Publications by authors named "Loren C Skow"

15 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Bovine NK-lysin: Copy number variation and functional diversification.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2015 Dec 14;112(52):E7223-9. Epub 2015 Dec 14.

Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843;

NK-lysin is an antimicrobial peptide and effector protein in the host innate immune system. It is coded by a single gene in humans and most other mammalian species. In this study, we provide evidence for the existence of four NK-lysin genes in a repetitive region on cattle chromosome 11. The NK2A, NK2B, and NK2C genes are tandemly arrayed as three copies in ∼30-35-kb segments, located 41.8 kb upstream of NK1. All four genes are functional, albeit with differential tissue expression. NK1, NK2A, and NK2B exhibited the highest expression in intestine Peyer's patch, whereas NK2C was expressed almost exclusively in lung. The four peptide products were synthesized ex vivo, and their antimicrobial effects against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria were confirmed with a bacteria-killing assay. Transmission electron microcopy indicated that bovine NK-lysins exhibited their antimicrobial activities by lytic action in the cell membranes. In summary, the single NK-lysin gene in other mammals has expanded to a four-member gene family by tandem duplications in cattle; all four genes are transcribed, and the synthetic peptides corresponding to the core regions are biologically active and likely contribute to innate immunity in ruminants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1519374113DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4702975PMC
December 2015

A high resolution RH map of the bovine major histocompatibility complex.

BMC Genomics 2009 Apr 24;10:182. Epub 2009 Apr 24.

Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843-4458, USA.

Background: The cattle MHC is termed the bovine leukocyte antigen (BoLA) and, along with the MHCs of other ruminants, is unique in its genomic organization. Consequently, correct and reliable gene maps and sequence information are critical to the study of the BoLA region. The bovine genome sequencing project has produced two assemblies (Btau_3.1 and 4.0) that differ substantially from each other and from conventional gene maps in the BoLA region. To independently compare the accuracies of the different sequence assemblies, we have generated a high resolution map of BoLA using a 12,000rad radiation hybrid panel. Seventy-seven unique sequence tagged site (STS) markers chosen at approximately 50 kb intervals from the Btau 2.0 assembly and spanning the IIa-III-I and IIb regions of the bovine MHC were mapped on a 12,000rad bovine radiation hybrid (RH) panel to evaluate the different assemblies of the bovine genome sequence.

Results: Analysis of the data generated a high resolution RH map of BoLA that was significantly different from the Btau_3.1 assembly of the bovine genome but in good agreement with the Btau_4.0 assembly. Of the few discordancies between the RH map and Btau_4.0, most could be attributed to closely spaced markers that could not be precisely ordered in the RH panel. One probable incorrectly-assembled sequence and three missing sequences were noted in the Btau_4.0 assembly. The RH map of BoLA is also highly concordant with the sequence-based map of HLA (NCBI build 36) when reordered to account for the ancestral inversion in the ruminant MHC.

Conclusion: These results strongly suggest that studies using Btau_3.1 for analyses of the BoLA region should be reevaluated in light of the Btau_4.0 assembly and indicate that additional research is needed to produce a complete assembly of the BoLA genomic sequences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-10-182DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2682492PMC
April 2009

Genome-wide survey of SNP variation uncovers the genetic structure of cattle breeds.

Science 2009 Apr;324(5926):528-32

The imprints of domestication and breed development on the genomes of livestock likely differ from those of companion animals. A deep draft sequence assembly of shotgun reads from a single Hereford female and comparative sequences sampled from six additional breeds were used to develop probes to interrogate 37,470 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 497 cattle from 19 geographically and biologically diverse breeds. These data show that cattle have undergone a rapid recent decrease in effective population size from a very large ancestral population, possibly due to bottlenecks associated with domestication, selection, and breed formation. Domestication and artificial selection appear to have left detectable signatures of selection within the cattle genome, yet the current levels of diversity within breeds are at least as great as exists within humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1167936DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2735092PMC
April 2009

The genome sequence of taurine cattle: a window to ruminant biology and evolution.

Science 2009 Apr;324(5926):522-8

To understand the biology and evolution of ruminants, the cattle genome was sequenced to about sevenfold coverage. The cattle genome contains a minimum of 22,000 genes, with a core set of 14,345 orthologs shared among seven mammalian species of which 1217 are absent or undetected in noneutherian (marsupial or monotreme) genomes. Cattle-specific evolutionary breakpoint regions in chromosomes have a higher density of segmental duplications, enrichment of repetitive elements, and species-specific variations in genes associated with lactation and immune responsiveness. Genes involved in metabolism are generally highly conserved, although five metabolic genes are deleted or extensively diverged from their human orthologs. The cattle genome sequence thus provides a resource for understanding mammalian evolution and accelerating livestock genetic improvement for milk and meat production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1169588DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2943200PMC
April 2009

Gene discovery and comparative analysis of X-degenerate genes from the domestic cat Y chromosome.

Genomics 2008 Nov 28;92(5):329-38. Epub 2008 Aug 28.

Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-4458, USA.

Mammalian sex chromosomes are the remnants of an ancient autosomal pair present in the ancestral mammalian karyotype. As a consequence of random decay and chromosome rearrangements over evolutionary time, Y chromosome gene repertoires differ between eutherian lineages. To investigate the gene repertoire and transcriptional analysis of the domestic cat Y chromosome, and their potential roles in spermatogenesis, we obtained full-length cDNA sequences for all known Y genes and their X chromosome gametologues and used those sequences to create a BAC-based physical map of the X-degenerate region. Our results indicate the domestic cat Y chromosome has retained most X-degenerate genes that were present on the ancestral eutherian Y chromosome. Transcriptional analysis revealed that most feline X-degenerate genes have retained housekeeping functions shared by their X chromosome partners and have not been specialized for testis-specific functions. Physical mapping data indicate that the cat SRY gene is present as multiple functional copies and that very little of the felid Y chromosome may be single copy. X-Y gene divergence time estimates obtained using Bayesian methods confirm an early origin of Stratum 1 genes prior to the origin of therian mammals. We observed no statistical difference in the ages of Stratum 2 and Stratum 3 gene pairs, suggesting that eutherian and marsupial Stratum 2 genes may have been independently retained in each lineage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygeno.2008.06.012DOI Listing
November 2008

A physical map of the bovine genome.

Genome Biol 2007 ;8(8):R165

USDA, ARS, US Meat Animal Research Center, Clay Center, NE 68933, USA.

Background: Cattle are important agriculturally and relevant as a model organism. Previously described genetic and radiation hybrid (RH) maps of the bovine genome have been used to identify genomic regions and genes affecting specific traits. Application of these maps to identify influential genetic polymorphisms will be enhanced by integration with each other and with bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries. The BAC libraries and clone maps are essential for the hybrid clone-by-clone/whole-genome shotgun sequencing approach taken by the bovine genome sequencing project.

Results: A bovine BAC map was constructed with HindIII restriction digest fragments of 290,797 BAC clones from animals of three different breeds. Comparative mapping of 422,522 BAC end sequences assisted with BAC map ordering and assembly. Genotypes and pedigree from two genetic maps and marker scores from three whole-genome RH panels were consolidated on a 17,254-marker composite map. Sequence similarity allowed integrating the BAC and composite maps with the bovine draft assembly (Btau3.1), establishing a comprehensive resource describing the bovine genome. Agreement between the marker and BAC maps and the draft assembly is high, although discrepancies exist. The composite and BAC maps are more similar than either is to the draft assembly.

Conclusion: Further refinement of the maps and greater integration into the genome assembly process may contribute to a high quality assembly. The maps provide resources to associate phenotypic variation with underlying genomic variation, and are crucial resources for understanding the biology underpinning this important ruminant species so closely associated with humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/gb-2007-8-8-r165DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2374996PMC
February 2008

A high-resolution physical map of equine homologs of HSA19 shows divergent evolution compared with other mammals.

Mamm Genome 2005 Aug 14;16(8):631-49. Epub 2005 Sep 14.

Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, 77843, USA.

A high-resolution (1 marker/700 kb) physically ordered radiation hybrid (RH) and comparative map of 122 loci on equine homologs of human Chromosome 19 (HSA19) shows a variant evolution of these segments in equids/Perissodactyls compared with other mammals. The segments include parts of both the long and the short arm of horse Chromosome 7 (ECA7), the proximal part of ECA21, and the entire short arm of ECA10. The map includes 93 new markers, of which 89 (64 gene-specific and 25 microsatellite) were genotyped on a 5000-rad horse x hamster RH panel, and 4 were mapped exclusively by FISH. The orientation and alignment of the map was strengthened by 21 new FISH localizations, of which 15 represent genes. The approximately sevenfold-improved map resolution attained in this study will prove extremely useful for candidate gene discovery in the targeted equine chromosomal regions. The highlight of the comparative map is the fine definition of homology between the four equine chromosomal segments and corresponding HSA19 regions specified by physical coordinates (bp) in the human genome sequence. Of particular interest are the regions on ECA7 and ECA21 that correspond to the short arm of HSA19-a genomic rearrangement discovered to date only in equids/Perissodactyls as evidenced through comparative Zoo-FISH analysis of the evolution of ancestral HSA19 segments in eight mammalian orders involving about 50 species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00335-005-0023-1DOI Listing
August 2005

Dynamics of mammalian chromosome evolution inferred from multispecies comparative maps.

Science 2005 Jul;309(5734):613-7

Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA.

The genome organizations of eight phylogenetically distinct species from five mammalian orders were compared in order to address fundamental questions relating to mammalian chromosomal evolution. Rates of chromosome evolution within mammalian orders were found to increase since the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. Nearly 20% of chromosome breakpoint regions were reused during mammalian evolution; these reuse sites are also enriched for centromeres. Analysis of gene content in and around evolutionary breakpoint regions revealed increased gene density relative to the genome-wide average. We found that segmental duplications populate the majority of primate-specific breakpoints and often flank inverted chromosome segments, implicating their role in chromosomal rearrangement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1111387DOI Listing
July 2005

High-resolution RH map of horse chromosome 22 reveals a putative ancestral vertebrate chromosome.

Genomics 2005 Feb;85(2):188-200

Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA.

High-resolution gene maps of individual equine chromosomes are essential to identify genes governing traits of economic importance in the horse. In pursuit of this goal we herein report the generation of a dense map of horse chromosome 22 (ECA22) comprising 83 markers, of which 52 represent specific genes and 31 are microsatellites. The map spans 831 cR over an estimated 64 Mb of physical length of the chromosome, thus providing markers at approximately 770 kb or 10 cR intervals. Overall, the resolution of the map is to date the densest in the horse and is the highest for any of the domesticated animal species for which annotated sequence data are not yet available. Comparative analysis showed that ECA22 shares remarkable conservation of gene order along the entire length of dog chromosome 24, something not yet found for an autosome in evolutionarily diverged species. Comparison with human, mouse, and rat homologues shows that ECA22 can be traced as two conserved linkage blocks, each related to individual arms of the human homologue-HSA20. Extending the comparison to the chicken genome showed that one of the ECA22 blocks that corresponds to HSA20q shares synteny conservation with chicken chromosome 20, suggesting the segment to be ancestral in mammals and birds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygeno.2004.10.012DOI Listing
February 2005

A detailed physical map of the horse Y chromosome.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2004 Jun 14;101(25):9321-6. Epub 2004 Jun 14.

Department of Veterinary Anatomy and Public Health, Texas A&M University, College Station, 77843, USA.

We herein report a detailed physical map of the horse Y chromosome. The euchromatic region of the chromosome comprises approximately 15 megabases (Mb) of the total 45- to 50-Mb size and lies in the distal one-third of the long arm, where the pseudoautosomal region (PAR) is located terminally. The rest of the chromosome is predominantly heterochromatic. Because of the unusual organization of the chromosome (common to all mammalian Y chromosomes), a number of approaches were used to crossvalidate the results. Analysis of the 5,000-rad horse x hamster radiation hybrid panel produced a map spanning 88 centirays with 8 genes and 15 sequence-tagged site (STS) markers. The map was verified by several fluorescence in situ hybridization approaches. Isolation of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones for the radiation hybrid-mapped markers, end sequencing of the BACs, STS development, and bidirectional chromosome walking yielded 109 markers (100 STS and 9 genes) contained in 73 BACs. STS content mapping grouped the BACs into seven physically ordered contigs (of which one is predominantly ampliconic) that were verified by metaphase-, interphase-, and fiber-fluorescence in situ hybridization and also BAC fingerprinting. The map spans almost the entire euchromatic region of the chromosome, of which 20-25% (approximately 4 Mb) is covered by isolated BACs. The map is presently the most informative among Y chromosome maps in domesticated species, third only to the human and mouse maps. The foundation laid through the map will be critical in obtaining complete sequence of the euchromatic region of the horse Y chromosome, with an aim to identify Y specific factors governing male infertility and phenotypic sex variation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0403011101DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC438975PMC
June 2004

Exceptional conservation of horse-human gene order on X chromosome revealed by high-resolution radiation hybrid mapping.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2004 Feb;101(8):2386-91

Department of Veterinary Anatomy and Public Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA.

Development of a dense map of the horse genome is key to efforts aimed at identifying genes controlling health, reproduction, and performance. We herein report a high-resolution gene map of the horse (Equus caballus) X chromosome (ECAX) generated by developing and typing 116 gene-specific and 12 short tandem repeat markers on the 5,000-rad horse x hamster whole-genome radiation hybrid panel and mapping 29 gene loci by fluorescence in situ hybridization. The human X chromosome sequence was used as a template to select genes at 1-Mb intervals to develop equine orthologs. Coupled with our previous data, the new map comprises a total of 175 markers (139 genes and 36 short tandem repeats, of which 53 are fluorescence in situ hybridization mapped) distributed on average at approximately 880-kb intervals along the chromosome. This is the densest and most uniformly distributed chromosomal map presently available in any mammalian species other than humans and rodents. Comparison of the horse and human X chromosome maps shows remarkable conservation of gene order along the entire span of the chromosomes, including the location of the centromere. An overview of the status of the horse map in relation to mouse, livestock, and companion animal species is also provided. The map will be instrumental for analysis of X linked health and fertility traits in horses by facilitating identification of targeted chromosomal regions for isolation of polymorphic markers, building bacterial artificial chromosome contigs, or sequencing.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC356960PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0308513100DOI Listing
February 2004

A 1.4-Mb interval RH map of horse chromosome 17 provides detailed comparison with human and mouse homologues.

Genomics 2004 Feb;83(2):203-15

Department of Veterinary Anatomy & Public Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA.

Comparative genomics has served as a backbone for the rapid development of gene maps in domesticated animals. The integration of this approach with radiation hybrid (RH) analysis provides one of the most direct ways to obtain physically ordered comparative maps across evolutionarily diverged species. We herein report the development of a detailed RH and comparative map for horse chromosome 17 (ECA17). With markers distributed at an average interval of every 1.4 Mb, the map is currently the most informative among the equine chromosomes. It comprises 75 markers (56 genes and 19 microsatellites), of which 50 gene specific and 5 microsatellite markers were generated in this study and typed to our 5000-rad horse x hamster whole genome RH panel. The markers are dispersed over six RH linkage groups and span 825 cR(5000). The map is among the most comprehensive whole chromosome comparative maps currently available for domesticated animals. It finely aligns ECA17 to human and mouse homologues (HSA13 and MMU1, 3, 5, 8, and 14, respectively) and homologues in other domesticated animals. Comparisons provide insight into their relative organization and help to identify evolutionarily conserved segments. The new ECA17 map will serve as a template for the development of clusters of BAC contigs in regions containing genes of interest. Sequencing of these regions will help to initiate studies aimed at understanding the molecular mechanisms for various diseases and inherited disorders in horse as well as human.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygeno.2003.07.002DOI Listing
February 2004

The first-generation whole-genome radiation hybrid map in the horse identifies conserved segments in human and mouse genomes.

Genome Res 2003 Apr;13(4):742-51

Department of Veterinary Anatomy and Public Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843, USA.

A first-generation radiation hybrid (RH) map of the equine (Equus caballus) genome was assembled using 92 horse x hamster hybrid cell lines and 730 equine markers. The map is the first comprehensive framework map of the horse that (1) incorporates type I as well as type II markers, (2) integrates synteny, cytogenetic, and meiotic maps into a consensus map, and (3) provides the most detailed genome-wide information to date on the organization and comparative status of the equine genome. The 730 loci (258 type I and 472 type II) included in the final map are clustered in 101 RH groups distributed over all equine autosomes and the X chromosome. The overall marker retention frequency in the panel is approximately 21%, and the possibility of adding any new marker to the map is approximately 90%. On average, the mapped markers are distributed every 19 cR (4 Mb) of the equine genome--a significant improvement in resolution over previous maps. With 69 new FISH assignments, a total of 253 cytogenetically mapped loci physically anchor the RH map to various chromosomal segments. Synteny assignments of 39 gene loci complemented the RH mapping of 27 genes. The results added 12 new loci to the horse gene map. Lastly, comparison of the assembly of 447 equine genes (256 linearly ordered RH-mapped and additional 191 FISH-mapped) with the location of draft sequences of their human and mouse orthologs provides the most extensive horse-human and horse-mouse comparative map to date. We expect that the foundation established through this map will significantly facilitate rapid targeted expansion of the horse gene map and consequently, mapping and positional cloning of genes governing traits significant to the equine industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/gr.917503DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC430160PMC
April 2003

Construction of a 5000(rad) whole-genome radiation hybrid panel in the horse and generation of a comprehensive and comparative map for ECA11.

Mamm Genome 2002 Feb;13(2):89-94

Division of Animal Genetics, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Grønnegårdsvej 3, 1870, Frederiksberg, Denmark.

A 5000(rad) whole-genome radiation hybrid (RH) panel was created for the horse. The usefulness of the panel for generating physically ordered maps of individual equine chromosomes was tested by typing 24 markers on horse Chromosome 11 (ECA11). The overall retention of markers on this chromosome was 43.6%. Almost complete retention of two of the typed markers--- CA062 and AHT44---clearly indicated the location of thymidine kinase gene on the short arm of ECA11. Seven of the typed markers were FISH mapped to align the RH and cytogenetic maps. With the RH-MAPPER approach, a physically ordered map comprising four linkage groups and incorporating all the markers was obtained. The study provides the first comprehensive map for a horse chromosome that integrates all available mapping data and adds new information that spans the entire length of the equine chromosome. The map clearly underlines the resolving power and utility of the panel and emphasizes the need to have uniformly distributed cytogenetic markers for appropriate alignment of RH map with the chromosome. A comparative status of the ECA11 map in relation to the corresponding human/mouse chromosome is presented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00335-001-2089-8DOI Listing
February 2002

Conservation of gene order between horse and human X chromosomes as evidenced through radiation hybrid mapping.

Genomics 2002 Mar;79(3):451-7

Department of Veterinary Anatomy, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843, USA.

A radiation hybrid (RH) map of the equine X chromosome (ECAX) was obtained using the recently produced 5000(rad) horse x hamster hybrid panel. The map comprises 34 markers (16 genes and 18 microsatellites) and spans a total of 676 cR(5000), covering almost the entire length of ECAX. Cytogenetic alignment of the RH map was improved by fluorescent in situ hybridization mapping of six of the markers. The map integrates and refines the currently available genetic linkage, syntenic, and cytogenetic maps, and adds new loci. Comparison of the physical location of the 16 genes mapped in this study with the human genome reveals similarity in the order of the genes along the entire length of the two X chromosomes. This degree of gene order conservation across evolutionarily distantly related species has up to now been reported only between human and cat. The ECAX RH map provides a framework for the generation of a high-density map for this chromosome. The map will serve as an important tool for positional cloning of X-linked diseases/conditions in the horse.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/geno.2002.6723DOI Listing
March 2002
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