), vastus lateralis fractional O extraction (changes in deoxygenated haemoglobin + myoglobin concentration, Δ[deoxy(Hb + Mb)]; near-infrared spectroscopy) and femoral artery blood flow (ultrasound Doppler) were evaluated during incremental one-leg knee-extension exercise (reduced constraints to cardiovascular O delivery) carried out to voluntary exhaustion in a normoxic environment. Mitochondrial respiration was evaluated ex vivo by high-resolution respirometry in permeabilized vastus lateralis fibres. decreased (P < 0.05) after N-BR (0.98 ± 0.13 L min ) and H-BR (0.96 ± 0.17 L min ) vs. BDC (1.05 ± 0.14 L min ). In the presence of a decreased (by ∼6-8%) thigh muscle volume, normalized per unit of muscle mass was not affected by both interventions. Δ[deoxy(Hb + Mb)] decreased (P < 0.05) after N-BR (65 ± 13% of limb ischaemia) and H-BR (62 ± 12%) vs. BDC (73 ± 13%). H-AMB did not alter or Δ[deoxy(Hb + Mb)] . An overshoot of Δ[deoxy(Hb + Mb)] was evident during the first minute of unloaded exercise after N-BR and H-BR. Arterial blood flow to the lower limb during both unloaded and peak knee extension was not affected by any intervention. Maximal ADP-stimulated mitochondrial respiration decreased (P < 0.05) after all interventions vs. control. In 21 day N-BR, a significant impairment of oxidative metabolism occurred downstream of cardiovascular O delivery, affecting both mitochondrial respiration and presumably the intramuscular matching between O supply and utilization. Superposition of H on BR did not worsen the impairment induced by BR alone.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/JP275605DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6068250PMC
August 2018

Diaphragm Atrophy and Weakness in the Absence of Mitochondrial Dysfunction in the Critically Ill.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2017 12;196(12):1544-1558

1 Department of Physiology, Amsterdam Cardiovascular Sciences.

Rationale: The clinical significance of diaphragm weakness in critically ill patients is evident: it prolongs ventilator dependency and increases morbidity, duration of hospital stay, and health care costs. The mechanisms underlying diaphragm weakness are unknown, but might include mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress.

Objectives: We hypothesized that weakness of diaphragm muscle fibers in critically ill patients is accompanied by impaired mitochondrial function and structure, and by increased markers of oxidative stress.

Methods: To test these hypotheses, we studied contractile force, mitochondrial function, and mitochondrial structure in diaphragm muscle fibers. Fibers were isolated from diaphragm biopsies of 36 mechanically ventilated critically ill patients and compared with those isolated from biopsies of 27 patients with suspected early-stage lung malignancy (control subjects).

Measurements And Main Results: Diaphragm muscle fibers from critically ill patients displayed significant atrophy and contractile weakness, but lacked impaired mitochondrial respiration and increased levels of oxidative stress markers. Mitochondrial energy status and morphology were not altered, despite a lower content of fusion proteins.

Conclusions: Critically ill patients have manifest diaphragm muscle fiber atrophy and weakness in the absence of mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. Thus, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress do not play a causative role in the development of atrophy and contractile weakness of the diaphragm in critically ill patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1164/rccm.201703-0501OCDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5754442PMC
December 2017

Structure and function of human muscle fibres and muscle proteome in physically active older men.

J Physiol 2017 07 5;595(14):4823-4844. Epub 2017 Jun 5.

Department of Molecular Medicine, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.

Key Points: Loss of muscle mass and strength in the growing population of elderly people is a major health concern for modern societies. This condition, termed sarcopenia, is a major cause of falls and of the subsequent increase in morbidity and mortality. Despite numerous studies on the impact of ageing on individual muscle fibres, the contribution of single muscle fibre adaptations to ageing-induced atrophy and functional impairment is still unsettled. The level of physical function and disuse is often associated with ageing. We studied relatively healthy older adults in order to understand the effects of ageing per se without the confounding impact of impaired physical function. We found that in healthy ageing, structural and functional alterations of muscle fibres occur. Protein post-translational modifications, oxidation and phosphorylation contribute to such alterations more than loss of myosin and other muscle protein content.

Abstract: Contradictory results have been reported on the impact of ageing on structure and functions of skeletal muscle fibres, likely to be due to a complex interplay between ageing and other phenomena such as disuse and diseases. Here we recruited healthy, physically and socially active young (YO) and elderly (EL) men in order to study ageing per se without the confounding effects of impaired physical function. In vivo analyses of quadriceps and in vitro analyses of vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were performed. In EL subjects, our results show that (i) quadriceps volume, maximum voluntary contraction isometric torque and patellar tendon force were significantly lower; (ii) muscle fibres went through significant atrophy and impairment of specific force (isometric force/cross-sectional area) and unloaded shortening velocity; (iii) myosin/actin ratio and myosin content in individual muscle fibres were not altered; (iv) the muscle proteome went through quantitative adaptations, namely an up-regulation of the content of several groups of proteins among which were myofibrillar proteins and antioxidant defence systems; (v) the muscle proteome went through qualitative adaptations, namely phosphorylation of several proteins, including myosin light chain-2 slow and troponin T and carbonylation of myosin heavy chains. The present results indicate that impairment of individual muscle fibre structure and function is a major feature of ageing per se and that qualitative adaptations of muscle proteome are likely to be more involved than quantitative adaptations in determining such a phenomenon.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/JP274148DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5509857PMC
July 2017

Myosin content of single muscle fibers following short-term disuse and active recovery in young and old healthy men.

Exp Gerontol 2017 01 26;87(Pt A):100-107. Epub 2016 Oct 26.

Department of Molecular Medicine, University of Pavia, Italy.

Short-term disuse and subsequent recovery affect whole muscle and single myofiber contractile function in young and old. While the loss and recovery of single myofiber specific force (SF) following disuse and rehabilitation has been shown to correlate with alterations in myosin concentrations in young, it is unknown whether similar relationships exist in old. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of 14days lower limb disuse followed by 28days of active recovery on single muscle fiber myosin content in old (68yrs) and young (24yrs) recreationally physically active healthy men. Following disuse, myosin content decreased (p<0.05) in MHC 1 (young -28%, old -19%) and 2a fibers (young -23%, old -32%). In old, myosin content decreased more (p<0.05) in MHC 2a vs 1 fibers. Following recovery, myosin content increased (p<0.05) and returned to pre-disuse levels for both young and old in both fiber types, with MHC 2a fibers demonstrating an overshooting in young (+31%, p<0.05) but not old. Strong correlations were observed between myosin content and single fiber SF in both young and old, with greater slope steepness in MHC 2a vs 1 fibers indicating an enhanced intrinsic contractile capacity of MHC 2a fibers. In conclusion, adaptive changes in myofiber myosin content appear to occur rapidly following brief periods of disuse (2wks) and after subsequent active recovery (4wks) in young and old, which contribute to alterations in contractile function at the single muscle fiber level. Changes in myosin content appear to occur independently of age, while influenced by fiber type (MHC isoform) in young but not old.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exger.2016.10.009DOI Listing
January 2017

FoxO-dependent atrogenes vary among catabolic conditions and play a key role in muscle atrophy induced by hindlimb suspension.

J Physiol 2017 02 12;595(4):1143-1158. Epub 2016 Dec 12.

Department of Molecular Medicine, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.

Key Points: Muscle atrophy is a debilitating condition that affects a high percentage of the population with a negative impact on quality of life. Dissecting the molecular level of the atrophy process, and the similarities/dissimilarities among different catabolic conditions, is a necessary step for designing specific countermeasures to attenuate/prevent muscle loss. The FoxO family transcription factors represent one of the most important regulators of atrophy programme stimulating the expression of many atrophy-related genes. The findings of the present study clearly indicate that the signalling network controlling the atrophy programme is specific for each catabolic condition.

Abstract: Muscle atrophy is a complex process that is in common with many different catabolic diseases including disuse/inactivity and ageing. The signalling pathways that control the atrophy programme in the different disuse/inactivity conditions have not yet been completely dissected. The inhibition of FoxO is considered to only partially spare muscle mass after denervation. The present study aimed: (i) to determine the involvement of FoxOs in hindlimb suspension disuse model; (ii) to define whether the molecular events of protein breakdown are shared among different unloaded muscles; and finally (iii) to compare the data obtained in this model with another model of inactivity such as denervation. Both wild-type and muscle-specific FoxO1,3,4 knockout (FoxO1,3,4 ) mice were unloaded for 3 and 14 days and muscles were characterized by functional, morphological, biochemical and molecular assays. The data obtained show that FoxOs are required for muscle loss and force drop during unloading. Moreover, we found that FoxO-dependent atrogenes vary in different unloaded muscles and that they diverge from denervation. The findings of the present study clearly indicate that the signalling network that controls the atrophy programme is specific for each catabolic condition.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/JP273097DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5309360PMC
February 2017

Separate and combined effects of a 10-d exposure to hypoxia and inactivity on oxidative function in vivo and mitochondrial respiration ex vivo in humans.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2016 07 19;121(1):154-63. Epub 2016 May 19.

Department of Medical and Biological Sciences, University of Udine, Udine, Italy; Institute of Bioimaging and Molecular Physiology, National Research Council, Milano, Italy

An integrative evaluation of oxidative metabolism was carried out in 9 healthy young men (age, 24.1 ± 1.7 yr mean ± SD) before (CTRL) and after a 10-day horizontal bed rest carried out in normoxia (N-BR) or hypoxia (H-BR, FiO2 = 0.147). H-BR was designed to simulate planetary habitats. Pulmonary O2 uptake (V̇o2) and vastus lateralis fractional O2 extraction (changes in deoxygenated hemoglobin+myoglobin concentration, Δ[deoxy(Hb+Mb)] evaluated using near-infrared spectroscopy) were evaluated in normoxia and during an incremental cycle ergometer (CE) and one-leg knee extension (KE) exercise (aimed at reducing cardiovascular constraints to oxidative function). Mitochondrial respiration was evaluated ex vivo by high-resolution respirometry in permeabilized vastus lateralis fibers. During CE V̇o2peak and Δ[deoxy(Hb+Mb)]peak were lower (P < 0.05) after both N-BR and H-BR than during CTRL; during KE the variables were lower after N-BR but not after H-BR. During CE the overshoot of Δ[deoxy(Hb+Mb)] during constant work rate exercise was greater in N-BR and H-BR than CTRL, whereas during KE a significant difference vs. CTRL was observed only after N-BR. Maximal mitochondrial respiration determined ex vivo was not affected by either intervention. In N-BR, a significant impairment of oxidative metabolism occurred downstream of central cardiovascular O2 delivery and upstream of mitochondrial function, possibly at the level of the intramuscular matching between O2 supply and utilization and peripheral O2 diffusion. Superposition of hypoxia on bed rest did not aggravate, and partially reversed, the impairment of muscle oxidative function in vivo induced by bed rest. The effects of longer exposures will have to be determined.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00832.2015DOI Listing
July 2016

Human skeletal muscle fibre contractile properties and proteomic profile: adaptations to 3 weeks of unilateral lower limb suspension and active recovery.

J Physiol 2015 Dec;593(24):5361-85

Department of Molecular Medicine, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.

Key Points: It is generally assumed that muscle fibres go through atrophy following disuse with a loss of specific force and an increase in unloaded shortening velocity. However, the underlying mechanisms remain to be clarified. Most studies have focused on events taking place during the development of disuse, whereas the subsequent recovery phase, which is equally important, has received little attention. Our findings support the hypotheses that the specific force of muscle fibres decreased following unilateral lower limb suspension (ULLS) and returned to normal after 3 weeks of active recovery as a result of a loss and recovery of myosin and actin content. Furthermore, muscle fibres went through extensive qualitative changes in muscle protein pattern following ULLS, and these were reversed by active recovery. Resistance training was very effective in restoring both muscle mass and qualitative muscle changes, indicating that long-term ULLS did not prevent the positive effect of exercise on human muscle.

Abstract: Following disuse, muscle fibre function goes through adaptations such as a loss of specific force (PO /CSA) and an increase in unloaded shortening velocity, which could be a result of both quantitative changes (i.e. atrophy) and qualitative changes in protein pattern. The underlying mechanisms remain to be clarified. In addition, little is known about the recovery of muscle mass and strength following disuse. In the present study, we report an extensive dataset describing, in detail,the functional and protein content adaptations of skeletal muscle in response to both disuse and re-training. Eight young healthy subjects were subjected to 3 weeks of unilateral lower limb suspension (ULLS), a widely used human model of disuse skeletal muscle atrophy. Needle biopsies samples were taken from the vastus lateralis muscle Pre-ULLS, Post-ULLS and after 3 weeks of recovery during which heavy resistance training was performed. After disuse, cross-sectional area (CSA), PO /CSA and myosin concentration (MC) decreased in both type 1 and 2A skinned muscle fibres. After recovery, CSA and MC returned to levels comparable to those observed before disuse, whereas Po/CSA and unloaded shortening velocity reached a higher level. Myosin heavy chain isoform composition of muscle samples did not differ among the experimental groups. To study the mechanisms underlying such adaptations, a two-dimensional proteomic analysis was performed. ULLS induced a reduction of myofibrillar, metabolic (glycolytic and oxidative) and anti-oxidant defence system protein content. Resistance training was very effective in counteracting ULLS-induced alterations, indicating that long-term ULLS did not prevent the positive effect of exercise on human muscle.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/JP271188DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4704515PMC
December 2015

The role of alterations in mitochondrial dynamics and PGC-1α over-expression in fast muscle atrophy following hindlimb unloading.

J Physiol 2015 Apr 4;593(8):1981-95. Epub 2015 Feb 4.

Department of Molecular Medicine, University of Pavia, 27100, Pavia, Italy.

Key Points: Skeletal muscle atrophy occurs as a result of disuse. Although several studies have established that a decrease in protein synthesis and increase in protein degradation lead to muscle atrophy, little is known about the triggers underlying such processes. A growing body of evidence challenges oxidative stress as a trigger of disuse atrophy; furthermore, it is also becoming evident that mitochondrial dysfunction may play a causative role in determining muscle atrophy. Mitochondrial fusion and fission have emerged as important processes that govern mitochondrial function and PGC-1α may regulate fusion/fission events. Although most studies on mice have focused on the anti-gravitary slow soleus muscle as it is preferentially affected by disuse atrophy, several fast muscles (including gastrocnemius) go through a significant loss of mass following unloading. Here we found that in fast muscles an early down-regulation of pro-fusion proteins, through concomitant AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation, can activate catabolic systems, and ultimately cause muscle mass loss in disuse. Elevated muscle PGC-1α completely preserves muscle mass by preventing the fall in pro-fusion protein expression, AMPK and catabolic system activation, suggesting that compounds inducing PGC-1α expression could be useful to treat and prevent muscle atrophy.

Abstract: The mechanisms triggering disuse muscle atrophy remain of debate. It is becoming evident that mitochondrial dysfunction may regulate pathways controlling muscle mass. We have recently shown that mitochondrial dysfunction plays a major role in disuse atrophy of soleus, a slow, oxidative muscle. Here we tested the hypothesis that hindlimb unloading-induced atrophy could be due to mitochondrial dysfunction in fast muscles too, notwithstanding their much lower mitochondrial content. Gastrocnemius displayed atrophy following both 3 and 7 days of unloading. SOD1 and catalase up-regulation, no H2 O2 accumulation and no increase of protein carbonylation suggest the antioxidant defence system efficiently reacted to redox imbalance in the early phases of disuse. A defective mitochondrial fusion (Mfn1, Mfn2 and OPA1 down-regulation) occurred together with an impairment of OXPHOS capacity. Furthermore, at 3 days of unloading higher acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) phosphorylation was found, suggesting AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway activation. To test the role of mitochondrial alterations we used Tg-mice overexpressing PGC-1α because of the known effect of PGC-1α on stimulation of Mfn2 expression. PGC-α overexpression was sufficient to prevent (i) the decrease of pro-fusion proteins (Mfn1, Mfn2 and OPA1), (ii) activation of the AMPK pathway, (iii) the inducible expression of MuRF1 and atrogin1 and of authopagic factors, and (iv) any muscle mass loss in response to disuse. As the effects of increased PGC-1α activity were sustained throughout disuse, compounds inducing PGC-1α expression could be useful to treat and prevent muscle atrophy also in fast muscles.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.2014.286740DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4405755PMC
April 2015

PGC1-α over-expression prevents metabolic alterations and soleus muscle atrophy in hindlimb unloaded mice.

J Physiol 2014 Oct 15;592(20):4575-89. Epub 2014 Aug 15.

Department of Molecular Medicine, University of Pavia, 27100, Pavia, Italy Interuniversity Institute of Myology, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy Interdipartimental Centre for Biology and Sport Medicine, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy

Prolonged skeletal muscle inactivity causes muscle fibre atrophy. Redox imbalance has been considered one of the major triggers of skeletal muscle disuse atrophy, but whether redox imbalance is actually the major cause or simply a consequence of muscle disuse remains of debate. Here we hypothesized that a metabolic stress mediated by PGC-1α down-regulation plays a major role in disuse atrophy. First we studied the adaptations of soleus to mice hindlimb unloading (HU) in the early phase of disuse (3 and 7 days of HU) with and without antioxidant treatment (trolox). HU caused a reduction in cross-sectional area, redox status alteration (NRF2, SOD1 and catalase up-regulation), and induction of the ubiquitin proteasome system (MuRF-1 and atrogin-1 mRNA up-regulation) and autophagy (Beclin1 and p62 mRNA up-regulation). Trolox completely prevented the induction of NRF2, SOD1 and catalase mRNAs, but not atrophy or induction of catabolic systems in unloaded muscles, suggesting that oxidative stress is not a major cause of disuse atrophy. HU mice showed a marked alteration of oxidative metabolism. PGC-1α and mitochondrial complexes were down-regulated and DRP1 was up-regulated. To define the link between mitochondrial dysfunction and disuse muscle atrophy we unloaded mice overexpressing PGC-1α. Transgenic PGC-1α animals did not show metabolic alteration during unloading, preserving muscle size through the reduction of autophagy and proteasome degradation. Our results indicate that mitochondrial dysfunction plays a major role in disuse atrophy and that compounds inducing PGC-1α expression could be useful to treat/prevent muscle atrophy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.2014.275545DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4287741PMC
October 2014

Proteomic analysis of plasma after branched chain enriched mixture supplementation in mice.

J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2013 Apr 3;10(1):19. Epub 2013 Apr 3.

Department of Molecular Medicine, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.

Background: Branched chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation is a recently identified strategy to promote longevity in mice. A proteomic approach was used to identify proteins which are differentially expressed in the sera of mice following supplementation with selected branched chain amino acid enriched mixture (BCAAem).

Findings: 12 male mice (C57Bl6, 9 months-old) were randomly assigned to unsupplemented (Control, n = 6) and supplemented (BCAA, n = 6, 0.1 mg/gr/day in drink water for 4 weeks). At the end of treatment total plasma samples from Control and BCAAem mice were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). After staining, the gels were imaged and differential protein expression patterns were interrogated using image analysis software. Spots showing a different expression level were identified through a comparison with 2D maps found in databases officially recognized (ExPASy).Master gels of Control and BCAA mice exhibited slightly different 2-DE patterns as only 10 spots out of 500 appeared differentially expressed: 8 were upregulated (corresponding to Apolipoprotein A-I (APOA1), Complement factor B, Complement C3, Immunoglobulin light chain) and 2 appeared downregulated (Alpha-1-antitrypsin and unknown).

Conclusions: Supplementation with BCAAem in mice results in a slight perturbation of the host serum proteome. Of particular interest is the increased Apolipoprotein A-I (APOAI) following treatment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1550-2783-10-19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3618008PMC
April 2013

The time course of the adaptations of human muscle proteome to bed rest and the underlying mechanisms.

J Physiol 2012 Oct 30;590(20):5211-30. Epub 2012 Jul 30.

Department of Molecular Medicine, University of Pavia, Via Forlanini 6, 27100 Pavia, Italy.

In order to get a comprehensive picture of the complex adaptations of human skeletal muscle to disuse and further the understanding of the underlying mechanisms, we participated in two bed rest campaigns, one lasting 35 days and one 24 days. In the first bed rest (BR) campaign, myofibrillar proteins, metabolic enzymes and antioxidant defence systems were found to be down-regulated both post-8 days and post-35 days BR by proteomic analysis of vastus lateralis muscle samples from nine subjects. Such profound alterations occurred early (post-8 days BR), before disuse atrophy developed, and persisted through BR (post-35 days BR). To understand the mechanisms underlying the protein adaptations observed, muscle biopsies from the second bed rest campaign (nine subjects) were used to evaluate the adaptations of master controllers of the balance between muscle protein breakdown and muscle protein synthesis (MuRF-1 and atrogin-1; Akt and p70S6K), of autophagy (Beclin-1, p62, LC3, bnip3, cathepsin-L), of expression of antioxidant defence systems (NRF2) and of energy metabolism (PGC-1α, SREBP-1, AMPK). The results indicate that: (i) redox imbalance and remodelling of muscle proteome occur early and persist through BR; (ii) impaired energy metabolism is an early and persistent phenomenon comprising both the oxidative and glycolytic one; (iii) although both major catabolic systems, ubiquitin proteasome and autophagy, could contribute to the progression of atrophy late into BR, a decreased protein synthesis cannot be ruled out; (iv) a decreased PGC-1α, with the concurrence of SREBP-1 up-regulation, is a likely trigger of metabolic impairment, whereas the AMPK pathway is unaltered.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.2012.240267DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3497573PMC
October 2012

Redox homeostasis, oxidative stress and disuse muscle atrophy.

J Physiol 2011 May 14;589(Pt 9):2147-60. Epub 2011 Feb 14.

Department of Physiology, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.

A pivotal role has been ascribed to oxidative stress in determining the imbalance between protein synthesis and degradation leading to muscle atrophy in many pathological conditions and in disuse. However, a large variability in disuse-induced alteration of redox homeostasis through muscles, models and species emerges from the literature. Whereas the causal role of oxidative stress appears well established in the mechanical ventilation model, findings are less compelling in the hindlimb unloaded mice and very limited in humans. The mere coexistence of muscle atrophy, indirect indexes of increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and impairment of antioxidant defence systems, in fact, does not unequivocally support a causal role of oxidative stress in the phenomenon. We hypothesise that in some muscles, models and species only, due to a large redox imbalance, the leading phenomena are activation of proteolysis and massive oxidation of proteins, which would become more susceptible to degradation. In other conditions, due to a lower extent and variable time course of ROS production, different ROS-dependent, but also -independent intracellular pathways might dominate determining the variable extent of atrophy and even dispensable protein oxidation. The ROS production and removal are complex and finely tuned phenomena. They are indeed important intracellular signals and redox balance maintains normal muscle homeostasis and can underlie either positive or negative adaptations to exercise. A precise approach to determine the levels of ROS in living cells in various conditions appears to be of paramount importance to define and support such hypotheses.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.2010.203232DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3098694PMC
May 2011

Statin or fibrate chronic treatment modifies the proteomic profile of rat skeletal muscle.

Biochem Pharmacol 2011 Apr 15;81(8):1054-64. Epub 2011 Feb 15.

Department of Pharmacobiology, Section of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Bari "Aldo Moro", Via Orabona 4, 70124 Bari, Italy.

Statins and fibrates can cause myopathy. To further understand the causes of the damage we performed a proteome analysis in fast-twitch skeletal muscle of rats chronically treated with different hypolipidemic drugs. The proteomic maps were obtained from extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles of rats treated for 2-months with 10mg/kg atorvastatin, 20 mg/kg fluvastatin, 60 mg/kg fenofibrate and control rats. The proteins differentially expressed were identified by mass spectrometry and further analyzed by immunoblot analysis. We found a significant modification in 40 out of 417 total spots analyzed in atorvastatin treated rats, 15 out of 436 total spots in fluvastatin treated rats and 21 out of 439 total spots in fenofibrate treated rats in comparison to controls. All treatments induced a general tendency to a down-regulation of protein expression; in particular, atorvastatin affected the protein pattern more extensively with respect to the other treatments. Energy production systems, both oxidative and glycolytic enzymes and creatine kinase, were down-regulated following atorvastatin administration, whereas fenofibrate determined mostly alterations in glycolytic enzymes and creatine kinase, oxidative enzymes being relatively spared. Additionally, all treatments resulted in some modifications of proteins involved in cellular defenses against oxidative stress, such as heat shock proteins, and of myofibrillar proteins. These results were confirmed by immunoblot analysis. In conclusions, the proteomic analysis showed that either statin or fibrate administration can modify the expression of proteins essential for skeletal muscle function suggesting potential mechanisms for statin myopathy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bcp.2011.01.022DOI Listing
April 2011

Neuromuscular electrical stimulation training induces atypical adaptations of the human skeletal muscle phenotype: a functional and proteomic analysis.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2011 Feb 2;110(2):433-50. Epub 2010 Dec 2.

Dept. of Physiology and Interuniversity, Institute of Myology, Univ. of Pavia, Via Forlanini 6, 27100 Pavia, Italy.

The aim of the present study was to define the chronic effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) on the neuromuscular properties of human skeletal muscle. Eight young healthy male subjects were subjected to 25 sessions of isometric NMES of the quadriceps muscle over an 8-wk period. Needle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis muscle before and after training. The training status, myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform distribution, and global protein pattern, as assessed by proteomic analysis, widely varied among subjects at baseline and prompted the identification of two subgroups: an "active" (ACT) group, which performed regular exercise and had a slower MHC profile, and a sedentary (SED) group, which did not perform any exercise and had a faster MHC profile. Maximum voluntary force and neural activation significantly increased after NMES in both groups (+∼30% and +∼10%, respectively). Both type 1 and 2 fibers showed significant muscle hypertrophy. After NMES, both groups showed a significant shift from MHC-2X toward MHC-2A and MHC-1, i.e., a fast-to-slow transition. Proteomic maps showing ∼500 spots were obtained before and after training in both groups. Differentially expressed proteins were identified and grouped into functional categories. The most relevant changes regarded 1) myofibrillar proteins, whose changes were consistent with a fast-to-slow phenotype shift and with a strengthening of the cytoskeleton; 2) energy production systems, whose changes indicated a glycolytic-to-oxidative shift in the metabolic profile; and 3) antioxidant defense systems, whose changes indicated an enhancement of intracellular defenses against reactive oxygen species. The adaptations in the protein pattern of the ACT and SED groups were different but were, in both groups, typical of both resistance (i.e., strength gains and hypertrophy) and endurance (i.e., a fast-to-slow shift in MHC and metabolic profile) training. These training-induced adaptations can be ascribed to the peculiar motor unit recruitment pattern associated with NMES.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00914.2010DOI Listing
February 2011

Antioxidant treatment of hindlimb-unloaded mouse counteracts fiber type transition but not atrophy of disused muscles.

Pharmacol Res 2010 Jun 29;61(6):553-63. Epub 2010 Jan 29.

Section of Pharmacology, Department of Pharmacobiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Bari, Via Orabona 4 - campus, 70125 Bari, Italy.

Oxidative stress was proposed as a trigger of muscle impairment in various muscle diseases. The hindlimb-unloaded (HU) rodent is a model of disuse inducing atrophy and slow-to-fast transition of postural muscles. Here, mice unloaded for 14 days were chronically treated with the selective antioxidant trolox. After HU, atrophy was more pronounced in the slow-twitch soleus muscle (Sol) than in the fast-twitch gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior muscles, and was absent in extensor digitorum longus muscle. In accord with the phenotype transition, HU Sol showed a reduced expression of myosin heavy chain type 2A (MHC-2A) and increase in MHC-2X and MHC-2B isoforms. In parallel, HU Sol displayed an increased sarcolemma chloride conductance related to an increased expression of ClC-1 channels, changes in excitability parameters, a positive shift of the mechanical threshold, and a decrease of the resting cytosolic calcium concentration. Moreover, the level of lipoperoxidation increased proportionally to the degree of atrophy of each muscle type. As expected, trolox treatment fully prevented oxidative stress in HU mice. Atrophy was not prevented but the drug significantly attenuated Sol phenotypic transition and excitability changes. Trolox treatment had no effect on control mice. These results suggest possible benefits of antioxidants in protecting muscle against disuse.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2010.01.012DOI Listing
June 2010

The KATP channel is a molecular sensor of atrophy in skeletal muscle.

J Physiol 2010 Mar 11;588(Pt 5):773-84. Epub 2010 Jan 11.

Pharmacobiology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Bari, Via Orabona No. 4, 70120 Bari, Italy.

The involvement of ATP-sensitive K(+) (K(ATP)) channels in the atrophy of slow-twitch (MHC-I) soleus (SOL) and fast-twitch (MHC-IIa) flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) muscles was investigated in vivo in 14-day-hindlimb-unloaded (14-HU) rats, an animal model of disuse, and in vitro in drug-induced muscle atrophy. Patch-clamp and gene expression experiments were performed in combination with measurements of fibre diameters used as an index of atrophy, and with MHC labelling in 14-HU rats and controls. A down-regulation of K(ATP) channel subunits Kir6.2, SUR1 and SUR2B with marked atrophy and incomplete phenotype transition were observed in SOL of 14-HU rats. The observed changes in K(ATP) currents were well correlated with changes in fibre diameters and SUR1 expression, as well as with MHC-IIa expression. Half of the SOL fibres of 14-HU rats had reduced diameter and K(ATP) currents and were labelled by MHC-I antibodies. Non-atrophic fibres were labelled by MHC-IIa (22%) antibodies and had enhanced K(ATP) currents, or were labelled by MHC-I (28%) antibodies but had normal current. FDB was not affected in 14-HU rats and this is related to the high expression/activity of Kir6.2/SUR1 subunits characterizing this muscle phenotype. The long-term incubation of the control muscles in vitro with the K(ATP) channel blocker glibenclamide (10(6)m) reduced the K(ATP) currents with atrophy and these effects were prevented by the K(ATP) channel opener diazoxide (10(4)m). The in vivo down-regulation of SUR1, and possibly of Kir6.2 and SUR2B, or their in vitro pharmacological blockade activates atrophic signalling in skeletal muscle. All these findings suggest a new role for the K(ATP) channel as a molecular sensor of atrophy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.2009.185835DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2834937PMC
March 2010

Is oxidative stress a cause or consequence of disuse muscle atrophy in mice? A proteomic approach in hindlimb-unloaded mice.

Exp Physiol 2010 Feb 9;95(2):331-50. Epub 2009 Oct 9.

Department of Physiology, Human Physiology Unit, University of Pavia, Via Forlanini 6, 27100 Pavia, Italy.

Two-dimensional proteomic maps of soleus (Sol), a slow oxidative muscle, and gastrocnemius (Gas), a fast glycolytic muscle of control mice (CTRL), of mice hindlimb unloaded for 14 days (HU mice) and of HU mice treated with trolox (HU-TRO), a selective and potent antioxidant, were compared. The proteomic analysis identified a large number of differentially expressed proteins in a pool of approximately 800 proteins in both muscles. The protein pattern of Sol and Gas adapted very differently to hindlimb unloading. The most interesting adaptations related to the cellular defense systems against oxidative stress and energy metabolism. In HU Sol, the antioxidant defense systems and heat shock proteins were downregulated, and protein oxidation index and lipid peroxidation were higher compared with CTRL Sol. In contrast, in HU Gas the antioxidant defense systems were upregulated, and protein oxidation index and lipid peroxidation were normal. Notably, both Sol and Gas muscles and their muscle fibres were atrophic. Antioxidant administration prevented the impairment of the antioxidant defense systems in Sol and further enhanced them in Gas. Accordingly, it restored normal levels of protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation in Sol. However, muscle and muscle fibre atrophy was not prevented either in Sol or in Gas. A general downsizing of all energy production systems in Sol and a shift towards glycolytic metabolism in Gas were observed. Trolox administration did not prevent metabolic adaptations in either Sol or Gas. The present findings suggest that oxidative stress is not a major determinant of muscle atrophy in HU mice.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/expphysiol.2009.050245DOI Listing
February 2010

Amino acid supplements improve native antioxidant enzyme expression in the skeletal muscle of diabetic mice.

Am J Cardiol 2008 Jun;101(11A):57E-62E

Department of Experimental Medicine, Human Physiology Unit, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.

Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. We investigated the effects of a specific oral mixture of amino acid (AA) supplements on the antioxidant defense system, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and heat shock proteins (HSPs: HspB1, similar to Hsp 20 kDa, and HspB7) in the soleus muscle of streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic mice by bidimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Four groups of 5 mice were considered: nondiabetic control mice, nondiabetic mice given AA supplements (0.1 g/kg per day for 15 days), diabetic mice (induced with STZ 65 mg/kg), and diabetic mice given AAs. AA supplements in the nondiabetic animals were associated with a statistical increase of SOD and no changes in expression of HSPs. Diabetes mellitus decreased antioxidant SOD and increased cellular stress as demonstrated by the overall upregulated HSPs. Administration of AAs counteracted the effects of diabetes, producing upregulation of SOD and downregulation of HSPs. These data suggest a role for AA supplements in controlling the antioxidant defense system and reducing the oxidative stress in diabetic skeletal muscle.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2008.03.002DOI Listing
June 2008

Amino acid supplementation counteracts metabolic and functional damage in the diabetic rat heart.

Am J Cardiol 2008 Jun;101(11A):49E-56E

Department of Experimental Medicine, Human Physiology Unit, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.

We aimed to assess whether a specific mixture of amino acid (AA) supplements counteracts the metabolic and functional changes in the streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rat heart model. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups (n = 10 each) and treated for 43 days: nondiabetic controls, nondiabetic rats given an AA mixture (0.1 g/kg per day), diabetic rats (induced with 65 mg/kg STZ given intraperitoneally), diabetic rats given AAs, diabetic rats given insulin (5 IU/day given subcutaneously), and diabetic rats given insulin plus AAs. During treatment, glycemia and insulinemia levels were measured in all groups. Changes in enzyme (reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dehydrogenase, cytochrome c oxidase) activities and myosin heavy chain (MHC) composition were measured in the left ventricle. In 5 rats contractile function was assessed by measuring maximal shortening velocity of skinned ventricular trabeculae and the expression of translational regulator mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) was also found. STZ-induced diabetes was associated with reduced myocardial contractility, overall loss of oxidative capacity, a shift toward a slower MHC phenotype, and decreased mTOR tissue content. All of these changes appeared to be reversible with insulin. AA supplements partially restored the myocardial and oxidative dysfunction and also increased mTOR tissue content. The combination of insulin and AAs did not have a synergistic effect on either enzymatic or functional profiles. We conclude that AA supplements may contribute to restoring the oxidative and contractile dysfunction of diabetic rat hearts, probably through an mTOR-insulin independent mechanism.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2008.03.001DOI Listing
June 2008

Oral amino acid supplementation counteracts age-induced sarcopenia in elderly rats.

Am J Cardiol 2008 Jun;101(11A):35E-41E

Department of Experimental Medicine, Human Physiology Unit, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.

We investigated the effects of a specific mixture of amino acid (AA) supplements on the adaptation changes induced by aging in the soleus muscle of rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups (n = 5 each): young control (YO), 3 months of age; elderly control (EL), 18 months of age; and elderly orally supplemented with an AA mixture (EL-AA), 18 months of age, given as 0.1 g/kg per day in drinking water for 8 weeks. Myosin heavy chain (MHC) composition was analyzed in all muscles. The total fiber number and fiber cross-sectional area of types 1 and 2A fibers were also measured in immunostained sections of the soleus muscle. The ratios between the sarcomere volume (Vsar) and the total volume (Vtot) and single muscle fibers were studied by electron microscopy. The expression of total and phosphorylated serine/threonine protein kinase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a potent regulator of messenger RNA translation initiation, was also determined in all groups. Aging was associated with an overall shift toward the expression of a slower MHC phenotype, atrophy of fast and slow fibers, a significant decrease in Vtot/Vsar, and no changes in total fiber number. AA supplementation antagonized the effects of aging. A shift toward the expression of faster MHC isoforms was observed. Fiber atrophy appeared to be partly counteracted by the AA supplements; we noted an increase in cross-sectional area fibers and Vtot/Vsar in EL-AAs. Total and phosphorylated mTOR expression appeared to decrease in EL and was restored by the AA supplements. Collectively, these results suggest that aging-induced muscle adaptations can be partly restored by AA supplementation. An mTOR signal pathway may mediate the effects on fiber trophism.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2008.02.079DOI Listing
June 2008

Structural and functional alterations of muscle fibres in the novel mouse model of facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy.

J Physiol 2007 Nov 13;584(Pt 3):997-1009. Epub 2007 Sep 13.

Department of Experimental Medicine, Human Physiology Unit, University of Pavia, Via Forlanini 6, 27100, Pavia, Italy.

We recently generated a mouse model of facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) by selectively overexpressing FRG1, a candidate gene for FSHD, in skeletal muscle. The muscles of the FRG-1 mice did not show any plasmamembrane defect suggesting a novel pathogenetic mechanism for FSHD. Here, we study structure and function of muscle fibres from three lines of mice overexpressing FRG1 at different levels: FRG1-low, FRG1-med, FRG1-high. Cross-sectional area (CSA), specific force (Po/CSA) and maximum shortening velocity (V(o)) of identified types of muscle fibres from FRG1-low and FRG1-med mice were analysed and found to be lower than in WT mice. Fast fibres and especially type 2B fibres (the fastest type) were preferentially involved in the dystrophic process showing a much larger force deficit than type 1 (slow) fibres. Consistent with the latter observation, the MHC isoform distribution of several muscles of the three FRG1 lines showed a shift towards slower MHC isoforms in comparison to WT muscle. Moreover, fast muscles showed a more evident histological deterioration, a larger atrophy and a higher percentage of centrally nucleated fibres than the soleus, the slowest muscle in mice. Interestingly, loss in CSA, Po/CSA and V(o) of single muscle fibres and MHC isoform shift towards a slower phenotype can be considered early signs of muscular dystrophy (MD). They were, in fact, found also in FRG1-low mice which did not show any impairment of function in vivo and of muscle size in vitro and in soleus muscles, which had a completely preserved morphology. This study provides a detailed characterization of structure and function of muscle fibres in a novel murine model of one of the main human MDs and suggests that fundamental features of the dystrophic process, common to most MDs, such as the intrinsic loss of contractile strength of muscle fibres, the preferential involvement of fast fibres and the shift towards a slow muscle phenotype can occur independently from obvious alterations of the plasma membrane.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.2007.141481DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2277004PMC
November 2007

Skeletal muscle hypertrophy and structure and function of skeletal muscle fibres in male body builders.

J Physiol 2006 Feb 8;570(Pt 3):611-27. Epub 2005 Dec 8.

Department of Experimental Medicine, Human Physiology unit, University of Pavia, Via Forlanini 6, 27100 Pavia, Italy.

Needle biopsy samples were taken from vastus lateralis muscle (VL) of five male body builders (BB, age 27.4+/-0.93 years; mean+/-s.e.m.), who had being performing hypertrophic heavy resistance exercise (HHRE) for at least 2 years, and from five male active, but untrained control subjects (CTRL, age 29.9+/-2.01 years). The following determinations were performed: anatomical cross-sectional area and volume of the quadriceps and VL muscles in vivo by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); myosin heavy chain isoform (MHC) distribution of the whole biopsy samples by SDS-PAGE; cross-sectional area (CSA), force (Po), specific force (Po/CSA) and maximum shortening velocity (Vo) of a large population (n=524) of single skinned muscle fibres classified on the basis of MHC isoform composition by SDS-PAGE; actin sliding velocity (Vf) on pure myosin isoforms by in vitro motility assays. In BB a preferential hypertrophy of fast and especially type 2X fibres was observed. The very large hypertrophy of VL in vivo could not be fully accounted for by single muscle fibre hypertrophy. CSA of VL in vivo was, in fact, 54% larger in BB than in CTRL, whereas mean fibre area was only 14% larger in BB than in CTRL. MHC isoform distribution was shifted towards 2X fibres in BB. Po/CSA was significantly lower in type 1 fibres from BB than in type 1 fibres from CTRL whereas both type 2A and type 2X fibres were significantly stronger in BB than in CTRL. Vo of type 1 fibres and Vf of myosin 1 were significantly lower in BB than in CTRL, whereas no difference was observed among fast fibres and myosin 2A. The findings indicate that skeletal muscle of BB was markedly adapted to HHRE through extreme hypertrophy, a shift towards the stronger and more powerful fibre types and an increase in specific force of muscle fibres. Such adaptations could not be fully accounted for by well known mechanisms of muscle plasticity, i.e. by the hypertrophy of single muscle fibre (quantitative mechanism) and by a regulation of contractile properties of muscle fibres based on MHC isoform content (qualitative mechanism). Two BB subjects took anabolic steroids and three BB subjects did not. The former BB differed from the latter BB mostly for the size of their muscles and muscle fibres.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.2005.101642DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1479884PMC
February 2006

Effects of voluntary wheel running and amino acid supplementation on skeletal muscle of mice.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2005 Mar 25;93(5-6):655-64. Epub 2004 Nov 25.

Department of Experimental Medicine, Human Physiology Unit, University of Pavia, Via Forlanini 6, 27100 Pavia, Italy.

The aims of the present study were as follows: (1) to examine the adaptational changes to chronic endurance voluntary exercise and (2) to investigate the effects of amino acid supplementation on the adaptational changes induced by endurance training in hindlimb (gastrocnemius, tibialis, soleus) and respiratory (diaphragm) muscles of mice. Male C57Bl6 mice were divided in four groups: control sedentary, sedentary supplemented with amino acid mixture (BigOne, 1.5 mg g day(-1) in drinking water for 8 weeks), running (free access to running wheels for 8 weeks), and running supplemented with amino acid mixture. Myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform distribution was determined in all muscles considered. Fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) was measured in the soleus muscle. In all muscles except the tibialis, endurance training was associated with an overall shift towards the expression of slower MHC isoforms. Amino acid supplementation produced a shift towards the expression of faster MHC isoforms in the soleus and diaphragm muscles, and partially antagonized the effects of training. Immunohistochemical analysis of CSA of individual muscle fibers from the soleus muscle suggests that voluntary running produced a decrease in the size of type 1 fibers, and amino acid supplementation during training resulted in an increase in size in both type 1 and type 2A fibers. Collectively, these results suggest that the endurance adaptations induced by voluntary running depend on the muscle type, and that amino acid supplementation is able to modulate both fiber size and MHC isoform composition of skeletal muscles in sedentary and exercised mice.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-004-1237-8DOI Listing
March 2005