Publications by authors named "Lorentz Sandvik"

6 Publications

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Severe Exercise-Induced Laryngeal Obstruction Treated With Supraglottoplasty.

Front Surg 2019 31;6:44. Epub 2019 Jul 31.

Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.

Exercise induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO) is relatively common in adolescents, with symptoms often confused with exercise induced asthma. EILO often starts with medial or inward rotation of supraglottic structures of the larynx, whereas glottic adduction appears as a secondary phenomenon in a majority. Therefore, surgical treatment (supraglottoplasty) is used in thoroughly selected and highly motivated patients with pronounced symptoms and severe supraglottic collapse. To investigate efficacy and safety of laser supraglottoplasty as treatment for severe supraglottic EILO by retrospective chart reviews. The EILO register at Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway was used to identify patients who had undergone laser supraglottoplasty for severe supraglottic EILO, verified by continuous laryngoscopy exercise (CLE) test, during 2013-2015. Laser incision in both aryepiglottic folds anterior to the cuneiform tubercles and removal of the mucosa around the top was performed in general anesthesia. Outcomes were questionnaire based self-reported symptoms, and laryngeal obstruction scored according to a defined scheme during a CLE-test performed before and after surgery. Forty-five of 65 eligible patients, mean age 15.9 years, were included. Post-operatively, 38/45 (84%) patients reported less symptoms, whereas CLE-test scores had improved in all, of whom 16/45 (36%) had no signs of obstruction. Most improvements were at the supraglottic level, but 21/45 (47%) also improved at the glottic level. Two of 65 patients had complications; self-limiting vocal fold paresis and scarring/shortening of plica ary-epiglottica. Supraglottoplasty improves symptoms and decreases laryngeal obstruction in patients with severe supraglottic EILO, and appears safe in highly selected cases.
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July 2019

Acoustic Voice Analysis and Maximum Phonation Time in Relation to Voice Handicap Index Score and Larynx Disease.

J Voice 2020 Jan 6;34(1):161.e27-161.e35. Epub 2018 Aug 6.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway; Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.

Objectives: Patients with voice-related disorders are ideally treated by a multidisciplinary team. Acoustic voice analysis and patient-reported outcome measures are recommended parts of the clinical assessment. The present paper aims at further documenting the importance of acoustic voice analyses, maximum phonation time (MPT) and Voice Handicap Index (VHI) into clinical investigations.

Study Design: The participants (N = 80 larynx cancer, N = 32 recurrent palsy, N = 23 dysfunctional, N = 75 degenerative/inflammation (N = 19 various excluded)) were included consecutively at the outpatient laryngology clinic at Haukeland University Hospital. In addition, a control group of 98 healthy subjects were included.

Method: Voice samples, MPT, and the VHI scores in addition to standard clinical information were obtained. Acoustic analyses were performed from these samples determining level of jitter, shimmer and Noise-to-Harmonic ratio (NHR) as well as analyzing frequency of a prolonged vowel.

Results: Jitter, shimmer, and NHR scores correlated strongly (r ≈ 0.8; P < 0.001) to each other. By Analysis of Variance analyses, we have determined significant dependence on diagnostic group analyzing all the obtained acoustic scores (all P < 0.001). All patient groups but the dysfunctional group scored to some extent worse than the control group (mostly at P < 0.001). In addition, jitter scores from dysfunction group were lower than recurrent palsy group (P < 0.05) and shimmer scores were lower among dysfunctional than the cancer group (P < 0.05). Regarding NHR the cancer patients scored higher than the degenerative/inflammatory group (P < 0.05). The cancer group scored with longer MPT than the degenerative/inflammatory (P < 0.001) and recurrent palsy groups (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: Among larynx disease patients acoustic and MPT analyses segregated with all determined analyses between patients and control conditions except the dysfunctional group, but also to some extent between various patient groups. VHI scores correlated to jitter, shimmer and NHR scores among cancer and degenerative/inflammatory disease patients. Acoustic analyses potentially add information useful to laryngological patient studies.
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January 2020

Health-related Quality of Life as Studied by EORTC QLQ and Voice Handicap Index Among Various Patients With Laryngeal Disease.

J Voice 2017 Mar 9;31(2):251.e17-251.e26. Epub 2016 Aug 9.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway; Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.

Objectives: Patients with voice-related disorders are often treated by a multidisciplinary team including assessment by patient-reported outcome measures. The present paper aims at documenting the importance of including general health-related quality of life (HRQoL) measures to clinical investigations.

Study Design: The participants (N = 80 larynx cancer, N = 32 recurrent palsy, N = 23 dysfunctional, N = 75 degenerative/inflammation, N = 19 various) were included consecutively at the laryngology clinic at Haukeland University Hospital. In addition, HRQoL data were included from one national group with laryngectomies (N = 105), one group with various patients formerly treated for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (N = 96), and one population-based reference group (N = 1956).

Method: Obtained were the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ), the Voice Handicap Index (VHI), and the Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI) neuroticism scores.

Results: By analysis of variance, we have determined significant dependence of groups analyzing the sum global QoL/health index (F = 9.47; P <0.001), the functional HRQoL sum score (F = 7.14, P <0.001), and the symptom sum HRQoL scores (F = 8.13; P <0.001). In particular, patients with recurrent palsy and laryngeal cancer had lowered HRQoL. At the index levels, in particular dyspnea scores, were scored depending on larynx disease group (F = 24.4; P <0.001). The VHI score correlated with the EORTC H&N35 "speech" index with a common variance of 52%. VHI scores correlated with level of neuroticism with 8% common variance (P <0.001) and EORTC scores with 22% (P <0.001).

Conclusion: In particular, among patients with voice-related disease, those with recurrent palsy and laryngeal cancer had lower HRQoL. Furthermore, the HRQoL and VHI scores were inversely tied to neuroticism.
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March 2017

Congenital laryngomalacia is related to exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction in adolescence.

Arch Dis Child 2016 May 23;101(5):443-8. Epub 2016 Feb 23.

Department of Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.

Objectives: Congenital laryngomalacia (CLM) is the major cause of stridor in infants. Most cases are expected to resolve before 2 years of age, but long-term respiratory prospects are poorly described. We aimed to investigate if CLM was associated with altered laryngeal structure or function in later life.

Methods: Twenty of 23 (87%) infants hospitalised at Haukeland University Hospital during 1990-2000 for CLM without comorbidities and matched controls were assessed at mean age 13 years. Past and current respiratory morbidity was recorded in a questionnaire, and spirometry performed according to standard quality criteria. Laryngoscopy was performed at rest and continuously throughout a maximal treadmill exercise test (continuous laryngoscopy exercise test (CLE-test)), and scored and classified in a blinded fashion according to preset criteria.

Results: In the CLM group, laryngeal anatomy supporting CLM in infancy was described at rest in nine (45%) adolescents. Eleven (55%) reported breathing difficulties in relation to exercise, of whom 7 had similarities to CLM at rest and 10 had supraglottic obstruction during CLE-test. Overall, 6/20 had symptoms during exercise and similarities to CLM at rest and obstruction during CLE-test. In the control group, one adolescent reported breathing difficulty during exercise and two had laryngeal obstruction during CLE-test. The two groups differed significantly from each other regarding laryngoscopy scores, obtained at rest and during exercise (p=0.001 or less).

Conclusions: CLM had left footprints that increased the risk of later exercise-induced symptoms and laryngeal obstruction. The findings underline the heterogeneity of childhood respiratory disease and the importance of considering early life factors.
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May 2016

Impact of EMG Changes in Continuous Vagal Nerve Monitoring in High-Risk Endocrine Neck Surgery.

World J Surg 2016 Mar;40(3):672-80

Department of Surgery, Haukeland University Hospital, Jonas Lies vei 65, 5021, Bergen, Norway.

Background: Continuous vagal intraoperative neuromonitoring (CIONM) of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) may reduce the risk of RLN lesions during high-risk endocrine neck surgery such as operation for large goiter potentially requiring transsternal surgery, advanced thyroid cancer, and recurrence.

Methods: Fifty-five consecutive patients (41 female, median age 61 years, 87 nerves at risk) underwent high-risk endocrine neck surgery. CIONM was performed using the commercially available NIM-Response 3.0 nerve monitoring system with automatic periodic stimulation (APS) and matching endotracheal tube electrodes (Medtronic Inc.). All CIONM events (decreased amplitude/increased latency) were recorded.

Results: APS malfunction occurred on three sides (3%). A total of 138 CIONM events were registered on 61 sides. Of 138, 47 (34%) events were assessed as imminent (13 events) or potentially imminent (34 events) lesions, whereas 91 (66%) were classified as artifacts. Loss of signal was observed in seven patients. Actions to restore the CIONM baseline were undertaken in 58/138 (42%) events with a median 60 s required per action. Four RLN palsies (3 transient, 1 permanent) occurred: one in case of CIONM malfunction, two sudden without any significant previous CIONM event, and one without any CIONM event. The APS vagus electrode led to temporary damage to the vagus nerve in two patients.

Conclusions: CIONM may prevent RLN palsies by timely recognition of imminent nerve lesions. In high-risk endocrine neck surgery, CIONM may, however, be limited in its utility by system malfunction, direct harm to the vagus nerve, and particularly, inability to indicate RLN lesions ahead in time.
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March 2016

Left vocal cord paralysis after extreme preterm birth, a new clinical scenario in adults.

Pediatrics 2010 Dec 22;126(6):e1569-77. Epub 2010 Nov 22.

Haukeland University Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, N-5021 Bergen, Norway.

Objective: The goal was to study the incidence and long-term consequences of left vocal cord paralysis (LVCP) after neonatal surgical treatment of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in a population-based cohort of adults who were born at gestational ages of ≤28 weeks or with birth weights of ≤1000 g in western Norway.

Methods: Subjects with a history of neonatal PDA surgery were examined with transnasal flexible laryngoscopy, and those with LVCP were examined with continuous laryngoscopy during maximal treadmill exercise (continuous laryngoscopy exercise testing). All subjects underwent lung function testing, ergospirometry, and pulmonary high-resolution computed tomography. Symptoms were recorded with a questionnaire.

Results: Forty-four (86%) of 51 eligible preterm infants participated in the study, 13 (26%) had a history of PDA surgery and 7 (54%) had LVCP, with the laryngeal appearances varying slightly. As a group, subjects with LVCP had significant airway obstruction, no decreases in aerobic capacity, and no obvious evidence of longstanding aspiration on high-resolution computed tomography scans. The continuous laryngoscopy exercise tests revealed increasing respiratory symptoms in parallel with increasing anteromedial collapse of the left aryepiglottic folds as the exercise load increased. Hoarseness and voice-related symptoms were the most typical complaints. Symptoms were attributed erroneously to other diseases for at least 2 subjects.

Conclusions: LVCP is not uncommon in young adults exposed to PDA surgery as preterm infants. The condition may be overlooked easily, and symptoms may be confused with those of other diseases. Laryngoscopy should be offered on the basis of liberal indications after PDA ligation.
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December 2010