Publications by authors named "Loic Comtet"

15 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells are a suitable cell line for the propagation and study of the bovine poxvirus lumpy skin disease virus.

J Virol Methods 2020 11 22;285:113943. Epub 2020 Jul 22.

The Pirbright Institute, Ash Rd, Surrey, GU24 0NF, UK; The Roslin Institute / Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush, Midlothian, EH25 9RG, UK. Electronic address:

Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) is a poxvirus that causes systemic disease in cattle, resulting in substantial economic loss to affected communities. LSDV is a rapidly emerging pathogen of growing global concern that recently spread from Africa and the Middle East into Europe and Asia, impacting the cattle population in these regions. An increase in research efforts into LSDV is required to address key knowledge gaps, however this is hampered by lack of suitable cell lines on which to propagate and study the virus. In this work we describe the replication and spread of LSDV on Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells, and the formation of foci-type poxvirus plaques by LSDV on MDBK cells. Methods utilising MDBK cells to quantify neutralising antibodies to LSDV, and to purify LSDV genomic DNA suitable for short read sequencing are described. These research methods broaden the tools available for LSDV researchers and will facilitate the gathering of evidence to underpin the development of LSD control and prevention programmes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jviromet.2020.113943DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7561597PMC
November 2020

First detection and genome sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 in an infected cat in France.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2020 Nov 23;67(6):2324-2328. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

UMR VIROLOGIE, INRAE, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort, ANSES, Laboratoire de santé animale, Université Paris-Est, Maisons-Alfort, France.

After its first description in Wuhan (China), SARS-CoV-2 the agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) rapidly spread worldwide. Previous studies suggested that pets could be susceptible to SARS-CoV-2. Here, we investigated the putative infection by SARS-CoV-2 in 22 cats and 11 dogs from owners previously infected or suspected of being infected by SARS-CoV-2. For each animal, rectal, nasopharyngeal swabs and serum were taken. Swabs were submitted to RT-qPCR assays targeting 2 genes of SARS-CoV-2. All dogs were tested SARS-CoV-2 negative. One cat was tested positive by RT-qPCR on rectal swab. Nasopharyngeal swabs from this animal were tested negative. This cat showed mild respiratory and digestive signs. Serological analysis confirms the presence of antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 in both serum samples taken 10 days apart. Genome sequence analysis revealed that the cat SARS-CoV-2 belongs to the phylogenetic clade A2a like most of the French human SARS-CoV-2. This study reports for the first time the natural infection of a cat in France (near Paris) probably through their owners. There is currently no evidence that cats can spread COVID-19 and owners should not abandon their pets or compromise their welfare.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.13659DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7300955PMC
November 2020

Seroprevalence of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in Domesticated Animals in Northwestern Senegal.

Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2020 10 19;20(10):797-799. Epub 2020 May 19.

Aix Marseille Univ, IRD, AP-HM, MEPHI, IHU Méditerranée Infection, Marseille, France.

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne disease that can be contracted by direct contact with viremic animals or humans. In West Africa, recurrent CCHF outbreaks have been constantly observed in Mauritania and Senegal. Moreover, acquisition and epidemiology of the infection in humans are correlated with the occurrence and the seroprevalence of the virus in livestock. The main objective of this study is to provide updated information on the local spread of CCHF in animals in the northern region of Senegal. Out of a total of 283 animal sera collected, CCHF-specific antibodies were identified in 92 (32.5%; confidence interval [CI] 27.1-38.3) sera by double antigen sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test. The prevalence of CCHF virus (CCHFV) infection among horses, cattle, sheep, dogs, donkeys, and goats was 70.3% (45/64), 57.1% (8/14), 22.1% (30/136), 18.2% (2/11), 17.2% (5/29), and 6.9% (2/29), respectively. The antibody titers were found significantly affected by age ( < 0.0001) and gender ( < 0.05). High tick infestation by spp. and spp. was recorded on horses. The high seroprevalence to CCHFV among animals in the northern region of Senegal observed in this study indicates the permanent presence of the infection in the northern region of the country suggesting the need to strengthen surveillance plans for CCHF in Senegal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2019.2592DOI Listing
October 2020

Evaluation of a commercial ELISA for detection of epizootic haemorrhagic disease antibodies in domestic and wild ruminant sera.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2020 Nov 14;67(6):2475-2481. Epub 2020 May 14.

Laboratoire de Santé Animale d'Alfort, ANSES, ENVA, INRA, UMR 1161 VIROLOGIE, Université Paris Est, Maisons-Alfort, France.

Bluetongue (BT) and epizootic haemorrhagic disease (EHD) are vector-borne viral diseases affecting domestic and wild ruminants. Both are notifiable under OIE rules. BT and EHD viruses (BTV and EHDV) are closely related Orbiviruses with structural, antigenic and molecular similarities. Both viruses can produce analogous clinical signs in susceptible animals. Serological tests are commonly used for BT and EHD diagnosis and surveillance. Competitive ELISA (c-ELISA) is the most widely used serological test for the specific detection of BTV or EHDV viral protein 7 (VP7) antibodies (Abs). The specificity and sensitivity of the BTV c-ELISA kits available on the market are recognized for the detection of BTV Abs. Concerning EHD, a single commercial EHDV c-ELISA kit (ELISA A kit) commonly used for diagnosis in Europe and Africa was available between 2011 and 2018 but is now no longer on the market. In this study, we evaluated a new commercial c-ELISA to detect ruminant EHDV VP7 Abs in 2,199 serum samples from cattle, sheep, goats, wild deer and zoo animals. The results showed that this ELISA kit is specific and can detect the presence of IgG anti-EHDV VP7 with a very good diagnostic specificity and a satisfactory sensitivity in domestic ruminants, zoo animals and wild deer. Therefore, the evaluated c-ELISA can detect the introduction of EHDV into an area where BTV-seropositive domestic animals are present. The performance of this kit is similar to that of the c-ELISA A kit and can thus be used for diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.13586DOI Listing
November 2020

Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Antibodies among Livestock on Corsica, France, 2014-2016.

Emerg Infect Dis 2020 05;26(5):1041-1044

We conducted a serologic survey for Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus antibodies in livestock (cattle, sheep, and goats; N = 3,890) on Corsica (island of France) during 2014-2016. Overall, 9.1% of animals were seropositive, suggesting this virus circulates on Corsica. However, virus identification is needed to confirm these results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/10.3201/eid2605.191465DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7181912PMC
May 2020

Evaluation of an IGM-specific ELISA for early detection of bluetongue virus infections in domestic ruminants sera.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2019 Jan 23;66(1):537-545. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Laboratoire de Santé Animale d'Alfort, Université Paris Est, ANSES, ENVA, INRA, UMR 1161 VIROLOGIE, Maisons-Alfort, France.

Competitive-ELISA (c-ELISA) is the most widely used serological test for the detection of Bluetongue virus (BTV) viral protein 7 (VP7) antibodies (Ab). However, these BTV c-ELISAs cannot to distinguish between IgG and IgM. IgM Ab are generated shortly after the primary immune response against an infectious agent, indicating a recent infection or exposure to antigens, such as after vaccination. Because the BTV genome or anti-VP7 Ab can be detected in ruminant blood months after infection, BTV diagnostic tools cannot discriminate between recent and old infections. In this study, we evaluated an IgM-capture ELISA prototype to detect ruminant anti-BTV VP7 IgM on 1,650 serum samples from cattle, sheep, or goats. Animals were BTV-naive, infected, or/and vaccinated with BTV-1, -2, -4, -8, -9, -16, or -27, and we also included 30 sera from cattle infected with the Epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) serotype 6. Results demonstrated that this ELISA kit is specific and can detect the presence of IgM with satisfactory diagnostic specificity and sensitivity from 1 to 5 weeks after BTV infection in domestic ruminants (for goats and cattle; for sheep, at least up to 24 days). The peak of anti-VP7 IgM was reached when the level of infectious viruses and BTV RNA in blood were the highest. The possibility of detecting BTV-RNA in IgM-positive sera allows the amplification and sequencing of the partial RNA segment 2 (encoding the serotype specific to VP2) to determine the causative BTV serotype/strain. Therefore, BTV IgM ELISA can detect the introduction of BTV (or EHDV) in an area with BTV-seropositive domestic animals regardless of their serological BTV status. This approach may also be of particular interest for retrospective epidemiological studies on frozen serum samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.13060DOI Listing
January 2019

A novel double-antigen sandwich ELISA for the species-independent detection of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus-specific antibodies.

Antiviral Res 2018 03 9;151:24-26. Epub 2018 Jan 9.

Institute of Novel and Emerging Infectious Diseases, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, Greifswald-Isle of Riems, Germany. Electronic address:

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne disease in humans caused by the CCHF virus (CCHFV). The detection of anti-CCHFV antibodies in animals is used to reveal infection risk areas. Therefore a simple, quick and reliable multispecies assay for the detection of CCHFV-specific antibodies is needed. This work presents the development and validation of a novel CCHF double-antigen ELISA for the detection of anti-CCHFV nucleoprotein antibodies. The test requires 30 μl of serum, and results are obtained within 90 min. As the ELISA is based on recombinant N-protein of the IbAr10200 virus, it can be run under standard biosafety conditions. For assay validation, sera from 95 cattle and 176 small ruminants from CCHF-endemic regions (origin: Albania, Cameroon, Kosovo, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Mauritania, Pakistan, Turkey) served as a positive reference serum panel. The CCHF antibody status of the positive reference samples had been previously confirmed by two serological assays (species-adapted VectorBest ELISA and Euroimmun IFA). CCHFV strains belonging to three different clades are known to circulate in the countries where the positive samples originated. Sera from 402 cattle and 804 small ruminants from Germany and France served as the negative serum panel, as both countries are considered outside of the CCHFV endemic zone. Sera from monkeys, camels, rats, ferrets, raccoon dogs, raccoons, foxes, hares, pigs and humans were also tested, to determine the suitability of this novel ELISA for these species. All negative reference sera were confirmed by the CCHF double-antigen ELISA, indicating a specificity of 100%. 268 of 271 positive reference sera tested positive for CCHFV-specific antibodies, 8sensitivity of 99%9. Further analysis are needed to ensure a recognition of the IbAr10200 nucleoprotein by antibodies directed against all known CCHFV clades. This is planned to be realized with sera from other regions covering the three missing clades.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2018.01.006DOI Listing
March 2018

Diagnostic evaluation of assays for detection of antibodies against porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) in pigs exposed to different PEDV strains.

Prev Vet Med 2016 Dec 8;135:87-94. Epub 2016 Nov 8.

The Roslin Institute and The Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, Midlothian, United Kingdom; Department of Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA. Electronic address:

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) has caused economic losses in the Americas, Asia and Europe in recent years. Reliable serological assays are essential for epidemiological studies and vaccine evaluation. The objective of this study was to compare the ability of five enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) to detect antibodies against different PEDV strains in pig serum. A total of 732 serum samples from North American or European pigs were tested. Samples included experimental samples from pigs infected with classical (G1a PEDV) or variant genogroup 1 PEDV (G1b PEDV), pandemic genogroup 2 PEDV (G2b PEDV) or non-infected controls. Field samples from herds with confirmed or unknown PEDV exposure were also used. Three indirect ELISAs based on G2b antigens (ELISAs 1, 2 and 3), a competitive ELISA based on the G2b antigen (ELISA 4) and a competitive ELISA based on the G1a antigen (ELISA 5) were compared. Overall, the tests had a moderate agreement (κ=0.61). G1a PEDV infected pigs were earliest detected by ELISA 3, G1b PEDV infected pigs were earliest detected by ELISAs 4 and 5 and the performance of all tests was similar for the G2b PEDV group. ELISA 1 showed the overall lowest detection on experimentally and field derived samples. Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity with a 95% probability interval were estimated to be 68.2% (62.1-74.4%) and 97.5% (95.2-99.0%) for ELISA 1, 73.7% (71.5-79.6%) and 98.4% (96.6-99.5%) for ELISA 2, 86.2% (81.1-90.6%) and 91.6% (87.7-94.8%) for ELISA 3, 78.3% (72.8-83.5%) and 99.7% (98.2-100%) for ELISA 4, and 93.5% (90.3-96.0%) and 91.2% (83.8-97.9%) for ELISA 5. Differences in detection among assays seem to be more related to intrinsic factors of an assay than to the PEDV antigen used.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2016.11.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7126628PMC
December 2016

Persistence of the protective immunity and kinetics of the isotype specific antibody response against the viral nucleocapsid protein after experimental Schmallenberg virus infection of sheep.

Vet Res 2015 Oct 15;46:119. Epub 2015 Oct 15.

CODA-CERVA, Operational Directorate Viral Diseases, Groeselenberg 99, 1180, Brussels, Belgium.

Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is an Orthobunyavirus that induces abortion, stillbirths and congenital malformations in ruminants. SBV infection induces a long lasting seroconversion under natural conditions. The persistence of the protective immunity and the isotype specific antibody response upon SBV infection of sheep has however not been studied in detail. Five sheep were kept in BSL3 facilities for more than 16 months and subjected to repeated SBV infections. Blood was regularly sampled and organs were collected at euthanasia. The presence of SBV RNA in serum and organs was measured with quantitative real-time PCR. The appearance and persistence of neutralizing and SBV nucleoprotein (N) isotype specific antibodies was determined with virus neutralization tests (VNT) and ELISAs. The primo SBV infection protected ewes against clinical signs, viraemia and virus replication in organs upon challenge infections more than 15 months later. Production of neutralizing SBV specific antibodies was first detected around 6 days post primo-inoculation with VNT and correlated with the appearance of SBV-N specific IgM antibodies. These IgM antibodies remained present for 2 weeks. SBV-N specific IgG antibodies were first detected between 10 and 21 dpi and reached a plateau at 28 dpi. This plateau remained consistently high and no significant decrease in titre was found over a period of more than 1 year. Similar results were found for the neutralising antibody response. In conclusion, the SBV specific IgM response probably eliminates SBV from the blood and the protective immunity induced by SBV infection protects sheep against reinfection for at least 16 months.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13567-015-0260-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4608186PMC
October 2015

Circulation of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia revealed by screening of cattle sera using a novel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2015 Mar 5;9(3):e0003519. Epub 2015 Mar 5.

Institute of Novel and Emerging Infectious Diseases, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, Greifswald-Isle of Riems, Germany.

Background: There are only few assays available for the detection of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus (CCHFV)-specific antibodies in animals, and data about diagnostic sensitivity and specificity are incompletely documented for most of these tests. This is unfortunate since CCHFV antibodies in animals can be used as indicator for virus circulation in a geographic area and therewith potential risk of human exposure. This paper therefore reports on a novel ELISA for the detection of CCHFV-specific antibodies in cattle and on its application for testing ruminant sera from the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.

Principal Findings: A highly sensitive and specific ELISA was developed to detect CCHFV-specific IgG antibodies in cattle. The assay was validated by using 503 negative serum samples from a country where CCHFV has never been detected until now, and by using 54 positive serum samples. The positive sera were verified by using two commercially available assays (for testing human serum) which we have adapted for use in animals. The sensitivity of the novel ELISA was 98% and its specificity 99%. The presence of Hyalomma ticks was demonstrated in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and depending on the region antibody prevalence rates up to 80% were detected in the cattle population.

Conclusion: This article describes a fully validated, highly sensitive and specific ELISA for the detection of CCHFV-specific IgG antibodies in cattle. Using this assay, CCHFV-specific antibodies were detected for the first time in cattle in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, giving evidence for an active circulation of this virus in the country. Supporting this conclusion, the occurrence of the main vector of CCHFV was demonstrated in the present work for the first time in Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003519DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4351108PMC
March 2015

Strong protection induced by an experimental DIVA subunit vaccine against bluetongue virus serotype 8 in cattle.

Vaccine 2014 Nov 11;32(49):6614-21. Epub 2014 Oct 11.

Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Host Pathogen Interaction Group, Department of Clinical Sciences, Almas allé 4 C, Uppsala, Sweden; National Veterinary Institute, Department of Virology, Immunology, and Parasitology, Ulls väg 2B, Uppsala, Sweden. Electronic address:

Bluetongue virus (BTV) infections in ruminants pose a permanent agricultural threat since new serotypes are constantly emerging in new locations. Clinical disease is mainly observed in sheep, but cattle were unusually affected during an outbreak of BTV seroype 8 (BTV-8) in Europe. We previously developed an experimental vaccine based on recombinant viral protein 2 (VP2) of BTV-8 and non-structural proteins 1 (NS1) and NS2 of BTV-2, mixed with an immunostimulating complex (ISCOM)-matrix adjuvant. We demonstrated that bovine immune responses induced by this vaccine were as good or superior to those induced by a classic commercial inactivated vaccine. In this study, we evaluated the protective efficacy of the experimental vaccine in cattle and, based on the detection of VP7 antibodies, assessed its DIVA compliancy following virus challenge. Two groups of BTV-seronegative calves were subcutaneously immunized twice at a 3-week interval with the subunit vaccine (n=6) or with adjuvant alone (n=6). Following BTV-8 challenge 3 weeks after second immunization, controls developed viremia and fever associated with other mild clinical signs of bluetongue disease, whereas vaccinated animals were clinically and virologically protected. The vaccine-induced protection was likely mediated by high virus-neutralizing antibody titers directed against VP2 and perhaps by cellular responses to NS1 and NS2. T lymphocyte responses were cross-reactive between BTV-2 and BTV-8, suggesting that NS1 and NS2 may provide the basis of an adaptable vaccine that can be varied by using VP2 of different serotypes. The detection of different levels of VP7 antibodies in vaccinated animals and controls after challenge suggested a compliancy between the vaccine and the DIVA companion test. This BTV subunit vaccine is a promising candidate that should be further evaluated and developed to protect against different serotypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.09.066DOI Listing
November 2014

Evaluation of the immunogenicity of an experimental subunit vaccine that allows differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals against bluetongue virus serotype 8 in cattle.

Clin Vaccine Immunol 2013 Aug 29;20(8):1115-22. Epub 2013 May 29.

Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Host Pathogen Interaction Group, Department of Clinical Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.

Bluetongue virus (BTV), the causative agent of bluetongue in ruminants, is an emerging virus in northern Europe. The 2006 outbreak of BTV serotype 8 (BTV-8) in Europe was marked by an unusual teratogenic effect and a high frequency of clinical signs in cattle. Conventional control strategies targeting small ruminants were therefore extended to include cattle. Since cattle were not routinely vaccinated before 2006, the immune responses to BTV have not been studied extensively in this species. With the aims of developing a subunit vaccine against BTV-8 for differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals based on viral protein 7 (VP7) antibody detection and of improving the current understanding of the immunogenicity of BTV proteins in cattle, the immune responses induced by recombinant VP2 (BTV-8) and nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) and NS2 (BTV-2) were studied. Cows were immunized twice (with a 3-week interval) with the experimental vaccine, a commercial inactivated vaccine, or a placebo. The two vaccines induced similar neutralizing antibody responses to BTV-8. Furthermore, the antibody responses detected against VP2, NS1, and NS2 were strongest in the animals immunized with the experimental vaccine, and for the first time, a serotype cross-reactive antibody response to NS2 was shown in cattle vaccinated with the commercial vaccine. The two vaccines evoked measurable T cell responses against NS1, thereby supporting a bovine cross-reactive T cell response. Finally, VP7 seroconversion was observed after vaccination with the commercial vaccine, as in natural infections, but not after vaccination with the experimental vaccine, indicating that the experimental vaccine may allow the differentiation of vaccinated animals from infected animals regardless of BTV serotype. The experimental vaccine will be further evaluated during a virulent challenge in a high-containment facility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/CVI.00229-13DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3754508PMC
August 2013

Epidemiology, molecular virology and diagnostics of Schmallenberg virus, an emerging orthobunyavirus in Europe.

Vet Res 2013 May 15;44:31. Epub 2013 May 15.

ANSES-INRA-ENVA, UMR 1161 Virologie, 23 avenue du Général De Gaulle, Maisons-Alfort 94704, France.

After the unexpected emergence of Bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) in northern Europe in 2006, another arbovirus, Schmallenberg virus (SBV), emerged in Europe in 2011 causing a new economically important disease in ruminants. The virus, belonging to the Orthobunyavirus genus in the Bunyaviridae family, was first detected in Germany, in The Netherlands and in Belgium in 2011 and soon after in the United Kingdom, France, Italy, Luxembourg, Spain, Denmark and Switzerland. This review describes the current knowledge on the emergence, epidemiology, clinical signs, molecular virology and diagnosis of SBV infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1297-9716-44-31DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3663787PMC
May 2013

Validation of a commercially available indirect ELISA using a nucleocapside recombinant protein for detection of Schmallenberg virus antibodies.

PLoS One 2013 15;8(1):e53446. Epub 2013 Jan 15.

Virology Unit, French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety, Maisons-Alfort, France.

A newly developed Enzym Like Immuno Sorbant Assay (ELISA) based on the recombinant nucleocapsid protein (N) of Schmallenberg virus (SBV) was evaluated and validated for the detection of SBV-specific IgG antibodies in ruminant sera by three European Reference Laboratories. Validation data sets derived from sheep, goat and bovine sera collected in France and Germany (n = 1515) in 2011 and 2012 were categorized according to the results of a virus neutralization test (VNT) or an indirect immuno-fluorescence assay (IFA). The specificity was evaluated with 1364 sera from sheep, goat and bovine collected in France and Belgium before 2009. Overall agreement between VNT and ELISA was 98.9% and 98.3% between VNT and IFA, indicating a very good concordance between the different techniques. Although cross-reactions with other Orthobunyavirus from the Simbu serogroup viruses might occur, it is a highly sensitive, specific and robust ELISA-test validated to detect anti-SBV antibodies. This test can be applied for SBV sero-diagnostics and disease-surveillance studies in ruminant species in Europe.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0053446PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3546048PMC
June 2013

Myxomavirus as a vector for the immunisation of sheep: protection study against challenge with bluetongue virus.

Vaccine 2012 Feb 13;30(9):1609-16. Epub 2012 Jan 13.

INRA, UMR1225, IHAP, F-31076 Toulouse, France.

Recombinant poxviruses are well suited for the development of new vaccine vectors. Our previous data supported the idea that Myxomavirus (MYXV) is efficient at priming antibody responses in sheep. To provide definitive evidence on the potential of MYXV for vaccination against infectious diseases in ruminants, we investigated the immune protection provided by recombinant MYXV against bluetongue, a devastating disease in sheep. To test this concept, sheep were injected twice with an MYXV expressing the immunodominant VP2 protein (SG33-VP2). The SG33-VP2 vector promoted the production of neutralising antibodies and partially protected sheep against disease after challenge with a highly virulent strain of serotype-8 bluetongue virus (BTV-8). In contrast, an MYXV expressing both VP2 and VP5 proteins (SG33-VP2/5) elicited very little protection. The expression levels of the VP2 and VP5 proteins suggested that, greater than the co-expression of the VP5 protein which was previously thought to favour anti-VP2 antibody response, the high expression of VP2 may be critical in the MYXV context to stimulate a protective response in sheep. This highlights the requirement for a careful examination of antigen expression before any conclusion can be drawn on the respective role of the protective antigens. As a proof of principle, our study shows that an MYXV vaccine vector is possible in ruminants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2011.12.108DOI Listing
February 2012