Publications by authors named "Longxian Lv"

57 Publications

Distinct Microbiomes of Gut and Saliva in Patients With Systemic Lupus Erythematous and Clinical Associations.

Front Immunol 2021 1;12:626217. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Urology, Affiliated Wuxi No. 2 Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Wuxi, China.

Alterations in the microbiome of the gut and oral cavity are involved in the etiopathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We aimed to assess whether both microbiome compositions in feces and saliva were specific in patients with SLE. A total of 35 patients with SLE, as well as sex- and age-matched asymptomatic subjects as healthy control (HC) group were recruited. Fecal swabs and saliva samples were collected from the participants. 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing was performed on the samples. Compared with the HC group, reduced bacterial richness and diversity were detected in the feces of patients with SLE, and increased bacterial diversity in their saliva. Both feces and saliva samples explained the cohort variation. The feces were characterized by enrichment of , and depletion of an unclassified bacterium in the Ruminococcaceae family and . Lack of was observed in patients with arthritis. and negatively correlated with the serum levels of C3. In saliva, , , and were dominant, and was negatively associated with disease activity. These findings can assist us to comprehensively understand the bacterial profiles of different body niches in SLE patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.626217DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8281017PMC
July 2021

Mechanism of the Immunomodulatory Effect of the Combination of Live , , , and on Immunocompromised Rats.

Front Immunol 2021 15;12:694344. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

State Key Laboratory for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Infectious Diseases, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Immunodeficiency is a very common condition in suboptimal health status and during the development or treatment of many diseases. Recently, probiotics have become an important means for immune regulation. The present study aimed to investigate the mechanism of the immunomodulatory effect of a combination of live , , , and (CBLEB), which is a drug used by approximately 10 million patients every year, on cyclophosphamide-immunosuppressed rats. Cyclophosphamide (40 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally injected to induce immunosuppression in a rat model on days 1, 2, 3, and 10. Starting from day 4, the rats were continuously gavaged with CBLEB solution for 15 days. The samples were collected to determine routine blood test parameters, liver and kidney functions, serum cytokine levels, gut microbiota, fecal and serum metabolomes, transcriptomes, and histopathological features. The results indicated that CBLEB treatment reduced cyclophosphamide-induced death, weight loss, and damage to the gut, liver, spleen, and lungs and eliminated a cyclophosphamide-induced increase in the mean hemoglobin content and GGT, M-CSF, and MIP-3α levels and a decrease in the red blood cell distribution width and total protein and creatinine levels in the blood. Additionally, CBLEB corrected cyclophosphamide-induced dysbiosis of the gut microbiota and eliminated all cyclophosphamide-induced alterations at the phylum level in rat feces, including the enrichment in Proteobacteria, Fusobacteriota, and Actinobacteriota and depletion of Spirochaetota and Cyanobacteria. Furthermore, CBLEB treatment alleviated cyclophosphamide-induced alterations in the whole fecal metabolome profile, including enrichment in 1-heptadecanol, succinic acid, hexadecane-1,2-diol, nonadecanoic acid, and pentadecanoic acid and depletion of benzenepropanoic acid and hexane. CBLEB treatment also alleviated cyclophosphamide-induced enrichment in serum D-lyxose and depletion of serum succinic acid, D-galactose, L-5-oxoproline, L-alanine, and malic acid. The results of transcriptome analysis indicated that the mechanism of the effect of CBLEB was related to the induction of recovery of cyclophosphamide-altered carbohydrate metabolism and signal transduction. In conclusion, the present study provides an experimental basis and comprehensive analysis of application of CBLEB for the treatment of immunodeficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.694344DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8239396PMC
June 2021

Ganoderma lucidum promotes sleep through a gut microbiota-dependent and serotonin-involved pathway in mice.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 1;11(1):13660. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China.

Ganoderma lucidum is a medicinal mushroom used in traditional Chinese medicine with putative tranquilizing effects. However, the component of G. lucidum that promotes sleep has not been clearly identified. Here, the effect and mechanism of the acidic part of the alcohol extract of G. lucidum mycelia (GLAA) on sleep were studied in mice. Administration of 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg GLAA for 28 days promoted sleep in pentobarbital-treated mice by shortening sleep latency and prolonging sleeping time. GLAA administration increased the levels of the sleep-promoting neurotransmitter 5-hydroxytryptamine and the Tph2, Iptr3 and Gng13 transcripts in the sleep-regulating serotonergic synapse pathway in the hypothalamus during this process. Moreover, GLAA administration reduced lipopolysaccharide and raised peptidoglycan levels in serum. GLAA-enriched gut bacteria and metabolites, including Bifidobacterium, Bifidobacterium animalis, indole-3-carboxylic acid and acetylphosphate were negatively correlated with sleep latency and positively correlated with sleeping time and the hypothalamus 5-hydroxytryptamine concentration. Both the GLAA sleep promotion effect and the altered faecal metabolites correlated with sleep behaviours disappeared after gut microbiota depletion with antibiotics. Our results showed that GLAA promotes sleep through a gut microbiota-dependent and serotonin-associated pathway in mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-92913-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8249598PMC
July 2021

Enzymatic Tailoring in Luzopeptin Biosynthesis Involves Cytochrome P450-Mediated Carbon-Nitrogen Bond Desaturation for Hydrazone Formation.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Jun 27. Epub 2021 Jun 27.

Zhejiang University, School of Medicine, Room 118, Experimental Biology Center, Zijingang Campus, Zhejiang University, 866# Yuhangtang Rd, 310058, Hangzhou, CHINA.

Luzopeptins and related decadepsipeptides are bisintercalator nonribosomal peptides featuring rare acyl-substituted tetrahydropyridazine-3-carboxylic acid (Thp) subunits that are critical to their biological activities. Herein, we reconstitute the biosynthetic tailoring pathway in luzopeptin A biosynthesis through in vivo genetic and in vitro biochemical approaches. Significantly, we revealed a multitasking cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes four consecutive oxidations including the highly unusual carbon-nitrogen bond desaturation, forming the hydrazone-bearing 4-OH-Thp residues. Moreover, we identified a membrane-bound acyltransferase that likely mediates the subsequent O -acetylations extracellularly, as a potential self-protective strategy for the producer strain. Further genome mining of novel decadepsipeptides and an associated P450 enzyme have provided mechanistic insights into the P450-mediated carbon-nitrogen bond desaturation. Our results not only reveal the molecular basis of pharmacophore formation in bisintercalator decadepsipeptides, but also expand the catalytic versatility of P450 family enzymes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202105312DOI Listing
June 2021

The Salivary Microbiota, Cytokines, and Metabolome in Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis Are Altered and More Proinflammatory than Those in Healthy Controls.

mSystems 2021 Jun 22;6(3):e0117320. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Infectious Diseases, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang Universitygrid.13402.34, Hangzhou, China.

The pathogenesis of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) remains unclear but appears to be associated with heredity and the environment. The mouth links the external environment to the gut and lungs. In the present study, compared to that observed in healthy controls (HCs), AS saliva was depleted of Bacilli such as Streptococcus, enriched with Clostridia such as , and enriched with opportunistic pathogens from such as Brucella spp. and Campylobacter concisus. AS saliva was enriched with 16 cytokines related to inflammation, such as soluble IL-6 receptor α (sIL-6Rα), interleukin 2 (IL-2), IL-10, IL-11, IL-12p40, IL-12p70, IL-20, IL-26, IL-27, IL-28A, IL-29, alpha 2 interferon (IFN-α2), IFN-β, and matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP-3). AS saliva was also enriched with hazardous compounds, such as cadaverine and putrescine. AS-altered salivary bacteria, compounds, and cytokines are closely linked with disease indicators. Oral cleaning reduced the levels of proinflammatory cytokines and hazardous compounds in AS saliva compared with HC saliva. AS saliva induced the production of more proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-12p70 and IL-8, by THP-1 monocyte-derived macrophages, than did HC saliva. The results highlight the importance of salivary microbes, cytokines, and compounds in the development and treatment of AS and provide new ideas for the pathogenesis and treatment of AS. Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) affects as much as 0.32% of the population in some districts and causes work disability in one-third of these patients. Microbes are considered to play important roles in AS pathogenesis, and the mouth links the environment to the lungs and the gut. Our results showed that opportunistic pathogens such as Brucella and Campylobacter are enriched in the saliva of AS patients with ankylosing spondylitis. In addition, proinflammatory cytokines and hazardous materials such as putrescine were also enriched in the saliva of AS patients.[AQ1 sentence edit] Interestingly, the opportunistic pathogens and hazardous materials detected in the saliva of AS patients were associated with disease indexes. The saliva of AS patients was shown to induce immune cells to secrete proinflammatory cytokines . Reducing the levels of salivary microbes can significantly reduce the hazardous materials present in the saliva of AS patients. Our results provide a new perspective on the potential role of salivary microbes, cytokines, and hazardous compounds in the pathogenesis and treatment of AS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mSystems.01173-20DOI Listing
June 2021

LA14 Alleviates Liver Injury.

mSystems 2021 Jun 15;6(3):e0038421. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Key Laboratory of Nutrition of Zhejiang Province, Institute of Health Food, Hangzhou Medical College, Hangzhou, China.

Although the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus LA14 is used worldwide, its effect on liver diseases remains unelucidated. Here, 32 rats were divided into four groups, gavaged with L. acidophilus LA14 (3 × 10 CFU) or phosphate-buffered saline for 7 days, and then intraperitoneally injected with d-galactosamine or saline. After 24 h, blood, liver, ileum, and feces samples were collected for liver injury, inflammation, intestinal barrier, gut microbiota, metabolome, and transcriptome analyses. Pretreatment with L. acidophilus LA14 alleviated the d-galactosamine-induced elevation of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and bile acids; mitigated the histological injury to the liver and gut; and suppressed the inflammatory cytokines macrophage inflammatory protein 1α (MIP-1α), MIP-3α, and MCP-1. L. acidophilus LA14 also ameliorated the d-galactosamine-induced dysbiosis of the gut microbiota and metabolism, such as the enrichment of sp. strain dnLKV3 and the depletion of Streptococcus, butanoic acid, and acetyl-d-glucosamine. The underlying mechanism of L. acidophilus LA14 included prevention of not only the d-galactosamine-induced upregulation of infection- and tumor-related pathways but also the d-galactosamine-induced downregulation of antioxidation-related pathways during this process, as reflected by the liver transcriptome and proteome analyses. Furthermore, the administration of L. acidophilus LA14 to healthy rats did not alter the tested liver indicators but significantly enriched the beneficial and species, promoted metabolism and regulated pathways to improve immunity. The ability of L. acidophilus LA14 to alleviate liver injury was further confirmed with an acetaminophen-induced mouse model. These results might provide a reference for future studies on the application of L. acidophilus LA14 for the prevention of liver injury. The probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus LA14 is widely used, but its effect on liver diseases has not been elucidated. We explored the protective effect of L. acidophilus LA14 on the liver using rats with d-galactosamine-induced liver injury. Pretreatment with L. acidophilus LA14 alleviated the d-galactosamine-induced elevation of serum ALT, AST, ALP, and bile acids, mitigated the histological injury to the liver and gut, and suppressed the inflammatory cytokines MIP-1α, MIP-3α, and MCP-1. These effects were correlated with the modulations of the gut microbiome, metabolome, and hepatic gene expression induced by L. acidophilus LA14. Moreover, the ability of L. acidophilus LA14 to alleviate liver injury was further confirmed with an acetaminophen-induced mouse model. These results might provide a reference for future studies on the application of L. acidophilus LA14 for the prevention of liver injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mSystems.00384-21DOI Listing
June 2021

Effects of Pediococcus pentosaceus LI05 on immunity and metabolism in germ-free rats.

Food Funct 2021 Jun 7;12(11):5077-5086. Epub 2021 May 7.

State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Infectious Diseases and Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Many Pediococcus spp. have health-promoting benefits, and Pediococcus pentosaceus LI05 is one such species that was proved to be beneficial in previous studies. Our research aimed to determine the immune and metabolic effects of P. pentosaceus LI05 on germ-free rats. Germ-free rats were gavaged with P. pentosaceus LI05 suspensions (1 × 10 CFU) for 2 weeks, and 3 weeks later, blood, spleen, intestine and liver samples were gathered for metabolome, intestine morphology, immunity, and transcriptomics analyses. Oral gavage of P. pentosaceus LI05 reduced the bodyweight of rats, which manifested as increased fecal carbohydrate concentrations, decreased intestinal fat intake and the hepatic fat synthesis gene expression, and accelerated fat-to-glycogen conversion. In addition, P. pentosaceus LI05 exhibited an anti-inflammatory ability, reducing serum proinflammatory cytokine levels and increasing intestinal subepidermal CD4 cell levels. Furthermore, administration of P. pentosaceus LI05 increased the antimicrobial ability and enhanced the liver detoxification function. These results indicate that as a probiotic, P. pentosaceus LI05 ameliorates the hampered immune response of GF animals and improves the metabolism of fat and toxic substances.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0fo02530eDOI Listing
June 2021

Gut mycobiota alterations in patients with COVID-19 and H1N1 infections and their associations with clinical features.

Commun Biol 2021 04 13;4(1):480. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

State Key Laboratory for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Infectious Diseases, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

The relationship between gut microbes and COVID-19 or H1N1 infections is not fully understood. Here, we compared the gut mycobiota of 67 COVID-19 patients, 35 H1N1-infected patients and 48 healthy controls (HCs) using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 3-ITS4 sequencing and analysed their associations with clinical features and the bacterial microbiota. Compared to HCs, the fungal burden was higher. Fungal mycobiota dysbiosis in both COVID-19 and H1N1-infected patients was mainly characterized by the depletion of fungi such as Aspergillus and Penicillium, but several fungi, including Candida glabrata, were enriched in H1N1-infected patients. The gut mycobiota profiles in COVID-19 patients with mild and severe symptoms were similar. Hospitalization had no apparent additional effects. In COVID-19 patients, Mucoromycota was positively correlated with Fusicatenibacter, Aspergillus niger was positively correlated with diarrhoea, and Penicillium citrinum was negatively correlated with C-reactive protein (CRP). In H1N1-infected patients, Aspergillus penicilloides was positively correlated with Lachnospiraceae members, Aspergillus was positively correlated with CRP, and Mucoromycota was negatively correlated with procalcitonin. Therefore, gut mycobiota dysbiosis occurs in both COVID-19 patients and H1N1-infected patients and does not improve until the patients are discharged and no longer require medical attention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s42003-021-02036-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8044104PMC
April 2021

Six-month follow-up of gut microbiota richness in patients with COVID-19.

Gut 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseasesm, National Clinical Research Center for Infectious Diseases, Zhejiang University School of Medicine First Affiliated Hospital, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2021-324090DOI Listing
April 2021

Probiotic Gastrointestinal Transit and Colonization After Oral Administration: A Long Journey.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 10;11:609722. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Infectious Diseases, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.

Orally administered probiotics encounter various challenges on their journey through the mouth, stomach, intestine and colon. The health benefits of probiotics are diminished mainly due to the substantial reduction of viable probiotic bacteria under the harsh conditions in the gastrointestinal tract and the colonization resistance caused by commensal bacteria. In this review, we illustrate the factors affecting probiotic viability and their mucoadhesive properties through their journey in the gastrointestinal tract, including a discussion on various mucosadhesion-related proteins on the probiotic cell surface which facilitate colonization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2021.609722DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8006270PMC
June 2021

The serum metabolome of COVID-19 patients is distinctive and predictive.

Metabolism 2021 05 2;118:154739. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Infectious Diseases, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310003, China. Electronic address:

Background: Metabolism is critical for sustaining life, immunity and infection, but its role in COVID-19 is not fully understood.

Methods: Seventy-nine COVID-19 patients, 78 healthy controls (HCs) and 30 COVID-19-like patients were recruited in a prospective cohort study. Samples were collected from COVID-19 patients with mild or severe symptoms on admission, patients who progressed from mild to severe symptoms, and patients who were followed from hospital admission to discharge. The metabolome was assayed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

Results: Serum butyric acid, 2-hydroxybutyric acid, l-glutamic acid, l-phenylalanine, l-serine, l-lactic acid, and cholesterol were enriched in COVID-19 and COVID-19-like patients versus HCs. Notably, d-fructose and succinic acid were enriched, and citric acid and 2-palmitoyl-glycerol were depleted in COVID-19 patients compared to COVID-19-like patients and HCs, and these four metabolites were not differentially distributed in non-COVID-19 groups. COVID-19 patients had enriched 4-deoxythreonic acid and depleted 1,5-anhydroglucitol compared to HCs and enriched oxalic acid and depleted phosphoric acid compared to COVID-19-like patients. A combination of d-fructose, citric acid and 2-palmitoyl-glycerol distinguished COVID-19 patients from HCs and COVID-19-like patients, with an area under the curve (AUC) > 0.92 after validation. The combination of 2-hydroxy-3-methylbutyric acid, 3-hydroxybutyric acid, cholesterol, succinic acid, L-ornithine, oleic acid and palmitelaidic acid predicted patients who progressed from mild to severe COVID-19, with an AUC of 0.969. After discharge, nearly one-third of metabolites were recovered in COVID-19 patients.

Conclusions: The serum metabolome of COVID-19 patients is distinctive and has important value in investigating pathogenesis, determining a diagnosis, predicting severe cases, and improving treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.metabol.2021.154739DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7920809PMC
May 2021

The faecal metabolome in COVID-19 patients is altered and associated with clinical features and gut microbes.

Anal Chim Acta 2021 Apr 31;1152:338267. Epub 2021 Jan 31.

State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Infectious Diseases, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, 310003, Hangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Although SARS-CoV-2 can invade the intestine, though its effect on digestion and absorption is not fully understood. In the present study, 56 COVID-19 patients and 47 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects were divided into a discovery cohort and a validation cohort. Blood, faeces and clinical information were collected from the patients in the hospital and at discharge. The faecal metabolome was analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and Spearman's correlation analyses of clinical features, the serum metabolome, and the faecal micro- and mycobiota were conducted. The results showed that, the faeces of COVID-19 patients were enriched with important nutrients that should be metabolized or absorbed, such as sucrose and 2-palmitoyl-glycerol; diet-related components that cannot be synthesized by humans, such as 1,5-anhydroglucitol and D-pinitol; and harmful metabolites, such as oxalate, were also detected. In contrast, purine metabolites such as deoxyinosine and hypoxanthine, low-water-soluble long-chain fatty alcohols/acids such as behenic acid, compounds rarely occurring in nature such as D-allose and D-arabinose, and microbe-related compounds such as 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol were depleted in the faeces of COVID-19 patients. Moreover, these metabolites significantly correlated with altered serum metabolites such as oxalate and gut microbesincluding Ruminococcaceae, Actinomyces, Sphingomonas and Aspergillus. Although levels of several faecal metabolites, such as sucrose, 1,5-anhydroglucitol and D-pinitol, of discharged patients were not different from those of healthy controls (HCs), those of oxalate and 2-palmitoyl-glycerol did differ. Therefore, alterations in the faecal metabolome of COVID-19 patients may reflect malnutrition and intestinal inflammation and warrant greater attention. The results of present study provide new insights into the pathogenesis and treatment of COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2021.338267DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7847702PMC
April 2021

Characteristic gut microbiota and metabolic changes in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis.

Microb Biotechnol 2021 Feb 18. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, National Clinical Research Centre for Infectious Diseases, Collaborative Innovation Centre for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital,Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, 310003, China.

Intestinal flora provides an important contribution to the development of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). We performed a cross-sectional study in 52 healthy controls (HCs) and 83 patients with untreated active PTB to assess the differences in their microbiomic and metabolic profiles in faeces via V3-V4 16S rRNA gene sequencing and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Patients with PTB had considerable reductions in phylogenetic alpha diversity and the production of short-chain fatty acids, dysbiosis of the intestinal flora and alterations in the faecal metabolomics composition compared with HCs. Significant alterations in faecal metabolites were associated with changes in the relative abundance of specific genera. Our study describes the imbalance of the gut microbiota and altered faecal metabolomics profiles in patients with PTB; the results indicate that the gut microbiota and faecal metabolomic profiles can be used as potential preventive and therapeutic targets for PTB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1751-7915.13761DOI Listing
February 2021

Pediococcus pentosaceus, a future additive or probiotic candidate.

Microb Cell Fact 2021 Feb 16;20(1):45. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Infectious Diseases and Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, the First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Background: Pediococcus pentosaceus, a promising strain of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), is gradually attracting attention, leading to a rapid increase in experimental research. Due to increased demand for practical applications of microbes, the functional and harmless P. pentosaceus might be a worthwhile LAB strain for both the food industry and biological applications.

Results: As an additive, P. pentosaceus improves the taste and nutrition of food, as well as the storage of animal products. Moreover, the antimicrobial abilities of Pediococcus strains are being highlighted. Evidence suggests that bacteriocins or bacteriocin-like substances (BLISs) produced by P. pentosaceus play effective antibacterial roles in the microbial ecosystem. In addition, various strains of P. pentosaceus have been highlighted for probiotic use due to their anti-inflammation, anticancer, antioxidant, detoxification, and lipid-lowering abilities.

Conclusions: Therefore, it is necessary to continue studying P. pentosaceus for further use. Thorough study of several P. pentosaceus strains should clarify the benefits and drawbacks in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12934-021-01537-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7885583PMC
February 2021

Modulation of the immune response and metabolism in germ-free rats colonized by the probiotic Lactobacillus salivarius LI01.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 Feb 19;105(4):1629-1645. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis, National Clinical Research Center for Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

The gut microbiota plays an important role in multifaceted physiological functions in the host. Previous studies have assessed the probiotic effects of Lactobacillus salivarius LI01. In this study, we aimed to investigate the potential effects and putative mechanism of L. salivarius LI01 in immune modulation and metabolic regulation through the monocolonization of germ-free (GF) Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with L. salivarius LI01. The GF rats were separated into two groups and administered a gavage of L. salivarius LI01 or an equal amount of phosphate-buffered saline. The levels of serum biomarkers, such as interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-5, and IL-10, were restored by L. salivarius LI01, which indicated the activation of Th0 cell differentiation toward immune homeostasis. L. salivarius LI01 also stimulated the immune response and metabolic process by altering transcriptional expression in the ileum and liver. A Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis revealed significant enrichment of the 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway, which indicated that L. salivarius LI01 exerts an effect on energy accumulation. The LI01 group showed alterations in fecal carbohydrates accompanied by an increased body weight gain. In addition, L. salivarius LI01 produced indole-3-lactic acid (ILA) and enhanced arginine metabolism by rebalancing the interconversion between arginine and proline. These findings provide evidence showing that L. salivarius LI01 can directly impact the host by modulating immunity and metabolism. KEY POINTS : • Lactobacillus salivarius LI01 conventionalizes the cytokine profile and activates the immune response. • LI01 modulates carbohydrate metabolism and arginine transaction. • LI01 generates tryptophan-derived indole-3-lactic acid. • The cytochrome P450 family contributes to the response to altered metabolites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-021-11099-zDOI Listing
February 2021

Probiotic Lactobacillus casei Shirota prevents acute liver injury by reshaping the gut microbiota to alleviate excessive inflammation and metabolic disorders.

Microb Biotechnol 2021 Jan 25. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Infectious Diseases, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310003, China.

Millions of people die from liver diseases annually, and liver failure is one of the three major outcomes of liver disease. The gut microbiota plays a crucial role in liver diseases. This study aimed to explore the effects of Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (LcS), a probiotics used widely around the world, on acute liver injury (ALI), as well as the underlying mechanism. Sprague Dawley rats were intragastrically administered LcS suspensions or placebo once daily for 7 days before induction of ALI by intraperitoneal injection of D-galactosamine (D-GalN). Histopathological examination and assessments of liver biochemical markers, inflammatory cytokines, and the gut microbiota, metabolome and transcriptome were conducted. Our results showed that pretreatment with LcS reduced hepatic and intestinal damage and reduced the elevation of serum gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT), total bile acids, IL-5, IL-10, G-CSF and RANTES. The analysis of the gut microbiota, metabolome and transcriptome showed that LcS lowered the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes; reduced the enrichment of metabolites such as chenodeoxycholic acid, deoxycholic acid, lithocholic acid, d-talose and N-acetyl-glucosamine, reduce the depletion of d-glucose and l-methionine; and alleviated the downregulation of retinol metabolism and PPAR signalling and the upregulation of the pyruvate metabolism pathway in the liver. These results indicate the promising prospect of using LcS for the treatment of liver diseases, particularly ALI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1751-7915.13750DOI Listing
January 2021

Promising long noncoding RNA DLX6-AS1 in malignant tumors.

Am J Transl Res 2020 15;12(12):7682-7692. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Infectious Diseases, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University Hangzhou 310003, China.

Although its diagnosis and treatment have greatly improved in recent decades, cancer remains the major cause of death worldwide. Thus, there is an urgent need to find novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets to improve efficiency of diagnosis and treatment of patients with cancer. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), a new class of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), have been found to play a salient role in human tumorigenesis and progression. Distal-less homeobox 6 antisense RNA 1 (DLX6-AS1) is a novel lncRNA with aberrant expression in various cancers tissues and cell lines compared with nontumor tissues and normal cell lines. Importantly, DLX6-AS1 is closely associated with tumor cell proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, and migration. Patients with high DLX6-AS1 expression often had poorer prognosis than those with low expression. The oncogenicity of DLX6-AS1 mainly (indirectly or indirectly) interacts with targeting genes, and then regulates downstream genes and signaling pathways. Together with the findings of animal model studies, these data suggest that DLX6-AS1 may serve as a feasible predictor or therapeutic target in different cancers. Herein, we summarize the main findings concerning the function and molecular mechanisms of DLX6-AS1 to identify a molecular basis for future clinical application.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7791511PMC
December 2020

Comparative Genomic Analyses Reveal a Specific Mutation Pattern Between Human Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 and Bat-CoV RaTG13.

Front Microbiol 2020 30;11:584717. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Department of Biological Engineering, School of Food Science and Biotechnology, Zhejiang Gongshang Univeristy, Hangzhou, China.

Background: The outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in Wuhan, China, rapidly grew into a global pandemic. How SARS-CoV-2 evolved remains unclear.

Methods: We performed a comprehensive analysis using the available genomes of SARS-CoV-2 and its closely related coronaviruses.

Results: The ratio of nucleotide substitutions to amino acid substitutions of the spike gene (9.07) between SARS-CoV-2 WIV04 and Bat-CoV RaTG13 was markedly higher than that between other coronaviruses (range, 1.29-4.81); the ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous substitution rates (dN/dS) between SARS-CoV-2 WIV04 and Bat-CoV RaTG13 was the lowest among all the performed comparisons, suggesting evolution under stringent selective pressure. Notably, the relative proportion of the T:C transition was markedly higher between SARS-CoV-2 WIV04 and Bat-CoV RaTG13 than between other compared coronaviruses. Codon usage is similar across these coronaviruses and is unlikely to explain the increased number of synonymous mutations. Moreover, some sites of the spike protein might be subjected to positive selection.

Conclusions: Our results showed an increased proportion of synonymous substitutions and the T:C transition between SARS-CoV-2 and RaTG13. Further investigation of the mutation pattern mechanism would contribute to understanding viral pathogenicity and its adaptation to hosts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.584717DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7793997PMC
November 2020

Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 alleviates d-galactosamine-induced liver failure in rats.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Jan 14;133:111000. Epub 2020 Nov 14.

State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Infectious Diseases, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, 310003, Hangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Liver failure is a serious hepatic dysfunction with high mortality. This work aimed to investigate the effect of a famous probiotic and drug, Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938, on liver failure in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were gavaged with 3 × 10 CFU of DSM 17938 for 7 days. d-galactosamine was intraperitoneally injected to induce acute liver failure on the eighth day. Samples were collected to determine the liver function, serum cytokines levels, terminal ileum and liver histology, gut microbiota, metabolome and transcriptome. Our results showed that pretreatment with DSM 17938 not only reduced the elevation in serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, IL-1α, IL-2, IL-18, M-CSF, and MIP-3α levels but also alleviated histological abnormalities of both the terminal ileum and liver induced by d-galactosamine. Additionally, DSM 17938 reduced d-galactosamine-induced enrichment of some taxa of gut Actinobacteria or Firmicutes, including abundant pathogens such as Actinomycetales, Coriobacteriaceae, Staphylococcaceae and Enterococcaceae. Furthermore, DSM 17938 reduced the d-galactosamine-induced increase in not only fecal metabolites such as trisaminol and lithocholic acid but also the transcription of liver inflammatory genes, such as Ccl2, Ccl7, Ccl11, Ccl12, Il6, Il11, Il20rb, Mmp3 and Mmp10. Downregulation of retinol metabolism and PPAR signaling pathway as well as upregulation of viral protein interaction with cytokine and cytokine receptor and central carbon metabolism in cancer signaling pathway were involved in the mechanism of L. reuteri DSM 17938 alleviating liver failure. Our findings suggested that DSM 17938 is a potential probiotic for the prevention or treatment of liver failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2020.111000DOI Listing
January 2021

Fecal Metabolites Were Altered, Identified as Biomarkers and Correlated With Disease Activity in Patients With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in a GC-MS-Based Metabolomics Study.

Front Immunol 2020 10;11:2138. Epub 2020 Sep 10.

State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Infectious Diseases, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Gut metabolites are products of the crosstalk between microbes and their host and play an important role in the occurrence, development, diagnosis, and treatment of autoimmune diseases. This work profiled the fecal metabolome of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and analyzed the potential roles of metabolites in the diagnosis and development of SLE. Fecal sample from 29 SLE patients without any other diseases and 30 healthy controls (HCs) were analyzed by metabolomics profiling. All participants took no antibiotics in the month before sampling and clinical data collecting. The metabolome profiles of patients with SLE and HCs were significantly different. Thirty fecal metabolites, such as deoxycholic acid, erucamide, L-tryptophan and putrescine, were significantly enriched, while nine metabolites, such as glyceric acid, γ-tocopherol, (Z)-13-octadecenoic acid and 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol, were depleted in SLE patients vs. HCs. The areas under the curve (AUCs) of L-valine, pyrimidine, erucamide, and L-leucine during ROC analysis were 0.886, 0.833, 0.829, and 0.803, indicating their good diagnostic potential. Moreover, the combination of L-valine, erucamide and 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol gave an AUC of 0.959. SLE-altered metabolites were significantly located in 28 pathways, such as ABC transporters ( = 3.40E-13) and aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis ( = 2.11E-12). Furthermore, SLE-altered fecal metabolites were closely correlated with SLE indicators, e.g., L-tryptophan was positively correlated with the SLEDAI-2K ( = 0.007). Our results suggest that the SLE fecal metabolome is closely associated with the occurrence and development of SLE and is of great diagnostic value.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.02138DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7511511PMC
May 2021

Reply to Klann et al.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 06;72(12):2248-2249

State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Infectious Diseases, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa1194DOI Listing
June 2021

Gut Microbiome and Metabolome Were Altered and Strongly Associated With Platelet Count in Adult Patients With Primary Immune Thrombocytopenia.

Front Microbiol 2020 8;11:1550. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Institute of Hematology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Gut microbiota has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many autoimmune diseases. This is still an area of active research given that the role of gut microbiota on the primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) remains unclear. In this study, fecal samples of 30 untreated adult primary ITP patients and 29 healthy controls (HCs) were used to investigate the gut microbial community and metabolite profiles. Our results show that fecal bacteria such as , , and are enriched, whereas bacteria such as are depleted in ITP patients. Notably, fecal metabolites such as fatty acyls and glycerophospholipids are enriched and strongly correlate with discrepant gut microbiota. Furthermore, combinations of and , or Cer (t18:0/16:0), Cer (d18:1/17:0), and 13-hydroxyoctadecanoic acid could provide good diagnostic markers for ITP. Moreover, a strong negative correlation was found between platelet count and altered gut microbiota such as and gut metabolites such as Cer (t18:0/16:0) in ITP. In conclusion, dysbiosis of both gut microbiota and metabolome develops in ITP patients compared to HCs. Several ITP-altered gut bacteria and metabolites can be diagnostic biomarkers for ITP, and are highly correlated with platelet count, suggesting that they may also play a role in ITP pathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.01550DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7360729PMC
July 2020

Lactobacillus salivarius LI01 encapsulated in alginate-pectin microgels ameliorates D-galactosamine-induced acute liver injury in rats.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2020 Sep 14;104(17):7437-7455. Epub 2020 Jul 14.

State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis, National Clinical Research Center for Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Acute liver failure is a clinical emergency associated with high mortality. Accumulating evidence indicates that gut microbiota participates in the progression of liver injury, and preventive therapies based on altering gut microbiota are of great interest. Previous studies demonstrated that Lactobacillus salivarius LI01 attenuates hepatic injury, though efficiency in curtailed in the harsh environment in the gastrointestinal tract. In this study, a system to encapsulate LI01 in alginate-pectin (AP) microgels was investigated. Encapsulation significantly enhances probiotic viability for long-term storage and heat treatment, and in simulated gastrointestinal fluids (SGF or SIF) and bile salt solutions. Acute liver injury was induced in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats by D-galactosamine (D-GaIN) injection following pretreatment with probiotics. Liver and gut barrier function, cytokines, liver and gut histology, bacterial translocation, and gut microbiota were assessed. Administration of encapsulated LI01 more effectively upregulates hepatic anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and TLR-3, restores expressions of gut barrier biomarkers Claudin-1 and MUC2 and attenuates destruction of mucosal ultrastructure compared with unencapsulated probiotics pretreatment. Pretreatment with AP-LI01 microgels altered the microbial community, decreasing the abundance of pathogenic taxa Ruminiclostridium, Dorea and Ruminococcaceae_UCG-004 and enriching beneficial taxa Ruminococcaceae_UCG-014, Eubacterium, and Prevotella_1 that produce short-chain fatty acids. These results suggest that AP encapsulation of LI01 boosts viability and attenuates liver injury by reducing inflammation and restoring intestinal barrier function. These beneficial effects are probably due to alternation of gut flora. These findings provide new insight into encapsulation technology and prevention of liver failure. KEY POINTS: • Alginate-pectin encapsulation enhances the viability of Lactobacillus salivarius LI01 under simulated commercial conditions and simulated gastrointestinal environment. • AP-LI01 microgel attenuates hepatic and intestinal inflammation and restores gut barrier function. • AP-LI01 microgel alters gut microbial community with increased SCFAs producers and decreased pathogenic microbes. • Beneficial improvements after administration of probiotics are highly associated with alternation of gut microbial community.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-020-10749-yDOI Listing
September 2020

Protective effect of Lactobacillus salivarius Li01 on thioacetamide-induced acute liver injury and hyperammonaemia.

Microb Biotechnol 2020 11 11;13(6):1860-1876. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Infectious Diseases, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310003, China.

The gut microbiota plays pivotal roles in liver disease onset and progression. The protective effects of Lactobacillus salivarius Li01 on liver diseases have been reported. In this study, we aimed to detect the protective effect of L. salivarius Li01 on thioacetamide (TAA)-induced acute liver injury and hyperammonaemia. C57BL/6 mice were separated into three groups and given a gavage of L. salivarius Li01 or phosphate-buffered saline for 7 days. Acute liver injury and hyperammonaemia were induced with an intraperitoneal TAA injection. L. salivarius Li01 decreased mortality and serum transaminase levels and improved histological liver damage caused by TAA. Serum inflammatory cytokine and chemokine and lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) concentrations, nuclear factor κB (NFκB) pathway activation and macrophage and neutrophil infiltration into the liver were significantly alleviated by L. salivarius Li01. L. salivarius Li01 also reinforced gut barrier and reshaped the perturbed gut microbiota by upregulating Bacteroidetes and Akkermansia richness and downregulating Proteobacteria, Ruminococcaceae_UCG_014 and Helicobacter richness. Plasma and faecal ammonia levels declined noticeably in the Li01 group, accompanied by improvements in cognitive function, neuro-inflammation and relative brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene expression. Our results indicated that L. salivarius Li01 could be considered a potential probiotic in acute liver injury and hepatic encephalopathy (HE).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1751-7915.13629DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7533332PMC
November 2020

Reply to Marcialis et al.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 06;72(12):2246-2247

State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Infectious Diseases, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa966DOI Listing
June 2021

Clinical Characteristics and Factors Associated With Long-Term Viral Excretion in Patients With Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Infection: a Single-Center 28-Day Study.

J Infect Dis 2020 08;222(6):910-918

State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Infectious Diseases, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Background: Despite the ongoing spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), knowledge about factors affecting prolonged viral excretion is limited.

Methods: In this study, we retrospectively collected data from 99 hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) between 19 January and 17 February 2020 in Zhejiang Province, China. We classified them into 2 groups based on whether the virus test results eventually became negative. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to evaluate factors associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) shedding.

Results: Among 99 patients, 61 patients had SARS-CoV-2 clearance (virus-negative group), but 38 patients had sustained positive results (virus-positive group). The median duration of SARS-CoV-2 excretion was 15 (interquartile range, 12-19) days among the virus-negative patients. The shedding time was significantly increased if the fecal SARS-CoV-2 RNA test result was positive. Male sex (hazard ratio [HR], 0.58 [95% confidence interval {CI}, .35-.98]), immunoglobulin use (HR, 0.42 [95% CI, .24-.76]), APACHE II score (HR, 0.89 [95% CI, .84-.96]), and lymphocyte count (HR, 1.81 [95% CI, 1.05-3.1]) were independent factors associated with a prolonged duration of SARS-CoV-2 shedding. Antiviral therapy and corticosteroid treatment were not independent factors.

Conclusions: SARS-CoV-2 RNA clearance time was associated with sex, disease severity, and lymphocyte function. The current antiviral protocol and low-to-moderate dosage of corticosteroid had little effect on the duration of viral excretion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiaa388DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7337834PMC
August 2020

The fiber metabolite butyrate reduces gp130 by targeting TRAF5 in colorectal cancer cells.

Cancer Cell Int 2020 3;20:212. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310003 China.

Background: Dietary fiber is effective for colorectal cancer (CRC) treatment. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and its adaptors are potential targets for CRC therapy. Butyrate, a metabolite of dietary fiber, is a new, highly safe type of targeted drug.

Methods: In this study, Cell Counting Kit-8 cell viability and wound healing assays, western blot analysis, immunofluorescence staining, and xenograft tumor mouse models were used to evaluate the anticancer effect of butyrate and its possible mechanism in vivo and in vitro.

Results: Dietary fiber and sodium butyrate (NaB) decreased CRC burden by decreasing IL-6 receptor gp130 and blocking IL-6/JAK2/STAT3 axis activation in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, NaB reduced the gp130 protein level by regulating its degradation rate via targeting TRAF5.

Conclusions: The fiber metabolite butyrate inhibits CRC development by reducing gp130 via TRAF5.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12935-020-01305-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7271451PMC
June 2020

Alterations of the Gut Microbiota in Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019 or H1N1 Influenza.

Clin Infect Dis 2020 12;71(10):2669-2678

State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Infectious Diseases, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging serious global health problem. Gastrointestinal symptoms are common in COVID-19 patients, and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 RNA has been detected in stool specimens. However, the relationship between the gut microbiome and disease remains to be established.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 30 patients with COVID-19, 24 patients with influenza A(H1N1), and 30 matched healthy controls (HCs) to identify differences in the gut microbiota by 16S ribosomal RNA gene V3-V4 region sequencing.

Results: Compared with HCs, COVID-19 patients had significantly reduced bacterial diversity; a significantly higher relative abundance of opportunistic pathogens, such as Streptococcus, Rothia, Veillonella, and Actinomyces; and a lower relative abundance of beneficial symbionts. Five biomarkers showed high accuracy for distinguishing COVID-19 patients from HCs with an area under the curve (AUC) up to 0.89. Patients with H1N1 displayed lower diversity and different overall microbial composition compared with COVID-19 patients. Seven biomarkers were selected to distinguish the 2 cohorts (AUC = 0.94).

Conclusions: The gut microbial signature of patients with COVID-19 was different from that of H1N1 patients and HCs. Our study suggests the potential value of the gut microbiota as a diagnostic biomarker and therapeutic target for COVID-19, but further validation is needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa709DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7314193PMC
December 2020

Administration of Bifidobacterium bifidum CGMCC 15068 modulates gut microbiota and metabolome in azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis-associated colon cancer (CAC) in mice.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2020 Jul 4;104(13):5915-5928. Epub 2020 May 4.

State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310003, China.

The gut microbiota plays an important role in colorectal cancer (CRC), and the use of probiotics might be a promising intervention method. The aim of our study was to investigate the beneficial effect of Bifidobacterium bifidum CGMCC 15068 on an azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis-associated CRC (CAC) mouse model. CAC was induced by an intra-peritoneal injection of AOM (10 mg/kg) and three 7-day cycles of 2% DSS in drinking water with a 14-day recovery period between two consecutive DSS administrations. B. bifidum CGMCC 15068 (3 × 10 CFU/mL) was gavaged once daily during the recovery period. Then, the faecal microbial composition and metabolome were profiled using the 16S rRNA sequencing technology and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), respectively. The administration of B. bifidum CGMCC 15068 attenuated tumourigenesis in the CAC mouse model. In addition, B. bifidum CGMCC 15068 pre-treatment increased the relative abundance of Akkermansia, Desulfovibrionaceae, Romboutsia, Turicibacter, Verrucomicrobiaceae, Ruminococcaceae_UCG_013, Lachnospiraceae_UCG_004, and Lactobacillus. Meanwhile, B. bifidum CGMCC 15068 altered metabolites involved in the citrate cycle (TCA cycle), glycolysis, butyrate metabolism, fatty acid biosynthesis, and galactose metabolism. Several significant correlations were identified between the differentially abundant microbes and metabolites. These findings supported the beneficial role of B. bifidum CGMCC 15068 in intestinal health by modulating dysbiosis and the gut metabolic profile. The manipulation of the gut microbial composition using probiotics might be a promising prevention strategy for CRC. Long-term and large-scale clinical trials are warranted for the potential clinical applications of this strategy in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-020-10621-zDOI Listing
July 2020

Pediococcus pentosaceus LI05 alleviates DSS-induced colitis by modulating immunological profiles, the gut microbiota and short-chain fatty acid levels in a mouse model.

Microb Biotechnol 2020 07 3;13(4):1228-1244. Epub 2020 May 3.

State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Disease, National Clinical Research Center for Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

The gut microbiota is considered a key factor in pathogenesis and progression of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The bacterium Pediococcus pentosaceus LI05 alleviated host inflammation by maintaining the gut epithelial integrity, modulating the host immunity, gut microbiota and metabolism, but its effect on IBD remains unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the role and mechanisms of P. pentosaceus LI05. Mice were administered P. pentosaceus LI05 or phosphate-buffered saline once daily by oral gavage for 14 days, and colitis was induced by providing mice 2% DSS-containing drinking water for 7 days. P. pentosaceus LI05 ameliorated colitis in mice and reduced the body weight loss, disease activity index (DAI) scores, colon length shortening, intestinal permeability and the proinflammatory cytokine levels. Furthermore, a significantly altered gut microbiota composition with increased diversity and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production was observed in mice treated with P. pentosaceus LI05. Several genera, including Akkermansia and Faecalibacterium, were differentially enriched in the P. pentosaceus LI05-treated mice and were negatively correlated with colitis indices and positively correlated with gut barrier markers and SCFA levels. The P. pentosaceus LI05 treatment alleviated intestinal inflammation by maintaining the intestinal epithelial integrity and modulating the immunological profiles, gut microbiome and metabolite composition. Based on our findings, P. pentosaceus LI05 might be applied as potential preparation to ameliorate colitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1751-7915.13583DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7264873PMC
July 2020
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