Publications by authors named "Long Yang"

466 Publications

An assessment of the analytical performance of non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) in detecting sex chromosome aneuploidies: 34,717-patient sample in a single prenatal diagnosis centre in China.

J Gene Med 2021 May 11:e3362. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Gynecology & Obstetrics, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University (Army Medical University), Chongqing, China.

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of non-invasive prenatal test (NIPT) in the detection of the sex chromosome aneuploidies (SCAs) at our prenatal diagnosis centre.

Method: Among a cohort of 34,717 pregnancies, maternal plasma samples from our prenatal diagnosis centre were subject to analysis SCAs using NIPT detection. Pregnant women with NIPT positive results of SCAs were recommended to undergo the invasive prenatal diagnosis i.e. karyotyping and FISH in order to validate the prediction value of NIPT.

Results: From 34,717 clinical pregnancies, 229 (0.66%) pregnancies were identified with SCAs, 78 (34.1%) cases were positive for 45,X, 151 (65.9%) cases were a sex chromosome trisomy. Of the 229 positive NIPT results, 193 (84.3%) cases had accepted the invasive diagnostic through karyotyping analysis of the amniotic fluid, which confirmed 67 cases (34.7%) as true positive (TP), as well as 126 cases (65.3%) as false positive (FP) cases. The positive predictive values (PPV) were 23.07%, 50%, 36%, and 27.27% respectively. The remaining 36 (15.7%) cases were declined with prenatal diagnosis. The termination rate of 45,X, 47,XXY, 47,XXX and 47,XYY were 20.5%,46%,12.9% and 11.5% respectively.

Conclusions: NIPT performed lower accuracy in predicting monosomy X than sex chromosome trisomies. After invasive testing, the fetal chromosome with 45,X and 47,XXY were terminated more often than those with 47,XXX, 47,XYY. As NIPT is a screening test, it exist false positive/negative cases, pre- and post-test counselling are essential in telling patients the benefits and limitations of the test, confirmatory testing of abnormal results is recommended prenatally or after birth, and the importance of confirmatory testing and benefits of early diagnosis should be address.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jgm.3362DOI Listing
May 2021

Asiatic acid attenuates diabetic retinopathy through TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB p65 mediated modulation of microglia polarization.

Life Sci 2021 May 6:119567. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Ophthalmology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, 450052 Zhengzhou, Henan, China. Electronic address:

Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Asiatic acid (AA), a naturally occurring compound of pentacyclic triterpenoid, on the pathological processes of diabetic retinopathy (DR).

Methods: SD rats were induced to develop early DR by intraperitoneal injection of STZ (60 mg/kg). Four weeks after injection, the diabetic rats were orally administrated with 37.5 mg/kg or 75 mg/kg AA every day for four weeks. The integrity of blood-retinal barrier (BRB) was measured by Evans blue staining. The polarization of microglia was determined by real-time PCR, western blot, and ELISA assays. The inner BRB (iBRB) or outer BRB (oBRB) breakdown was induced in human retinal endothelial cells or APRE19 cells through co-culture with high glucose and LPS-stimulated microglia BV2 cells. The damage to the iBRB and oBRB was measured using transendothelial/transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER/TER) and FITC-conjugated dextran cell permeability assays.

Key Findings: Results demonstrated that AA alleviated BRB breakdown, as evidenced by decreased protein expression of occludin, claudin-5, and ZO-1. Furthermore, AA treatment suppressed inflammation and M1 polarization, while it increased M2 polarization in the retina of DR rats. In vitro, the iBRB or oBRB breakdown was alleviated by AA. LPS-induced M1-polarization of BV2 cells under high glucose condition was also repressed through AA administration. Finally, we demonstrated that AA weakened the TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB p65 signaling pathway both in vivo and in vitro.

Significance: AA ameliorated early DR by regulating microglia polarization via the TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB p65 pathway. These data indicate that AA is a potential candidate for DR treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2021.119567DOI Listing
May 2021

Shield and sword nano-soldiers ameliorate rheumatoid arthritis by multi-stage manipulation of neutrophils.

J Control Release 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Key Laboratory of Drug-Targeting and Drug Delivery System of the Education Ministry and Sichuan Province, Sichuan Engineering Laboratory for Plant-Sourced Drug and Sichuan Research Center for Drug Precision Industrial Technology, West China School of Pharmacy, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterized by the outbreak of inflammation. Neutrophils, the main culprit of the outbreak of inflammation, are the first inflammatory cells to be recruited to inflamed joints and facilitate the recruitment of themselves by stimulating the release of chemokines. Here, based on neutrophils, a novel anti-inflammatory "shield and sword soldiers" strategy is established with LMWH-TOS nanoparticles (LT NPs). The hydrophilic fragment low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) acts as a shield which block the transvascular movement of neutrophils through inhibiting the adhesion cascade by binding to P-selectin on inflamed endothelium. Synergistically, MMP-9, which is secreted by the recruited neutrophils and degrade the main component of articular cartilage, is reduced by the hydrophobic fragment d-α-tocopheryl succinate (TOS), functioning as a sword. In collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mouse model, LT NPs show significant targeting effect, and exhibit prominent therapeutic efficacy after enveloping the first-line anti-RA drug methotrexate. Our work proves that the multi-stage manipulation of neutrophils is feasible and effective, providing a new concept for RA treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jconrel.2021.05.008DOI Listing
May 2021

NaHS Alleviated Cell Apoptosis and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Remote Lung Tissue after Renal Ischemia and Reperfusion via Nrf2 Activation-Mediated NLRP3 Pathway Inhibition.

Biomed Res Int 2021 15;2021:5598869. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Urology, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin Heping District Anshan Road 154, Tianjin 300052, China.

Objective: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and severe complication in critically ill patients, often caused by renal ischemia-reperfusion (RIR). Previous studies have confirmed that lung injury, rather than renal injury, is one of the leading causes of AKI-induced death. The pathophysiological mechanisms of acute lung injury (ALI) resulting from AKI are very complex and remain unclear. In the present study, we aimed to explore the protective effects and potential mechanism of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) on lung injury in RIR mice.

Methods: The RIR model was established in wild-type and Nrf2 mice. Different groups of mice were treated with NaHS and MCC950. Lung tissues were harvested to detect lung injury, mitochondrial function, cell apoptosis, the NLRP3 inflammasome, and Nrf2 pathway-related molecules.

Results: RIR led to a deterioration in lung histology, the wet/dry weight ratio, PaO/FiO, and mitochondrial function, in addition to stimulating the activation of the NLRP3 and Nrf2 pathways. MCC950 alleviated mitochondrial dysfunction, lung apoptosis, and histology injury in the lungs after RIR. NaHS treatment markedly improved the lung histological scores, the wet/dry weight ratio, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cell counts, BALF neutrophil counts, BALF neutrophil elastase activity, BALF protein concentration, PaO/FiO, mitochondrial morphology, the red/green fluorescence intensity that indicates changes in mitochondrial membrane potential, respiratory control rate (RCR), ATP, reactive oxygen species (ROS) release, and cell apoptosis via Nrf2-mediated NLRP3 pathway inhibition.

Conclusion: NaHS protected against RIR-induced lung injury, mitochondrial dysfunction, and inflammation, which is associated with Nrf2 activation-mediated NLRP3 pathway inhibition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/5598869DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8064776PMC
April 2021

Polystyrene microplastics induce blood-testis barrier disruption regulated by the MAPK-Nrf2 signaling pathway in rats.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Apr 25. Epub 2021 Apr 25.

College of Basic Medicine & Xu Rongxiang Regenerative Medicine Research Center, Binzhou Medical University, Yantai, People's Republic of China.

As a persistent pollutant, microplastics (MPs) have been reported to induce sperm quantity decrease in mice. However, the related mechanism remains obscure. Therefore, this study is intended to explore the effects of polystyrene microplastics (PS-MPs) on male reproduction and its related mechanism of blood-testis barrier (BTB) impairment. Thirty-two adult male Wistar rats were divided randomly into four groups fed with PS-MPs for 90 days at doses of 0 mg/day (control group), 0.015 mg/day, 0.15 mg/day, and 1.5 mg/day, respectively. The present results have shown that PS-MP exposure led to the damage of seminiferous tubule, resulted in apoptosis of spermatogenic cells, and decreased the motility and concentration of sperm, while the abnormality of sperm was elevated. Meanwhile, PS-MPs could induce oxidative stress and activate the p38 MAPK pathway and thus deplete the nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2 (Nrf2). Noteworthily, PS-MPs led to the BTB-related protein expression decrease. All these results demonstrated that PS-MP exposure may lead to the destruction of BTB integrity and the apoptosis of spermatogenic cells through the activation of the MAPK-Nrf2 pathway. The current study provided novelty evidence for elucidating the effects of PS-MPs on male reproductive toxicity and its potential mechanism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-13911-9DOI Listing
April 2021

Isolation and Identification of Antibacterial Bioactive Compounds From L2.

Front Microbiol 2021 24;12:645484. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Key Laboratory of Plant Resource Conservation and Germplasm Innovation in Mountainous Region (Ministry of Education), Collaborative Innovation Center for Mountain Ecology & Agro-Bioengineering, College of Life Sciences/Institute of Agro-bioengineering, Guizhou University, Guiyang, China.

Bacterial metabolites exhibit a variety of biologically active compounds including antibacterial and antifungal activities. It is well known that is considered to be a promising source of bioactive secondary metabolites. Most plant pathogens have an incredible ability to mutate and acquire resistance, causing major economic losses in the agricultural field. Therefore, it is necessary to use the natural antibacterial compounds in microbes to control plant pathogens. This study was conducted to investigate the bio-active compounds of L2. According to the activity guidance of T-37, EC-1 and RS-2, five monomeric compounds, including erucamide (), behenic acid (), palmitic acid (), phenylacetic acid (), and β-sitosterol (), were fractionated and purified from the crude ethyl acetate extract of . To our knowledge, all compounds were isolated from the bacterium for the first time. To understand the antimicrobial activity of these compounds, and their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) (range: 0.98∼500 μg/mL) were determined by the broth microdilution method. For the three tested pathogens, palmitic acid exhibited almost no antibacterial activity (>500 μg/mL), while erucamide had moderate antibacterial activity (MIC = 500 μg/mL). Behenic acid showed MICs of 250 μg/mL against T-37 and RS-2 strains with an antibacterial activity. β-sitosterol showed significant antimicrobial activity against RS-2. β-sitosterol showed remarkable antimicrobial activity against RS-2 with an MIC of 15.6 μg/mL. In addition, with the antimicrobial activity, against T-37 (62.5 μg/mL) and against EC-1 (125 μg/mL) and RS-2 (15.6 μg/mL) strains notably, phenylacetic acid may be interesting for the prevention and control of phytopathogenic bacteria. Our findings suggest that isolated compounds such as behenic acid, β-sitosterol, and phenylacetic acid may be promising candidates for natural antimicrobial agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.645484DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8024468PMC
March 2021

Immutol regulates CD4Tregs, CD8Tregs and pDCs via IDO signaling pathway to induce immune tolerance in rat heart allograft transplant.

Transpl Immunol 2021 Apr 7:101393. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreaticosplenic Surgery, Beijing Organ Transplant Center, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University, No. 8 Gongtinan Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100020, China. Electronic address:

Background Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) can promote tryptophan metabolism to kynurenine and modulate regulatory T cells (Tregs), thereby maintains lower efficiency to induce tolerance. Our aim is to investigate the mechanism of tolerance induction by a IDO metabolite named Immutol.

Methods: We established rat heterotopic heart transplantation models and treated them with Immutol, cyclosporine A (CsA) and 1-methyl-DL-tryptophan (1-MT) in vivo. The drugs were administered via gavage to all but the control group one day before surgery. CsA was gavaged continually for 20 days and Immutol for 60 days; after withdrawal of the drugs, the recipients were observed for at least 10 months. Immune cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. The IDO signaling pathway was evaluated by Western blotting, RT-PCR and immunochemical staining. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were used to detect changes in cytokines.

Results: CsA or Immutol alone prolonged survival but did not induce tolerance after withdrawal. Immutol+CsA inhibited acute rejection, and the grafts survived more than 400 d, with tolerance detected in most rats (13/15). Increased protein IDO and kynurenine could regulate the accumulation of CD4Tregs, CD8Tregs and pDC to induce immune tolerance. I-MT specifically blocked IDO, weakened the expression of IDO and kynurenine, and produced grafts rejection. Additionally, Tregs could down-regulate immune responses through production of the immunosuppressive cytokines IL-10 and TGF-beta, thus induce immune tolerance. CD8 Tregs produce IFN-γ, and tolerance is dependent on both IFN-γ and IDO.

Conclusion: Immutol combined with CsA can control acute rejection and induce tolerance in rats with cardiac allografts after withdrawal. Immutol may become a novel drug for future clinical use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trim.2021.101393DOI Listing
April 2021

A 5G-powered robot-assisted teleultrasound diagnostic system in an intensive care unit.

Crit Care 2021 04 7;25(1):134. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Henan Provincial People's Hospital, Zhengzhou University People's Hospital, No. 7, Weiwu Road, Jinshui District, Zhengzhou, 450003, Henan, China.

Background: Teleultrasound provides an effective solution to problems that arise from limited medical resources, a lack of local expertise, and scenarios where the risk of infection is high. This study aims to explore the feasibility of the application of a 5G-powered robot-assisted teleultrasound diagnostic system in an intensive care unit.

Methods: In this study, the robot-assisted teleultrasound diagnostic system MGIUS-R3 was used. Using 5G network technology, the doctor manipulates the robotic arm to perform teleultrasound examination. The doctor can adjust parameters via the teleultrasound control panel, and real-time transmission of audio, video and ultrasound images can facilitate simultaneous communication between both parties. All patients underwent robot-assisted teleultrasound examination and bedside ultrasound examination of the liver, gallbladder, pancreas, spleen, kidney, as well as assessment for pleural effusion and abdominal effusion. We evaluated the feasibility of the application of the robot-assisted teleultrasound diagnosis system in the intensive care unit in terms of consultation duration, image quality, and safety. We also compared diagnostic consistency and differences.

Results: Apart from one patient who was excluded due to severe intestinal gas interference and poor image quality, a total of 32 patients were included in this study. Every patient completed all relevant examinations. Among them, 20 patients were male; 12 were female. The average age of the patients was 61 ± 20 years. The average duration of teleultrasound diagnosis was 17 ± 7 min. Of the 32 patients, 26 had positive results, 6 had negative results, and 5 had inconsistent diagnoses. The overall diagnostic results were basically the same, and there were no differences in diagnostic levels between the two. The overall average image quality score was 4.73 points, which represented a high-quality image. After robot-assisted teleultrasound examination, no significant changes were observed in the vital signs of patients as compared to before examination, and no examination-related complications were found.

Conclusion: The 5G-powered robot-assisted teleultrasound diagnostic system was associated with the benefits of clear images, simple operation, relatively high levels of consistency in terms of diagnostic results, higher levels of safety, and has considerable application value in the intensive care unit.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13054-021-03563-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8025902PMC
April 2021

Frequency-tunable terahertz angular selectivity based on a dielectric-graphene multilayer structure.

Appl Opt 2021 Apr;60(10):2811-2816

To achieve frequency-tunable angular selectivity at terahertz frequencies, a tunable epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) metamaterial based on a subwavelength dielectric-graphene multilayer structure is designed. The ENZ frequency of the dielectric-graphene multilayer can be dynamically tuned by the gate voltage applied to graphene. Transmittance angular spectra show that only the incident lights close to normal incidence can propagate through the structure while other incident lights cannot, which indicates that our structure can be utilized for frequency-tunable terahertz angular selection. The optimal directivity reaches 183 and the transmittance at normal incidence reaches 0.462. This multilayer-based tunable terahertz ENZ metamaterial will possess potential application prospects in tunable highly directive antennas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.419723DOI Listing
April 2021

First report of Leptosphaeria biglobosa 'canadensis' causing blackleg on oilseed rape (Brassica napus) in China.

Plant Dis 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Huazhong Agricultural University, Plant Pathology, Wuhan, China, Wuhan, HuBei, China, 430070;

Oilseed rape ( L.) is one of the most important oilseed crops in China. It is widely cultivated in China, with winter oilseed rape in Yangtze River basin and in southern China, and spring oilseed rape in northern China. In August 2017, a survey for spp. on spring oilseed rape was conducted in Minle county, Zhangye city, Gansu Province, China. The symptoms typical of blackleg on basal stems of oilseed rape were observed in the field. A large number of black fruiting bodies (pycnidia) were present on the lesions (Fig. 1A). The disease incidence of basal stem infection in the surveyed field was 19%. A total of 19 diseased stems were collected to isolate the pathogen. After surface sterilizing (75% ethanol for 30 s, 5% NaOCl for 60 s, followed by rinsing in sterilized water three times), diseased tissues were cultured on acidified potato dextrose agar (PDA) plates at 20°C for 7 days. Twelve fungal isolates were obtained. All fungal isolates produced typical tan pigment on PDA medium, and produced pycnidia after two weeks (Fig. 1B). Colony morphological characteristics indicated that these isolates might belong to . To confirm identification, multiple PCR was conducted using the species-specific primers LmacF, LbigF, LmacR (Liu et al. 2006). Genomic DNA of each isolate was extracted using the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) method. DNA samples of isolate UK-1 and isolate W10 (Cai et al. 2015) were used as references. Only a 444-bp DNA band was detected in all 12 isolates and W10, whereas a 333-bp DNA band was detected only in the UK-1 isolate (Fig. 1C). PCR results suggested that these 12 isolates all belong to . In addition, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of these 12 isolates was analyzed for subspecies identification (Vincenot et al. 2008). Phylogenetic analysis based on ITS sequence showed that five isolates (Lb1134, Lb1136, Lb1138, Lb1139 and Lb1143) belonged to 'brassicae' (Lbb) with 78% bootstrap support, and the other seven isolates (Lb1135, Lb1137, Lb1140, Lb1141, Lb1142, Lb1144 and Lb1145) belonged to 'canadensis' (Lbc) with 95% bootstrap support (Fig. 1D). Two Lbb isolates (Lb1134 and Lb1136) and two Lbc isolates (Lb1142 and Lb1144) were randomly selected for pathogenicity testing on cultivar Zhongshuang No. 9 (Wang et al. 2002). Conidial suspensions (10 μL, 1 × 107 conidia mL-1) of these four isolates were inoculated on needle-wounded cotyledons (14-day-old seedling), with 10 cotyledons (20 wounded sites) per isolate. A further 10 wounded cotyledons were inoculated with water and served as controls. Seedlings were maintained in a growth chamber at 20°C with 100% relative humidity and a 12-h photoperiod. After 7 days, cotyledons inoculated with the four isolates showed necrotic lesions in the inoculated wounds. Control cotyledons had no symptoms (Fig. 2). Fungi re-isolated from the infected cotyledons showed similar colony morphology as the original isolates. Therefore, 'brassicae' and 'canadensis' appear to be the pathogens causing the observed blackleg symptoms on spring oilseed rape in Gansu, China. In previous studies, 'brassicae' has been found in many crops in China, including oilseed rape (Liu et al. 2014; Cai et al. 2015), Chinese radish () (Cai et al. 2014a), ssp. var. (Cai et al. 2014b), broccoli ( var. ) (Luo et al. 2018), ornamental kale ( var. ) (Zhou et al. 2019a), var. (Zhou et al. 2019b), var. (Deng et al. 2020) and Chinese cabbage ( subsp. ) (Yu et al. 2021 accepted). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of 'canadensis' causing blackleg on in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-12-20-2735-PDNDOI Listing
March 2021

Gut Microbiota-Derived Trimethylamine N-Oxide and Kidney Function: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Adv Nutr 2021 Mar 5. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, the Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University, Luzhou, Sichuan, China.

Elevated circulating trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) concentrations have been observed in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We aimed to systematically estimate and quantify the association between TMAO concentrations and kidney function. The PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Scopus, and Web of Science databases were systematically searched from 1995 to 1 June, 2020, for clinical studies on circulating TMAO concentrations and kidney function indicators. We used R software to conduct meta-analyses of the extracted data. A cumulative meta-analysis was applied to test whether health status affected the pooled effect value. Meta-regression and subgroup analyses were performed to identify possible sources of heterogeneity. Ultimately, we included a total of 32 eligible clinical studies involving 42,062 participants. In meta-analyses of continuous-outcome variables, advanced CKD was associated with a 67.9 μmol/L (95% CI: 52.7, 83.2; P < 0.01) increase in TMAO concentration, and subjects with high concentrations of TMAO had a 12.9 mL/(min·1.73 m2) (95% CI: -16.6, -9.14; P < 0.01) decrease in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). In meta-analyses of the correlations, TMAO was strongly inversely correlated with GFR [Fisher's z-transformed correlation coefficient (ZCOR): -0.45; 95% CI: -0.58, -0.32; P < 0.01] and positively associated with the urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR; ZCOR: 0.26; 95% CI: 0.08, 0.43; P < 0.01), serum creatinine (sCr; ZCOR: 0.43; 95% CI: 0.28, 0.58; P < 0.01), urine albumin excretion rate (UAER; ZCOR: 0.06; 95% CI: 0.04, 0.09; P < 0.01), blood urea (ZCOR: 0.50; 95% CI: 0.29, 0.72; P < 0.01), blood uric acid (ZCOR: 0.32; 95% CI: 0.25, 0.38; P < 0.01), and serum cystatin C (CysC; ZCOR: 0.47, 95% CI: 0.44, 0.51; P < 0.01). This is the first systematic review and meta-analysis to reveal a negative association between circulating TMAO concentrations and kidney function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/advances/nmab010DOI Listing
March 2021

Sevoflurane Postconditioning Attenuates Hypoxia/Reoxygenation Injury of Cardiomyocytes Under High Glucose by Regulating HIF-1α/MIF/AMPK Pathway.

Front Pharmacol 2020 22;11:624809. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

The First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University, Urumqi, China.

Cardiovascular disease, as a very common and serious coexisting disease in diabetic patients, and is one of the risk factors that seriously affect the prognosis and complications of surgical patients. Previous studies have shown that sevoflurane post-conditioning (SPostC) exerts a protective effect against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury by HIF-1α, but the protective effect is weakened or even disappeared under hyperglycemia. This study aims to explore whether regulating the HIF-1α/MIF/AMPK signaling pathway can restore the protective effect and reveal the mechanism of SPostC on cardiomyocyte hypoxia/reoxygenation injury under high glucose conditions. H9c2 cardiomyocytes were cultured in normal and high-concentration glucose medium to establish a hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury model of cardiomyocytes. SPostC was performed with 2.4% sevoflurane for 15 min before reoxygenation. Cell damage was determined by measuring cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase activity, and apoptosis; Testing cell energy metabolism by detecting reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, ATP content and mitochondrial membrane potential; Analysis of the change of HIF-1α, MIF and AMPKα mRNA expression by RT-PCR. Western blotting was used to examine the expression of HIF-1α, MIF, AMPKα and p-AMPKα proteins. HIF-1α and MIF inhibitors and agonists were administered 40 min before hypoxia. 1) SPostC exerts a protective effect by increasing cell viability, reducing LDH levels and cell apoptosis under low glucose (5 μM) after undergoing H/R injury; 2) High glucose concentration (35 μM) eliminated the cardioprotective effect of SPostC, which is manifested by a significantly decrease in the protein and mRNA expression level of the HIF-1α/MIF/AMPK signaling pathway, accompanied by decreased cell viability, increased LDH levels and apoptosis, increased ROS production, decreased ATP synthesis, and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential; 3. Under high glucose (35 μM), the expression levels of HIF-1α and MIF were up-regulated by using agonists, which can significantly increase the level of p-AMPKα protein, and the cardioprotective effect of SPostC was restored. The signal pathway of HIF-1α/MIF/AMPK of H9c2 cardiomyocytes may be the key point of SPostC against H/R injure. The cardioprotective of SPostC could be restored by upregulating the protein expression of HIF-1α and MIF under hyperglycemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2020.624809DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7938236PMC
February 2021

Promotion of tomato growth by the volatiles produced by the hypovirulent strain QT5-19 of the plant gray mold fungus Botrytis cinerea.

Microbiol Res 2021 Jun 20;247:126731. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology and Key Laboratory of Plant Pathology of Hubei Province, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, Hubei, China. Electronic address:

Our previous study identified a hypovirulent strain QT5-19 of Botrytis cinerea, the causal agent of the plant gray mold disease, and found that QT5-19 can produce volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with high antifungal activity and high control efficacy against B. cinerea. However, impact of the QT5-19 VOCs on plant growth remains unknown. This study was conducted to investigate the impact of the QT5-19 VOCs on tomato growth, and to elucidate the mechanisms for the plant growth-promoting (PGP) activity of the QT5-19 VOCs. Results showed that compared to the control treatment, the QT5-19 VOCs significantly (P < 0.05) promoted tomato growth, and the PGP activity of the QT5-19 VOCs acted in dose- and time-dependent manners. Results also showed that the values of photosynthetic assimilation, stomatal conductance and transpiration, water use efficiency and chlorophyll content in the treatments of the QT5-19 VOCs were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than the corresponding values in the control treatment. The QT5-19 VOCs up-regulated expression of the genes for expansins (EXP2, EXP9 and EXP18), IAA (SlIAA1, SlIAA3 and SlIAA9), cytokinins (SlCKX1) and gibberellins in leaves and/or roots, whereas down-regulated expression of the gene ACO1 for ethylene in both organs. Moreover, enhanced accumulation of auxins and decreased accumulation of ethylene were observed in tomato roots in the treatment of the QT5-19 VOCs, compared to the control treatment. These results suggest that the QT5-19 VOCs probably promote tomato growth through improving photosynthesis and biosynthesis of expansins and IAA, and reducing ethylene biosynthesis. This study suggests that QT5-19 is a versatile biocontrol control agent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micres.2021.126731DOI Listing
June 2021

Long-term cover crops improved soil phosphorus availability in a rain-fed apple orchard.

Chemosphere 2021 Jul 24;275:130093. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Apple, College of Horticulture, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, 712100, Shaanxi, China. Electronic address:

The objective of this present study was to understand the distribution patterns of various forms of soil phosphorus (P) and the biotic and abiotic factors affecting the soil P fractions under long-term cover crops. Here, we investigated the characteristics of soil P forms, community structure of P-solubilizing bacteria (using 16S rRNA) and the related enzyme activity under clean tillage (CT), 14 years of white clover (WC, Trifolium repens L.) and orchard grass (OG, Dactylis glomerata L.) cover crops in a rain-fed apple orchard on the Weibei Loess Plateau, China. Relative to CT treatment, long-term cover crops enhanced the bioavailability of soil P by increasing the contents of total phosphorus (TP), microbial phosphorus (MBP), organic phosphorus (Po) and certain forms of inorganic phosphorus (e.g. Al-P, Ca-P, Ca-P and Fe-P) in the surface soil, in addition, WC treatment also increase the available P (AP) contents in the topsoil. A redundant analysis (RDA) showed that soil organic matter (SOM), NH-N and pH were the key environmental factors affecting the morphological changes of soil P. In addition, the effects of long-term cover crops on soil P forms were mainly concentrated in the topsoil, and the WC treatment had a greater impact on soil P composition than the OG treatment. Interestingly, long-term cover crops effectively increased the abundances of P-solubilizing bacteria, such as Streptomyces, Sphingomonas, Nocardioides and Haliangium, and enhanced the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. Overall, long-term cover crops were an effective strategy to activate soil P as they improve the soil environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.130093DOI Listing
July 2021

Convex compressive beamforming with nonconvex sparse regularization.

J Acoust Soc Am 2021 Feb;149(2):1125

School of Marine Science and Technology, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an 710072, China.

The convex sparse penalty based compressive beamforming technique can achieve robust high resolution in direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation tasks, but it often leads to an insufficient sparsity-inducing problem due to its convex loose approximation to ideal ℓ nonconvex penalty. On the contrary, the nonconvex sparse penalty can tightly approximate ℓ penalty to effectively enhance DOA estimation accuracy, but it incurs an initialization sensitivity problem due to its multiple local minimas. Leveraging their individual advantages, a minimax-concave penalty (MCP) regularized DOA estimation algorithm is proposed to achieve a maximally sparse level while maintaining the convex property of the overall objective function. Moreover, an accelerated block gradient descent-ascent algorithm with convergence guarantee is developed to rapidly achieve its one optimal point. Simulation results demonstrate that MCP penalty improves DOA estimation accuracy compared with popular sparse compressive beamforming techniques in strong noise scenarios and weak source confirmation. Ocean experimental results also validate that it retains more stable DOA estimation accuracy and incurs less artificial interferences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/10.0003373DOI Listing
February 2021

Correction to: Bio-electrospraying is a safe technology for delivering human adipose-derived stem cells.

Biotechnol Lett 2021 Apr;43(4):947-948

Department of Orthopaedics, The Affiliated Hospital of Guiyang Medical College, Guiyang, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10529-021-03102-4DOI Listing
April 2021

Plasma melatonin levels in patients with diabetic retinopathy secondary to type 2 diabetes.

World J Diabetes 2021 Feb;12(2):138-148

Department of Ophthalmology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052, Henan Province, China.

Background: Melatonin is reported to be related to diabetes mellitus (DM) risk; however, the effect of melatonin on diabetic retinopathy (DR) risk remains unclear.

Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of melatonin on DR risk.

Methods: A hospital-based case-control study was conducted from January 2020 to June 2020. DR was assessed using the Diabetic Retinopathy preferred practice pattern (PPP)-updated 2019 criteria. The participants were divided into the DM cases without DR (NDR) group, non-proliferative DR (NPDR) group and proliferative DR (PDR) group. Plasma melatonin concentration was detected with the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. The relationship between plasma melatonin concentration and DR risk as well as severity was assessed.

Results: It was found that plasma melatonin was 72.83 ± 16.25, 60.38 ± 13.43, 44.48 ± 10.30 and 44.69 ± 8.95 pg/mL in healthy controls, NDR group, NPDR and PDR group, respectively. In addition, it was found that plasma melatonin could be used as a potential diagnostic biomarker for DR (AUC = 0.893, < 0.001). There was a significant positive relationship between total bilirubin and melatonin content ( < 0.001) based on the correlation assay. Significant associations between total bilirubin and melatonin content were also detected in the NPDR ( = 0.360, < 0.001) and PDR ( = 0.183, < 0.001) groups.

Conclusion: The data obtained in this study demonstrated that plasma melatonin concen-tration was decreased in DR cases and could be used as a sensitive and specific marker for the diagnosis of DR. A significant positive relationship between total bilirubin and melatonin was detected. More related studies are required to understand the role of melatonin in DR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4239/wjd.v12.i2.138DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7839166PMC
February 2021

microRNA-induced translational control of antiviral immunity by the cap-binding protein 4EHP.

Mol Cell 2021 03 12;81(6):1187-1199.e5. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Goodman Cancer Centre, Department of Biochemistry, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 1A3, Canada. Electronic address:

Type I interferons (IFNs) are critical cytokines in the host defense against invading pathogens. Sustained production of IFNs, however, is detrimental to the host, as it provokes autoimmune diseases. Thus, the expression of IFNs is tightly controlled. We report that the mRNA 5' cap-binding protein 4EHP plays a key role in regulating type I IFN concomitant with controlling virus replication, both in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, 4EHP suppresses IFN-β production by effecting the miR-34a-induced translational silencing of Ifnb1 mRNA. miR-34a is upregulated by both RNA virus infection and IFN-β induction, prompting a negative feedback regulatory mechanism that represses IFN-β expression via 4EHP. These findings demonstrate the direct involvement of 4EHP in virus-induced host response, underscoring a critical translational silencing mechanism mediated by 4EHP and miR-34a to impede sustained IFN production. This study highlights an intrinsic regulatory function for miRNA and the translation machinery in maintaining host homeostasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molcel.2021.01.030DOI Listing
March 2021

LAMP Detection and Identification of the Blackleg Pathogen 'brassicae'.

Plant Dis 2021 Feb 9. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Huazhong Agricultural University, Plant Protection, Wuhan, HuBei, China.

Blackleg of oilseed rape is a damaging invasive disease caused by the species complex (Lm)/ (Lb), which are composed of at least two and seven phylogenetic subclades, respectively. Generally, Lm is more virulent than Lb, however, under certain conditions, Lb can cause a significant yield loss in oilseed rape. Lb 'brassicae' (Lbb) has been found to be the causal agent for blackleg of oilseed rape in China, whereas Lm and Lb 'canadensis' (Lbc) were frequently detected in imported seeds of oilseed rape, posing a risk of spread into China. In order to monitor the blackleg-pathogen populations, a diagnostic tool based on loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) was developed using a 615-bp-long DNA sequence from Lbb that was derived from a randomly amplified polymorphic DNA assay. The LAMP was optimized for temperature and time, and tested for specificity and sensitivity using the DNA extracted from Lbb, Lbc, Lm, and 10 other fungi. The results showed that the optimal temperature and time were 65°C and 40 min, respectively. The LAMP primer set was specific to Lbb and highly sensitive as it detected the Lbb DNA as low as 132 fg per reaction. The LAMP assay was validated using the DNA extracted from mycelia and conidia of a well-characterized Lbb isolate, and its utility was evaluated using the DNA extracted from leaves, stems, pods and seeds of oilseed rape. The LAMP assay developed herein will help for monitoring populations of the blackleg pathogens in China and developing strategies for management of the blackleg disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-08-20-1819-REDOI Listing
February 2021

Polystyrene microplastics lead to pyroptosis and apoptosis of ovarian granulosa cells via NLRP3/Caspase-1 signaling pathway in rats.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Apr 4;212:112012. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Department of Histology and Embryology, Bin Zhou Medical University, Yantai, PR China; College of Basic Medicine & Xu Rongxiang Regenerative Medicine Research Center, Binzhou Medical University, Yantai, PR China. Electronic address:

Microplastics (MPs) considered as a new persistent environmental pollutant could enter into the circulatory system and result in decrease of sperm quantity and quality in mice. However, the effects of Polystyrene MPs (PS MPs) on the ovary and its mechanism in rats remained unclear. In this present study, thirty-two healthy female Wistar rats were exposed to different concentrations of 0.5 µm PS MPs dispersed in deionized water for 90 days. Using hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, the number of growing follicles was decreased compared to the control group. In addition, the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were decreased while the expression level of malondialdehyde (MDA) was increased in ovary tissue. Confirmed by immunohistochemistry, the integrated optical density of NLRP3 and Cleaved-Caspase-1 had been elevated by 13.9 and 14 in granulosa cells in the 1.5 mg/kg/d group. Furthermore, compared to the control group, the level of AMH had been decreased by 23.3 pg/ml while IL-1β and IL-18 had been increased by 32 and 18.5 pg/ml in the 1.5 mg/kg/d group using the enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA). Besides, the apoptosis of granulosa cells was elevated measured by terminal deoxyribonucleotide transferase-mediated nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining and flow cytometry. Moreover, western blot assays showed that the expressions of NLRP3/Caspase-1 signaling pathway related factors and Cleaved-Caspase-3 were increased. These results demonstrated that PS MPs could induce pyroptosis and apoptosis of ovarian granulosa cells via the NLRP3/Caspase-1 signaling pathway maybe triggered by oxidative stress. The present study suggested that exposure to microplastics had adverse effects on ovary and could be a potential risk factor for female infertility, which provided new insights into the toxicity of MPs on female reproduction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.112012DOI Listing
April 2021

Rethinking the Ecosystem Functions of , a Widespread Genus of Ferns.

Front Plant Sci 2020 13;11:581513. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Key Laboratory of Vegetation Restoration and Management of Degraded Ecosystems, South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, China.

is an ancient and widespread genus of ferns in pantropical regions. Some species of the genus can form dense thickets, and dominate the understory, which are common and key species in tropical and subtropical ecosystems. However, they were mostly cut or burned in forest management because of forming dense thickets which were considered to interfere with forest regeneration and succession. In the current review, we argue that the species which are able to rapidly colonize barren areas may contribute to ecosystem recovery, resistance to environmental stress, and succession control. Rapid colonization involves prolific spore production, rapid clonal growth, the generation of high surface cover, and the ability to fill gaps; stress resistance includes resistance to abiotic stress, and the ability to reduce soil erosion from rainfall, alien species invasion, and soil contamination and toxicity; and succession facilitation consists of carbon and nutrient sequestration in soil, moderation of the microclimate, alteration of the soil microbial and faunal communities, and determination of which plant species to be established in the next successional stage. All of these ecosystem functions may be beneficial to ecosystem resilience. We expect that the distribution of will expand in response to global warming, changes in precipitation patterns, increases in soil pollution, deforestation, and land degradation. We recommend that , as a pioneer fern and a valuable component of tropical and subtropical ecosystems, needs more attention in future research and better management practices to promote forest regeneration and succession.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2020.581513DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7845760PMC
January 2021

Conditional adaptive Bayesian spectral analysis of replicated multivariate time series.

Stat Med 2021 Apr 20;40(8):1989-2005. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Paul H. Chook Department of Information Systems and Statistics, Baruch College, The City University of New York, New York, New York, USA.

This article introduces a flexible nonparametric approach for analyzing the association between covariates and power spectra of multivariate time series observed across multiple subjects, which we refer to as multivariate conditional adaptive Bayesian power spectrum analysis (MultiCABS). The proposed procedure adaptively collects time series with similar covariate values into an unknown number of groups and nonparametrically estimates group-specific power spectra through penalized splines. A fully Bayesian framework is developed in which the number of groups and the covariate partition defining the groups are random and fit using Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques. MultiCABS offers accurate estimation and inference on power spectra of multivariate time series with both smooth and abrupt dynamics across covariate by averaging over the distribution of covariate partitions. Performance of the proposed method compared with existing methods is evaluated in simulation studies. The proposed methodology is used to analyze the association between fear of falling and power spectra of center-of-pressure trajectories of postural control while standing in people with Parkinson's disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/sim.8884DOI Listing
April 2021

Co-Overexpression of TWIST1-CSF1 Is a Common Event in Metastatic Oral Cancer and Drives Biologically Aggressive Phenotype.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Jan 5;13(1). Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Segal Cancer Centre and Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, Sir Mortimer B. Davis-Jewish General Hospital, Departments of Medicine, Oncology, and Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3T 1E2, Canada.

Invasive oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is often ulcerated and heavily infiltrated by pro-inflammatory cells. We conducted a genome-wide profiling of tissues from OSCC patients (early versus advanced stages) with 10 years follow-up. Co-amplification and co-overexpression of , a transcriptional activator of epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT), and colony-stimulating factor-1 (), a major chemotactic agent for tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), were observed in metastatic OSCC cases. The overexpression of these markers strongly predicted poor patient survival (log-rank test, = 0.0035 and = 0.0219). Protein analysis confirmed the enhanced expression of TWIST1 and CSF1 in metastatic tissues. In preclinical models using OSCC cell lines, macrophages, and an in vivo matrigel plug assay, we demonstrated that gene overexpression induces the activation of while gene silencing down-regulates preventing OSCC invasion. Furthermore, excessive macrophage activation and polarization was observed in co-culture system involving OSCC cells overexpressing . In summary, this study provides insight into the cooperation between transcription factor and to promote OSCC invasiveness and opens up the potential therapeutic utility of currently developed antibodies and small molecules targeting cancer-associated macrophages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13010153DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7795342PMC
January 2021

Designed Fabrication of Polymer-Mediated MOF-Derived Magnetic Hollow Carbon Nanocages for Specific Isolation of Bovine Hemoglobin.

ACS Biomater Sci Eng 2020 03 17;6(3):1387-1396. Epub 2020 Feb 17.

Key Laboratory of Bioorganic Phosphorus Chemistry & Chemical Biology (Ministry of Education), Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, P. R. China.

It is highly required to develop well-designed separation materials for the specific isolation of certain proteins in proteomic research. Herein, the new type of metal-organic framework (MOF)-derived polymer-mediated magnetic hollow nanocages was fabricated via stress-induced orientation contraction, which was further applied for specific enrichment of proteins. The core-shell nanocomposites comprised of polymer-mediated ZIF-67 cores and polydopamine (PDA) shells, after annealing, generated magnetic hollow carbon nanocages with hierarchical pores and structures. Particularly, the magnetic carbonized PDA@F127/ZIF-67 hollow nanocages exhibited a remarkable adsorption capacity toward bovine hemoglobin (BHB) up to 834.3 mg g, which was significantly greater than that of the directed carbonized ZIF-67 nanoparticles. The results also exhibited the notable specificity of the obtained nanocages on complex biosamples, including intact mixed proteins and fetal calf serum. The hierarchically hollow porous structure greatly improves the specific surface area and reduces the mass transfer resistance, leading to enhanced high adsorption for target protein BHB. This novel method will be promising for the applications in purification and enrichment of biomacromolecules for complex biosamples, which successfully solve the problem of low adsorption efficiency and tedious separating process of the previous MOF-derived materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsbiomaterials.9b01793DOI Listing
March 2020

Light-Tunable Ferromagnetism in Atomically Thin Fe_{3}GeTe_{2} Driven by Femtosecond Laser Pulse.

Phys Rev Lett 2020 Dec;125(26):267205

National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Advanced Photonic and Electronic Materials, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, People's Republic of China.

The recent discovery of intrinsic ferromagnetism in two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals (vdW) crystals has opened up a new arena for spintronics, raising an opportunity of achieving tunable intrinsic 2D vdW magnetism. Here, we show that the magnetization and the magnetic anisotropy energy (MAE) of few-layered Fe_{3}GeTe_{2} (FGT) is strongly modulated by a femtosecond laser pulse. Upon increasing the femtosecond laser excitation intensity, the saturation magnetization increases in an approximately linear way and the coercivity determined by the MAE decreases monotonically, showing unambiguously the effect of the laser pulse on magnetic ordering. This effect observed at room temperature reveals the emergence of light-driven room-temperature (300 K) ferromagnetism in 2D vdW FGT, as its intrinsic Curie temperature T_{C} is ∼200  K. The light-tunable ferromagnetism is attributed to the changes in the electronic structure due to the optical doping effect. Our findings pave a novel way to optically tune 2D vdW magnetism and enhance the T_{C} up to room temperature, promoting spintronic applications at or above room temperature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.125.267205DOI Listing
December 2020

Independently Tunable Multipurpose Absorber with Single Layer of Metal-Graphene Metamaterials.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Jan 8;14(2). Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Terahertz Research Centre, School of Electronics Science and Engineering, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054, China.

This paper reports an independently tunable graphene-based metamaterial absorber (GMA) designed by etching two cascaded resonators with dissimilar sizes in the unit cell. Two perfect absorption peaks were obtained at 6.94 and 10.68 μm with simple single-layer metal-graphene metamaterials; the peaks show absorption values higher than 99%. The mechanism of absorption was analyzed theoretically. The independent tunability of the metamaterial absorber (MA) was realized by varying the Fermi level of graphene under a set of resonators. Furthermore, multi-band and wide-band absorption were observed by the proposed structure upon increasing the number of resonators and resizing them in the unit cell. The obtained results demonstrate the multipurpose performance of this type of absorber and indicate its potential application in diverse applications, such as solar energy harvesting and thermal absorbing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14020284DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7826914PMC
January 2021

Clean version: Electrospun fibrinogen scaffolds from discarded blood for wound healing.

J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2021 Jan 5. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Department of Orthopaedics, The Affiliated Hospital of Guizhou Medical University, Guiyang, China.

Immediate reutilization of discarded blood from surgery has not received much attention, leading to the waste of a large amount of autologous blood. We used a concentration gradient and high-voltage electrospinning technology to immediately prepare a scaffold material with high biological activity but without immunogenicity from autologous waste blood collected during surgery. Here, we fabricated and characterized a 90 mg/mL group, 110 mg/mL group, and 130 mg/mL group of fibrinogen (FBG) scaffolds. Analyses revealed that the FBG scaffolds had good film-forming properties and a clear fiber structure. in vitro cell viability experiments confirmed that the cells showed an increasing trend with increasing FBG concentrations. The cells grew well in the scaffold material and secreted more cell matrix. When human bone mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) were cocultured with the scaffold material, the hBMSCs expressed osteogenic and chondrogenic biomarkers. The cellular scaffold complexes from the 3 groups were implanted in four full-thickness round wounds (Φ12 mm) on the dorsal back of each rat, the 130 mg/mL group showed a 90% reduction in wound size and the data compared to other groups were better at 14 day. These results suggest that electrospinning technology-based FBG scaffold materials derived from autologous waste blood may become an ideal tissue engineering scaffold and can be immediately used for autologous hemostasis, anti-adhesion films, and wound dressing in surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbm.b.34777DOI Listing
January 2021

A cloud platform for atomic pair distribution function analysis: PDFitc.

Acta Crystallogr A Found Adv 2021 Jan 5;77(Pt 1):2-6. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA.

A cloud web platform for analysis and interpretation of atomic pair distribution function (PDF) data (PDFitc) is described. The platform is able to host applications for PDF analysis to help researchers study the local and nanoscale structure of nanostructured materials. The applications are designed to be powerful and easy to use and can, and will, be extended over time through community adoption and development. The currently available PDF analysis applications, structureMining, spacegroupMining and similarityMapping, are described. In the first and second the user uploads a single PDF and the application returns a list of best-fit candidate structures, and the most likely space group of the underlying structure, respectively. In the third, the user can upload a set of measured or calculated PDFs and the application returns a matrix of Pearson correlations, allowing assessment of the similarity between different data sets. structureMining is presented here as an example to show the easy-to-use workflow on PDFitc. In the future, as well as using the PDFitc applications for data analysis, it is hoped that the community will contribute their own codes and software to the platform.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1107/S2053273320013066DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7842210PMC
January 2021

Polystyrene microplastics cause granulosa cells apoptosis and fibrosis in ovary through oxidative stress in rats.

Toxicology 2021 02 24;449:152665. Epub 2020 Dec 24.

Department of Histology and Embryology, Binzhou Medical University, Yantai, PR China; College of Basic Medicine & Xu Rongxiang Regenerative Medicine Research Center, Binzhou Medical University, Yantai, PR China. Electronic address:

Microplastics (MPs) are receiving increased attention as a harmful environmental pollutant. Studies have investigated that MPs have reproductive toxicity, but the mechanism is little known. Here, we aimed to investigate the effects of polystyrene microplastics (PS-MPs) on ovary in rats and the underlying molecular mechanisms. in vivo, thirty-two female Wistar rats were exposed to 0.5 μm PS-MPs at different concentrations (0, 0.015, 0.15 and 1.5 mg/d) for 90 days. And then, all animals were sacrificed, ovaries and blood were collected for testing. in vitro, granulosa cells (GCs) were separated from rat ovary and treated with 0、1、5、25 μg/mL PS-MPs and reactive oxygen species (ROS) inhibitor N-Acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) respectively. Our results showed that PS-MPs could enter into GCs and result in the reducing of growing follicles number. And the Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) manifested that PS-MPs could obviously decrease the level of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH). In addition, PS-MPs induced oxidative stress, apoptosis of GCs and ovary fibrosis evidenced by assay kits, flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, Masson's trichrome and Sirius red staining. Moreover, the western blot assay manifested that PS-MPs exposure significantly increased the expression levels of Wnt/β-Catenin signaling pathways-related proteins (Wnt, β-catenin, p-β-catenin) and the main fibrosis markers (transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), fibronectin, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). Additionally, the expression levels of Wnt and p-β-catenin, apoptosis of GCs decreased after NAC treatment. In summary, polystyrene microplastics cause fibrosis via Wnt/β-Catenin signaling pathway activation and granulosa cells apoptosis of ovary through oxidative stress in rats, both of which ultimately resulted in decrease of ovarian reserve capacity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tox.2020.152665DOI Listing
February 2021

Beyond CN π-conjugated metal-free polymeric semiconductors for photocatalytic chemical transformations.

Chem Soc Rev 2021 Feb;50(3):2147-2172

National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Nano Technology, School of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, P. R. China. and The School of Science and Engineering, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shenzhen 518172, P. R. China.

Photocatalysis with stable, efficient and inexpensive metal-free catalysts is one of the most promising options for non-polluting energy production. This review article covers the state-of-the-art development of various effective metal-free polymeric photocatalysts with large π-conjugated units for chemical transformations including water splitting, CO2 and N2 reduction, organic synthesis and monomer polymerisation. The article starts with the catalytic mechanisms of metal-free photocatalysts. Then a particular focus is on the rational manipulation of π-conjugation enlargement, charge separation, electronic structures and band structures in the design of metal-free polymeric photocatalysts. Following the design principles, the selection and construction of functional units are discussed, as well as the connecting bonds and dimensions of π-conjugated polymeric photocatalysts. Finally the hot and emerging applications of metal-free polymeric photocatalysts for photocatalytic chemical transformations are summarized. The strategies provide potential avenues to address the challenges of catalyst activity, selectivity and stability in the further development of highly effective metal-free polymeric photocatalysts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cs00445fDOI Listing
February 2021