Publications by authors named "Lohit Garg"

52 Publications

Interatrial septal tachycardias following atrial fibrillation ablation or cardiac surgery: Electrophysiological features and ablation outcomes.

Heart Rhythm 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Electrophysiology Section, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Electronic address:

Background: Interatrial septal tachycardias (IAS-ATs) following atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation or cardiac surgery are rare, and their management is challenging.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the electrophysiological features and outcomes associated with catheter ablation of IAS-AT.

Methods: We screened 338 patients undergoing catheter ablation of ATs following AF ablation or cardiac surgery. Diagnosis of IAS-AT was based on activation mapping and analysis of response to atrial overdrive pacing.

Results: Twenty-nine patients (9%) had IAS-AT (cycle length [CL] 311 ± 104 ms); 16 (55%) had prior AF ablation procedures (median 3; range 1-5), 3 (10%) had prior surgical maze, and 12 (41%) had prior cardiac surgery (including atrial septal defect surgical repair in 5 and left atrial myxoma resection in 1). IAS substrate abnormalities were documented in all patients. Activation mapping always demonstrated a diffuse early IAS breakout with centrifugal biatrial activation, and atrial overdrive pacing showed a good postpacing interval (equal or within 25 ms of the AT CL) only at 1 or 2 anatomically opposite IAS sites in all cases. Ablation was acutely successful in 27 patients (93%) (from only the right IAS in 2, only the left IAS in 9, both IAS sides with sequential ablation in 13, and both IAS sides with bipolar ablation in 3). After median follow-up of 15 (6-52) months, 17 patients (59%) remained free from recurrent arrhythmias.

Conclusion: IAS-ATs are rare and typically occur in patients with evidence of IAS substrate abnormalities and prior cardiac surgery. Catheter ablation can be challenging and may require sequential unipolar ablation or bipolar ablation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hrthm.2021.04.036DOI Listing
May 2021

A novel approach to mapping and ablation of septal outflow tract ventricular arrhythmias: Insights from multipolar intraseptal recordings.

Heart Rhythm 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Section of Cardiac Electrophysiology, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hrthm.2021.04.016DOI Listing
April 2021

Racial/Ethnic and Socioeconomic Disparities in Management of Incident Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 02 1;4(2):e210247. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Cardiovascular Division, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.

Importance: In patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF), rhythm control with either antiarrhythmic drugs (AADs) or catheter ablation has been associated with decreased symptoms, prevention of adverse remodeling, and improved cardiovascular outcomes. Adoption of advanced cardiovascular therapeutics, however, is often slower among patients from racial/ethnic minority groups and those with lower income.

Objective: To ascertain the cumulative rates of AAD and catheter ablation use for the management of paroxysmal AF and to investigate for the presence of inequities in AF management by evaluating the association of race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status with their use in the United States.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This cohort study obtained inpatient, outpatient, and pharmacy claims data from the Optum Clinformatics Data Mart between October 1, 2015, and June 30, 2019. Adult patients (aged ≥18 years) in the database with a diagnosis of incident paroxysmal AF were identified. Patients were excluded if they did not have continuous insurance enrollment for at least 1 year before and at least 6 months after study entry.

Exposures: Race/ethnicity and zip code-linked median household income.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Treatment with a rhythm control strategy, and catheter ablation specifically, among those who received rhythm control. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess the association of race/ethnicity and zip code-linked median household income with a rhythm control strategy (AADs or catheter ablation) vs a rate control strategy as well as with catheter ablation vs AADs among those receiving rhythm control.

Results: Of the 109 221 patients who met the inclusion criteria, 55 185 were men (50.5%) and 73 523 were White (67.3%), with a median (interquartile range) age of 75 (68-82) years. A total of 86 359 patients (79.1%) were treated with rate control, 19 362 patients (17.7%) with AADs, and 3500 (3.2%) with catheter ablation. Between 2016 and 2019, the cumulative percentage of patients treated with catheter ablation increased from 1.6% to 3.8%. In multivariable analyses, Black race (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.89; 95% CI, 0.83-0.94; P < .001) and lower zip code-linked median household income (aOR for <$50 000: 0.83 [95% CI, 0.79-0.87; P < .001]; aOR for $50 000-$99 999: 0.92 [95% CI, 0.88-0.96; P = <.001] compared with ≥$100 000) were independently associated with lower use of rhythm control. Latinx ethnicity (aOR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.60-0.89; P = .002) and lower zip code-linked median household income (aOR for <$50 000: 0.61 [95% CI, 0.54-0.69; P < .001]; aOR for $50 000-$99 999: 0.81 [95% CI, 0.72-0.90; P < .001] compared with ≥$100 000) were independently associated with lower catheter ablation use among those receiving rhythm control.

Conclusions And Relevance: This study found that despite increased use of rhythm control strategies for treatment of paroxysmal AF, catheter ablation use remained low and patients from racial/ethnic minority groups and those with lower income were less likely to receive rhythm control treatment, especially catheter ablation. These findings highlight inequities in paroxysmal AF management based on race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.0247DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7910819PMC
February 2021

Arctic Front versus POLARx cryoballoon: Is there a winner?

J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2021 Mar 10;32(3):595-596. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Cardiovascular Division, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jce.14926DOI Listing
March 2021

Impact of Left Atrial Bipolar Electrogram Voltage on First Pass Pulmonary Vein Isolation During Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation.

Front Physiol 2020 15;11:594654. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Electrophysiology Section, Cardiovascular Division, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States.

Background: First pass pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) is associated with durable isolation and reduced recurrence of atrial fibrillation (AF).

Objective: We sought to investigate the relationship between left atrial electrogram voltage using multielectrode fast automated mapping (ME-FAM) and first pass isolation with radiofrequency ablation.

Methods: We included consecutive patients (pts) undergoing first time ablation for paroxysmal AF (pAF), and compared the voltage characteristics between patients with and without first pass isolation. Left atrium (LA) adjacent to PVs was divided into 6 regions, and mean voltages obtained with ME-FAM (Pentaray, Biosense Webster) in each region and compared. LA electrograms with marked low voltage (<0.5 mV) were identified and the voltage characteristics at the site of difficult isolation was compared to the voltage in adjacent region.

Results: Twenty consecutive patients (10 with first pass and 10 without) with a mean age of 63.3 ± 6.2 years, 65% males, were studied. Difficult isolation occurred on the right PVs in eight pts and left PVs in three pts. The mean voltage in pts without first pass isolation was lower in all 6 regions; posterior wall (1.93 ± 1.46 versus 2.99 ± 2.19; < 0.001), roof (1.83 ± 2.29 versus 2.47 ± 1.99; < 0.001), LA-LPV posterior (1.85 ± 3.09 versus 2.99 ± 2.19, < 0.001), LA-LPV ridge (1.42 ± 1.04 versus 1.91 ± 1.61; < 0.001), LA-RPV posterior (1.51 ± 1.11 versus 2.30 ± 1.77, < 0.001) and LA-RPV septum (1.55 ± 1.23 versus 2.31 ± 1.40, < 0.001). Patients without first pass isolation also had a larger percentage of signal with an amplitude of <0.5 mV for each of the six regions (12.8% versus 7.5%). In addition, the mean voltage at the site of difficult isolation was lower at 8 out of 11 sites compared to mean voltage for remaining electrograms in that region.

Conclusion: In patients undergoing PVI for paroxysmal AF, failure in first pass isolation was associated with lower global LA voltage, more marked low amplitude signal (<0.5 mV) and lower local signal voltage at the site with difficult isolation. The results suggest that a greater degree of global and segmental fibrosis may play a role in ease of PV isolation with radiofrequency energy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2020.594654DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7769759PMC
December 2020

Cardiac Imaging in the Athlete: Shrinking the "Gray Zone".

Curr Treat Options Cardiovasc Med 2020 Feb 3;22(2). Epub 2020 Feb 3.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Atlantic Health, Morristown Medical Center, Morristown, NJ, 07960, USA.

Purpose Of The Review: This review will explore frequently encountered diagnostic challenges and summarize the role cardiac imaging plays in defining the boundaries of what constitutes the athlete's heart syndrome versus pathology.

Recent Findings: Investigations have predominantly focused on differentiating the athlete's heart from potentially lethal pathological conditions that may produce a similar cardiac morphology. Guidelines have identified criteria for identifying definitive pathology, but difficulty arises when individuals fall in the gray zone of expected athletic remodeling and pathology. Transthoracic echo has traditionally been the imaging modality of choice utilizing parameters such as wall thickness, wall:volume ratio, and certain diastolic parameters. Newer echocardiogram techniques such as strain imaging and speckle tracking have potential additive utility but still need further investigation. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging has emerged as an additive technique to help differentiate the phenotypic overlap between these groups. Utilizing gadolinium enhancement and T1 mapping along with its excellent spatial resolution can help distinguish pathology from physiology. Both established and novel cardiac imaging modalities have been used for uncovering the at risk athletes with cardiomyopathies. The issue is of practical importance because athletes are frequently referred to the cardiologist with symptoms of fatigue, palpitations, presyncope, and/or syncope concerned about the safety of their future participation. Imaging is a key component of risk stratification and identifying normal findings of the developed athlete and those "at-risk" athletes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11936-020-0802-8DOI Listing
February 2020

Association of history of heart failure with hospital outcomes of hyperglycemic crises: Analysis from a University hospital and national cohort.

J Diabetes Complications 2020 01 23;34(1):107466. Epub 2019 Oct 23.

Department of Internal Medicine, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN, USA; Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN, USA.

Aims: The impact of a history of heart failure (HF) on the outcomes of hospitalization for hyperglycemic crises (diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic syndrome) is unknown. We aimed to test the hypothesis that a history of HF has a deleterious impact on the outcomes of hospitalization for hyperglycemic crises.

Methods: We used two different datasets: National Inpatient Sample database 2003-2014 and a single University hospital cohort 2007-2017, to identify all adult hospitalizations with a primary diagnosis of hyperglycemic crises. Multivariable regression models were used to analyze the outcomes of in-hospital mortality, length of hospital stay and transfer to nursing home or similar short-term facility between HF and no-HF hospitalizations.

Results: Of the 1, 570,726 hyperglycemic crises related hospitalizations, a history of HF was present in 57, 520 (3.6%) hospitalizations. After multivariable risk-adjustment, HF group had a higher observed in-hospital mortality [0.4% vs. 0.2%; adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.7, 95% CI 1.4 to 2.0, P < .001] and transfer to nursing home or similar short-term facility (3.9 vs. 2.8%, AOR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.3 to 1.5, P < .001) compared with no-HF group. Mean length of hospital stay [6.5 vs. 3.5 days; P < .001] was also higher for HF group than no-HF group. Data from the smaller University hospital cohort showed similar findings.

Conclusions: Patients with a history of HF may be an under-recognized high-risk group among patients hospitalized for hyperglycemic crisis. Additional studies are warranted to clarify risk elements and optimize the inpatient care of individuals with hyperglycemic crises.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2019.107466DOI Listing
January 2020

The effect of esophageal cooling on esophageal injury during radiofrequency catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation.

J Interv Card Electrophysiol 2020 Jun 1;58(1):43-50. Epub 2019 Jun 1.

Mercy Heart Institute, Mercy Health, 3301 Mercy Health Blvd, Suite 125,, Cincinnati, OH, USA.

Introduction: Catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF) may lead to collateral damage to the esophagus. We tested the hypothesis that luminal esophageal temperature (LET)-guided esophageal cooling might reduce the incidence of esophageal thermal lesions (ETL).

Methods: Seventy-six patients from August 2015 to March 2017 with paroxysmal or persistent AF underwent a first-time catheter ablation procedure with or without LET-guided active esophageal cooling through an orogastric tube placed in the esophagus. Esophageal cooling occurred if and only if LET exceeded 0.5 °C from baseline while ablating the LA posterior wall. All patients underwent esophagogastric endoscopy the next day.

Results: Of the 76 patients studied, 38 (50%) patients underwent esophageal cooling. Baseline characteristics of the non-cooled and cooled groups were comparable. Of these, 59% of patients had ETL. There was a non-significant trend for more severe lesions (grades 3, 4) in the non-cooled group (29% vs. 13.5%, p = 0.10). Average power delivered on the left atrial posterior wall (27 ± 1.8 W vs. 27 ± 3.8 W, p = 0.34) and average force of contact (10.1 g vs. 9.8 g, p = 0.38) were similar in both groups while more time was spent ablating on the posterior wall in the non-cooled group (24.6 ± 7.3 min vs. 20.4 ± 5.9 min, p = 0.014). In a multivariate analysis, esophageal cooling had no significant effect on the esophageal lesion grade post-ablation.

Conclusion: The incidence of ETL in patients undergoing left atrial posterior wall isolation is substantial. Our method of esophageal cooling did not decrease the incidence of ETL. There was a non-significant trend toward fewer severe lesions with cooling, but one cannot conclude the value of cooling from this pilot study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10840-019-00566-3DOI Listing
June 2020

Relation of Obesity to Outcomes of Hospitalizations for Atrial Fibrillation.

Am J Cardiol 2019 05 14;123(9):1448-1452. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, John Ochsner Heart and Vascular Institute, Ochsner Clinical School-The University of Queensland School of Medicine, New Orleans, Los Angeles.

Obesity has been linked with increased incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF), but impact of presence of obesity on outcomes of hospitalizations for AF has not been investigated. We used the National Inpatient Sample database 2010 to 2014 to identify all adult hospitalizations aged ≥18years with a primary diagnosis of AF. Obese patients were identified using the co-morbidity variable for obesity, as defined in National Inpatient Sample databases. Multivariable logistic regression was used to compare in-hospital outcomes (mortality, acute stroke events) between obese and non-obese patients with AF. Of 431, 734 hospitalizations for AF, 66,138 (15.3%) were obese. Obese patients were younger and more likely to be African-Americans compared with non-obese patients. Despite being younger, obese patients had significantly higher prevalence of cardiovascular co-morbidities such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, smoking, heart failure, and chronic renal failure (p <0.001 for all). After multivariate risk-adjustment, obese patients had a lower observed in-hospital mortality (0.5% vs 1.0%; unadjusted odds ratio = 0.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.46 to 0.58, p <0.001; adjusted odds ratio = 0.83, 95% CI 0.73 to 0.94, p <0.001) and acute stroke events (0.4% vs 0.7%, unadjusted odds ratio = 0. 65, 95% CI 0.57 to 0.73, p < 0.001; adjusted odds ratio = 0.82, 95% CI 0.72 to 0.94) compared with non-obese patients. In conclusion, in this large retrospective analysis of an unselected nationwide cohort of patients hospitalized for AF, obese patients demonstrated lower risk-adjusted odds of in-hospital mortality and stroke events, consistent with an "obesity paradox."
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2019.01.051DOI Listing
May 2019

Atrial fibrillation in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: prevalence, clinical impact, and management.

Heart Fail Rev 2019 03;24(2):189-197

Division of Cardiology, Lehigh Valley Health Network, 1200 S. Cedar Crest Blvd, Allentown, PA, 18103, USA.

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common hereditary cardiomyopathy characterized by left ventricular hypertrophy and spectrum of clinical manifestation. Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common sustained arrhythmia in HCM patients and is primarily related to left atrial dilatation and remodeling. There are several clinical, electrocardiographic (ECG), and echocardiographic (ECHO) features that have been associated with development of AF in HCM patients; strongest predictors are left atrial size, age, and heart failure class. AF can lead to progressive functional decline, worsening heart failure and increased risk for systemic thromboembolism. The management of AF in HCM patient focuses on symptom alleviation (managed with rate and/or rhythm control methods) and prevention of complications such as thromboembolism (prevented with anticoagulation). Finally, recent evidence suggests that early rhythm control strategy may result in more favorable short- and long-term outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10741-018-9752-6DOI Listing
March 2019

Trends in the use of echocardiography in pulmonary embolism.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 Aug;97(35):e12104

Department of Cardiology, Lehigh Valley Hospital Network, Allentown, PA Department of Internal Medicine, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN, USA.

Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a devastating diagnosis which carries a high mortality risk. Echocardiography is often performed to risk stratify patients diagnosed with PE, and guide management strategies. Trends in the performance of echocardiography among patients with PE and its role in influencing outcomes is unknown.We analyzed the 2005 to 2014 National Inpatient Sample Database to identify patients with primary diagnosis of PE or secondary diagnosis of PE and ≥1 of the following diagnoses: syncope, thrombolysis, acute deep vein thrombosis, acute cardiorespiratory failure, and secondary pulmonary hypertension. Trends in the performance of echocardiography and in-hospital mortality were analyzed. The admissions were divided into 2 groups with echocardiography, and without echocardiography, and 1:2 propensity score matching (PSM) was performed for comparison. The primary end-point was in-hospital mortality. The secondary endpoints were length of stay and total hospitalization costs. Odd ratios (OR) with confidence intervals (CI) were reported.A total of 299,536 unweighted PE cases were studied. Performance of echocardiography among patients with PE patients increased from 3.5% to 5.6%, whereas in-hospital mortality decreased from 4.2% to 3.7% between years 2005 and 2014. Before matching, patients who received an echocardiogram were more likely to be younger, African American, admitted to a large, urban teaching institute, and had higher rates of concurrent acute deep vein thrombosis, and acute respiratory failure. Post-PSM, patients who received echocardiography during hospitalization had lower in-hospital mortality (odds ratio 0.75, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.68-0.83; P < 0.001), longer length of stay (median 6 days vs 5 days; P < .001) and higher mean hospitalization costs ($34,379 vs $27,803; P < .001) compared to those without echocardiography.Performance of echocardiography among patients with a PE is increasing and is associated with lower in-hospital mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000012104DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6392756PMC
August 2018

Trends and Predictors of Palliative Care Referrals in Patients With Acute Heart Failure.

Am J Hosp Palliat Care 2019 Feb 29;36(2):147-153. Epub 2018 Aug 29.

1 Department of Cardiology, Lehigh Valley Hospital, Allentown, PA, USA.

Objective:: To determine the rate and predictors of palliative care referral (PCR) in hospitalized patients with acute heart failure (AHF).

Introduction:: The PCR is commonly utilized in terminal conditions such as metastatic cancers. There is no data on trends and predictors from large-scale registry of general population regarding PCR in patients with AHF.

Methods:: For this retrospective study, data were obtained from National Inpatient Sample Database from 2010 to 2014. We used International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision diagnosis codes to identify cases with a principle diagnosis of AHF. These patients were divided into 2 groups: (1) PCR, (2) no PCR groups. We performed multivariate analysis to identify predictors of PCRs, as well as reported PCR trends from 2010 to 2014.

Results:: From the database, out of 37 312 324 hospitalizations, 621 947 unweighted cases with primary diagnosis of AHF were selected for further analysis. About 2.8% received PCR. From 2010 to 2014, there was an uptrend from 2.0% to 3.6% for PCR. Metastatic cancer, ventilator-dependent respiratory failure, and cardiogenic shock were strongly associated with PCR. Those who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention and African American or other races were negative predictors for PCR. In the PCR group, 31.4% of patients died during hospitalization.

Conclusion:: Palliative care referrals were made in a very small proportion of patients with AHF. We observed steady rise in the PCR utilization. Chronic conditions, advancing age, and high-risk patients were major predictors of PCR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1049909118796195DOI Listing
February 2019

Left ventricular thrombosis in acute anterior myocardial infarction: Evaluation of hospital mortality, thromboembolism, and bleeding.

Clin Cardiol 2018 Oct 16;41(10):1289-1296. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

Department of Cardiology, Albert Einstein Medical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Background: Left ventricular thrombosis (LVT) is a well-known complication of acute myocardial infarction, most commonly seen in anterior wall ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). It is associated with systemic thromboembolism.

Hypothesis: Our aim was to evaluate the impact of LVT on in-hospital mortality, thromboembolism, and bleeding in patients with anterior STEMI.

Methods: Data was collected from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample where patients with a primary diagnosis of "Anterior STEMI" [ICD9-CM code 410.1] were included. Comparisons were made between patients with LVT [ICD9-CM code 429.79] vs those without using propensity score matching (PSM).

Results: From 2002 to 2014, there were 157 891 cases of anterior STEMI. Among these, 649 (0.4%) had LVT. Post-PSM, there was no difference in in-hospital mortality between the groups with LVT and without (7.3% vs 8.6%). Thromboembolic event rate was higher with LVT compared to those without LVT (7.3% vs 2.1%). There was no difference in bleeding events between patients with LVT and those without (2.9% vs 3.2%). The baseline average length of stay in the group with LVT was longer than the group without LVT (7.9 ± 6.7 days vs 5.1 ± 6.0 days). The average hospitalization-related costs were also significantly higher among patients with LVT compared to those without (95 598 USD vs 66 641 USD per stay) at baseline.

Conclusion: Among patients hospitalized with anterior STEMI, presence of LVT is associated with increased thromboembolic events, average length of hospital stay and average cost of hospitalization. However, it is not associated with increased in-hospital mortality or bleeding events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/clc.23039DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6489802PMC
October 2018

Ten Lifestyle Modification Approaches to Treat Atrial Fibrillation.

Cureus 2018 May 24;10(5):e2682. Epub 2018 May 24.

Electrophysiology, Intermountain Medical Center.

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia affecting three million people in the United States (US). Across different races in the US, the incidence of other races was comparable to that of Caucasian population. This points towards the importance of certain lifestyle modifications that can help prevent and treat this disorder. This article discusses 10 such factors. Smoking has been linked to AF, with almost 36% risk reduction if quit. Hypertension has 56% increased risk of atrial fibrillation in which the role of lifestyle changes is well known. Similarly, alcohol-induced atrial fibrillation has 10% increased risk of atrial fibrillation. On the other hand, several case reports document red bull as the cause of atrial fibrillation. Moreover, the risk of atrial fibrillation is four times higher in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) independent of other confounding variables. Additionally, it has been shown that acute sleep deprivation increases AF risk by 3.36 times. Furthermore, diabetes mellitus and obesity also contribute greatly to atrial fibrillation. This risk has been shown to be around 40% more with diabetes. Diet itself has an impact: numerous studies have shown Mediterranean diet to reduce the risk of AF and cerebrovascular accident in addition to olive oil, fruits and vegetables. Even emotions are important with 85% less AF on 'happy days'. Needless to mention, yoga has been well demonstrated to have almost 24% reduction in AF. Similarly, physical activity in all forms is beneficial. In summary, lifestyle modifications reduce the incidence of AF, induce more AF remission and also produce successful ablation outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.2682DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6059525PMC
May 2018

Thirty-Day Readmission Rate in Acute Heart Failure Patients Discharged Against Medical Advice in a Matched Cohort Study.

Mayo Clin Proc 2018 10 10;93(10):1397-1403. Epub 2018 Jul 10.

Department of Cardiology, Lehigh Valley Hospital Network, Allentown, PA.

Objective: To determine the readmission rate in patients with acute heart failure (AHF) discharged against medical advice (AMA).

Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis using the 2014 National Readmission Database. Patients admitted with a primary diagnosis of AHF were selected. Only those discharged to home and who left AMA were included in the study. The primary outcome was 30-day readmission. We compared the readmission rates among those discharged AMA vs routinely discharged patients using propensity score matching (PSM) to address imbalance in variables between the 2 groups. We matched 3 routinely discharged patients to 1 patient who left AMA.

Results: We identified 273,489 patients with AHF, of whom 116,869 qualified for further study analysis. A total of 2014 patients (1.7%) were in the AMA group and 114,855 (98.3%) were in the routinely discharged group. After PSM, 6042 routinely discharged patients were matched with 2014 patients from the AMA group. The standard mean difference for each variable was less than 10% postmatching. The 30-day readmission rate among those who left AMA was higher than among those routinely discharged (33% vs 20.1%; P<.001). Heart failure (44.8%) was the most common cause of readmission in the AMA group. Patients who left AMA were more likely to be readmitted to a different hospital compared with those routinely discharged (37.4 vs 23.1%; P<.001). They also had a high rate of leaving AMA during the readmission (18 vs 2%; P<.001).

Conclusion: Patients with AHF discharged AMA had a significantly higher 30-day readmission rate than did the routinely discharged group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mayocp.2018.04.023DOI Listing
October 2018

Incidental Finding of the Anomalous Origin of Left Main Coronary Artery from Pulmonary Artery in an Adult Presenting with Arrhythmia-Induced Myocardial Ischemia.

Case Rep Cardiol 2018 1;2018:6485831. Epub 2018 Apr 1.

Department of Cardiology, Lehigh Valley Hospital, Allentown, PA, USA.

Anomalous origin of the left main coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) is a rare congenital coronary anomaly with high mortality. It is associated with cardiovascular complications and is usually diagnosed soon after birth. Those who survive into adulthood can present with signs of myocardial infarction, heart failure, mitral regurgitation, severe pulmonary hypertension, or sudden cardiac death. We present a 53-year-old female presenting with atrial fibrillation and found to have an incidental diagnosis of ALCAPA who refused surgical correction. We also review the epidemiology, diagnosis, age-based clinical presentations, and treatment options for ALCAPA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/6485831DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5902108PMC
April 2018

Patent Foramen Ovale Closure in the Setting of Cryptogenic Stroke: A Meta-Analysis of Five Randomized Trials.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2018 Sep 24;27(9):2484-2493. Epub 2018 May 24.

Department of Cardiology, Lehigh Valley Health Network, Allentown, Pennsylvania; Morsani College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida.

Background: The clinical benefit of patent foramen ovale (PFO) closure after cryptogenic stroke has been a topic of debate for decades. Recently, 3 randomized controlled trials of PFO closure in patients with cryptogenic stroke demonstrated a significantly reduced risk of recurrent stroke compared with standard medical therapy alone. This meta-analysis was performed to clarify the efficacy of PFO closure for future stroke prevention in this population.

Methods: A systematic literature search was undertaken. Published pooled data from 5 large randomized clinical trials (CLOSE, RESPECT, Gore REDUCE, CLOSURE I, and PC) were combined and then subsequently analyzed. Enrolled patients with cryptogenic stroke were assigned to receive standard medical care or to undergo endovascular PFO closure, with a primary outcome of reduction in stroke recurrence rate. Secondary outcomes included rates of transient ischemic attack (TIA), composite outcome of stroke, TIA, and death from all causes, and rates of atrial fibrillation events.

Results: We analyzed data for 3412 patients. Transcatheter PFO closure resulted in a statistically significant reduced rate of recurrent stroke, compared with medication alone. Patients undergoing closure were 58% less likely to have another stroke. The number needed to treat with PFO closure to reduce recurrent stroke for 1 patient was 40.

Conclusions: Endovascular PFO closure was associated with a reduced risk of recurrent stroke in patients with a prior cryptogenic cerebral infarct. Although the absolute stroke reduction was small, these findings are clinically significant, given the young age of this patient population and the patients' lifetime risk of recurrent stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2018.05.005DOI Listing
September 2018

Mortality in sepsis: Comparison of outcomes between patients with demand ischemia, acute myocardial infarction, and neither demand ischemia nor acute myocardial infarction.

Clin Cardiol 2018 Jul 17;41(7):936-944. Epub 2018 Jul 17.

Department of Cardiology, Lehigh Valley Hospital Network, Allentown, Pennsylvania.

Introduction: Elevation in cardiac troponins is common with sepsis despite unclear impact.

Hypothesis: We investigated whether demand ischemia(DI) resulted in variable outcomes compared to acute myocardial infarction(AMI) and those with neither DI nor AMI in sepsis.

Methods: We analyzed data from the 2011-2014 National Inpatient Sample among patients admitted for sepsis. We compared outcomes among patients with DI i) versus AMI and ii) versus neither DI nor AMI, respectively using propensity matching. Primary study end-point was in-hospital mortality.

Results: We studied 666,154 patients, with mean age 63.7 years and 50.8% female participants. Overall, 94.7% of the included patients had neither DI nor AMI, 4.4% had AMI and 0.83% had DI. Between 2011 and 2014, we observed an increasing trend for DI but decreasing trend for AMI in sepsis. Patients with DI experienced higher rates of atrial and ventricular arrhythmias, had longer length of stay and higher cost of stay compared to patients with neither demand ischemia nor AMI. Despite higher hospital mortality at baseline with DI, post-propensity matching revealed no difference in hospital mortality between patients with DI and those with neither (26.9% vs. 27.0%, adjusted odds ratio 0.99, 95% confidence intervals 0.92-1.07;p=0.87). Patients with DI experienced lower hospital mortality compared to those with AMI pre (28.5% vs. 48.3%;p<0.001) and post-propensity matching (41.1% vs. 29.1%, aOR 0.58, 95% CI 0.54-0.63;p<0.001).

Conclusion: Among patients with sepsis, those with DI had similar adjusted in-hospital mortality compared to those with neither DI nor AMI. Patients with AMI had the highest in-hospital mortality among all groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/clc.22978DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6489770PMC
July 2018

Causes and Predictors of 30-Day Readmission in Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction and Cardiogenic Shock.

Circ Heart Fail 2018 04;11(4):e004310

Department of Cardiology, Lehigh Valley Hospital, Allentown, PA (M.S., B.P., L.G.). Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, PA (S.P.). Department of Medicine, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis (M.A.). The Cardiovascular Center, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, MA (C.D.D., N.K.K.). Department of Cardiology, St Luke's University Health Network, Bethlehem, PA (S.A.). Department of Cardiology, Montefiore-Einstein Heart Center, Bronx, NY (U.P.J.).

Background: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) occurs as a result of irreversible damage to cardiac myocytes secondary to lack of blood supply. Cardiogenic shock complicating AMI has significant associated morbidity and mortality, and data on postdischarge outcomes are limited.

Methods And Results: We derived the study cohort of patients with AMI and cardiogenic shock from the 2013 to 2014 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project National Readmission Database. Incidence, predictors, and causes of 30-day readmissions were analyzed. From 43 212 index admissions for AMI with cardiogenic shock, 26 016 (60.2%) survived to discharge and 5277 (20.2% of survivors) patients were readmitted within 30 days. More than 50% of these readmissions occurred within first 10 days. Cardiac causes accounted for 42% of 30-day readmissions (heart failure 20.6%; acute coronary syndrome 11.6%). Among noncardiac causes, respiratory (11.4%), infectious (9.4%), medical or surgical care complications (6.3%), gastrointestinal/hepatobiliary (6.5%), and renal causes (4.8%) were most common. Length of stay ≥8 days (odds ratio [OR], 2.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.70-2.44; <0.01), acute deep venous thrombosis (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.08-1.48; <0.01), liver disease (OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.03-1.50; =0.02), systemic thromboembolism (OR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.02-1.44; =0.02), peripheral vascular disease (OR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.07-1.27; <0.01), diabetes mellitus (OR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.08-1.24; <0.01), long-term ventricular assist device implantation (OR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.23-2.55; <0.01), intraaortic balloon pump use (OR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.02-1.18; <0.01), performance of coronary artery bypass grafting (OR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.77-0.93; <0.01), private insurance (OR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.64-0.80; <0.01), and discharge to home (OR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.73-0.98; =0.03) were among the independent predictors of 30-day readmission.

Conclusions: In-hospital mortality and 30-day readmission in cardiogenic shock complicating AMI are significantly elevated. Patients are readmitted mainly for noncardiac causes. Identification of high-risk factors may guide interventions to improve outcomes within this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.117.004310DOI Listing
April 2018

Thirty-Day Readmissions After Left Ventricular Assist Device Implantation in the United States: Insights From the Nationwide Readmissions Database.

Circ Heart Fail 2018 03;11(3):e004628

From the Division of Cardiology, St. Luke's University Health Network, Bethlehem, PA (S.A.); Division of Cardiology, Lehigh Valley Health Network, Allentown, PA (L.G., M.S., B.P.); Department of Internal Medicine, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis (M.A.); Division of Non-Invasive Cardiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (A.S.); Division of Cardiology, Newark Beth Israel Medical Center, NJ (A.G.); Division of Cardiology, Montefiore-Einstein Heart Center, Bronx, NY (U.P.J.); and The CardioVascular Center, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, MA (N.K.K.).

Background: Early readmissions contribute significantly to heart failure-related morbidity and negatively affect quality of life. Data on left ventricular assist device (LVAD)-related 30-day readmissions are scarce and limited to small studies.

Methods And Results: Patients undergoing LVAD implantation between January 2013 and November 2014 who survived the index hospitalization were identified in the Nationwide Readmissions Database. We analyzed the incidence, predictors, causes, and costs of 30-day readmissions. Of 2510 LVAD recipients, 788 (31%) were readmitted within 30 days. Length of index hospitalization ≥31 days (hazard ratio [HR], 1.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07-1.50) and female sex (HR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.01-1.42) were associated with a higher risk of 30-day readmission, whereas private insurance (HR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.70-0.99), pre-LVAD use of short-term mechanical circulatory support (HR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.29-0.98), and discharge to a short-term hospital facility (HR, 0.41; CI, 0.21-0.78) were associated with a lower risk. Cardiac causes accounted for 23.8% of readmissions: heart failure (13.4%) and arrhythmias (8.1%). Noncardiovascular causes accounted for 76.2% of readmissions: infection (30.2%), bleeding (17.6%), and device-related causes (8.2%). Mean length of stay for readmission was 10.7 days (median, 6 days), and average hospital cost per readmission was $34 948±2457.

Conclusions: Early readmissions are frequent after LVAD implantation even in contemporary times. Preimplant identification of high-risk patients, and a protocol-driven follow-up using a multidisciplinary approach will be needed to reduce readmissions and improve outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.117.004628DOI Listing
March 2018

Routine Invasive Versus Selective Invasive Strategy in Elderly Patients Older Than 75 Years With Non-ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Mayo Clin Proc 2018 04 10;93(4):436-444. Epub 2018 Feb 10.

Division of Cardiology, Newark Beth Israel Medical Center, Newark, NJ.

Objective: To evaluate outcomes of routine invasive strategy (RIS) compared with selective invasive strategy (SIS) in elderly patients older than 75 years with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS).

Methods: We systematically searched databases for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) between January 1, 1990, and October 1, 2016, comparing RIS with SIS for elderly patients (age>75 years) with NSTE-ACS. Random effects meta-analysis was conducted to estimate odds ratio (OR) with 95% CIs for composite of death or myocardial infarction (MI), and individual end points of all-cause death, cardiovascular (CV) death, MI, revascularization, and major bleeding.

Results: A total of 6 RCTs with 1887 patients were included in the final analysis. Compared with an SIS, RIS was associated with significantly decreased risk of the composite end point of death or MI (OR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.51-0.83). Similarly, RIS led to a significant reduction in the risk of MI (OR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.40-0.66) and need for revascularization (OR, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.11-0.91) compared with SIS. There were no significant differences between RIS and SIS in terms of all-cause death (OR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.63-1.20), CV death (OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.61-1.15), and major bleeding (OR, 1.96; 95% CI, 0.97-3.97).

Conclusion: In elderly patients older than 75 years with NSTE-ACS, RIS is superior to SIS for the composite end point (death or MI), primarily driven by reduced risk of MI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mayocp.2017.11.022DOI Listing
April 2018

Impact of family history of coronary artery disease on in-hospital clinical outcomes in ST-segment myocardial infarction.

Ann Transl Med 2018 Jan;6(1)

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN, USA.

Background: Patients with a family history of coronary artery disease (FHxCAD) are at increased risk for development of myocardial infarction (MI). However, the data on the influence of FHxCAD on in-hospital clinical outcomes post ST-segment myocardial infarction (STEMI) is limited. Hence, we evaluated the impact of FHxCAD on in-hospital clinical outcomes post STEMI in an unselected nationwide cohort.

Methods: Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database [2003-2011] was used to compare differences in all-cause in-hospital mortality and adverse clinical events (cardiogenic shock, acute cerebrovascular events and use of intra-aortic balloon pump) between patients with and without FHxCAD.

Results: A total of 2,123,492 STEMI admissions were identified, of which 7.4% (n=158,079) patients were with FHxCAD and 92.6% (n=1,965,413) were without FHxCAD. The FHxCAD group had lower in-hospital mortality [1.4% 8.1%; adjusted odds ratio (OR): 0.42, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.41-0.44; P<0.001] when compared with no-FHxCAD group. They underwent a significantly higher number of coronary interventions, and were less likely to develop cardiogenic shock, acute cerebrovascular events and to require intra-aortic balloon pump during hospitalization.

Conclusions: This large sample size study demonstrates that STEMI patients with FHxCAD had lower in-hospital mortality and adverse clinical events in comparison to patients with no-FHxCAD. Further research is warranted to determine whether the superior outcomes in FHxCAD patients with STEMI are related to differences in strategies related to diet, exercise, use of medications or coronary interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm.2017.09.27DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5787715PMC
January 2018

Impact of smoking in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement.

Ann Transl Med 2018 Jan;6(1)

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN, USA.

Background: The paradox that smokers have better clinical outcomes in cardiovascular diseases remains controversial. No literature exists studying impact of smoking on outcomes following transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR).

Methods: We performed an electronic search of the 2011-2012 National Inpatient Sample (NIS) database to identify all TAVR hospitalizations. Outcomes were measured comparing smokers to non-smokers.

Results: A total of 8,345 TAVR hospitalizations were identified with 24% being smokers. Compared to non-smokers, smokers were younger (80.4±8.8 81.4±9.2 years, P<0.001), were more often men (63.6% 47.8%, P<0.001), and had a higher disease burden. Despite a higher disease burden, smokers had lower post procedure stroke (2.8% 3.1%), hemorrhage events (28.2% 32.0%, P<0.05) and lower all cause in-hospital mortality (1.2% 5.7%, adjusted odds ratio 0.21, 95% CI: 0.13-0.32, P<0.001) compared to non-smokers.

Conclusions: Despite having a higher cardiovascular disease burden, smokers had better outcomes compared to non-smokers. Therefore the smoker's paradox is applicable in the TAVR cohort.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm.2017.11.32DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5787710PMC
January 2018

Influence of Atrial Fibrillation on Outcomes in Patients Who Underwent Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

Am J Cardiol 2018 03 22;121(6):684-689. Epub 2017 Dec 22.

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Lehigh Valley Health Network, Allentown, Pennsylvania.

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common co-morbidity among patients presenting with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Previously, small studies have reported an association between AF and poorer outcomes among patients with STEMI. We performed this study to investigate the impact of AF on in-hospital outcomes in patients with STEMI treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) using a large national database. The study population constituted of patients 18 years and older with a primary discharge diagnosis of STEMI and who underwent PPCI. Using a 2:1 matching protocol, matched groups of patients with AF (N = 24,680) and without (N = 49,198) were developed. Among 1,493,859 patients with STEMI who underwent PPCI, 129,354 patients (8.7%) had AF. In the propensity-matched cohort, adjusted in-hospital mortality was significantly higher for patients with AF compared with patients with no AF (10.3% vs 9.4%) (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.10; confidence interval [CI] 1.06 to 1.16; p <0.0001). Patients with AF were also at higher risk of heart failure, cardiogenic shock, acute stroke, acute kidney injury, vascular complications, need for blood transfusion, and a composite outcome of gastrointestinal and retroperitoneal bleeding. Patients with AF were less likely to be treated with drug-eluting stent compared with patients without AF (51.4% vs 56.6%) (adjusted OR 0.81; CI 0.79 to 0.84; p <0.001). Among patients presenting with STEMI and who underwent PPCI, AF is present in about 8% of patients. In a propensity-matched analysis using a large national database, AF was found to be independently associated with a higher risk of in-hospital mortality and of other complications in these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2017.12.003DOI Listing
March 2018

Use of therapeutic hypothermia among patients with coagulation disorders - A Nationwide analysis.

Resuscitation 2018 Mar 3;124:35-42. Epub 2018 Jan 3.

Department of Medicine, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY, United States.

Objectives: The study aimed to assess the impact of therapeutic hypothermia (TH) on bleeding and in-hospital mortality among patients with coagulation disorders (CD).

Background: TH affects coagulation factors and platelets putting patients at risk for bleeding and worse outcomes. Effect of TH among patients with CD remains understudied.

Methods: Between 2009 and 2014, a total of 6469 cases of TH were identified using the National Inpatient Sample out of which 1036 (16.02%) had a CD. The incidence of bleeding events, blood product transfusion and in-hospital mortality was compared between patients with and without CD using one to one propensity score matching.

Results: Proportion of patients with CD increased during study duration from 13.0% to 17.4% from 2009 to 2014. Propensity matching was performed to adjust for baseline differences with 799 patients in both groups depending on presence or absence of CD. Patients with CD had a higher rate of bleeding events (13% vs. 8.5%; adjusted odds ratio 1.60; 95% confidence interval 1.16-2.23; P = 0.004), and blood product transfusion (25.0% vs. 14.1%; aOR 2.03; 95% CI 1.56-2.63; p < 0.001) compared to those without CD. There was no difference in rate of intracranial bleeding or hemorrhagic strokes between those with and without CD (3.3% vs. 3.2%; p = 0.88). There was no difference in mortality between patients with CD and those without (74.5% vs. 74.8%, aOR 0.98, 95% CI 0.78-1.23; P = 0.86).

Conclusions: Use of TH with CD resulted in more bleeding events and blood product transfusion but there was no difference in hospital mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resuscitation.2018.01.005DOI Listing
March 2018

Acute kidney injury requiring dialysis and in-hospital mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease and non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome undergoing early vs delayed percutaneous coronary intervention: A nationwide analysis.

Clin Cardiol 2017 Dec 20;40(12):1303-1308. Epub 2017 Dec 20.

Divison of Cardiology, Lehigh Valley Hospital, Allentown, Pennsylvania.

Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a well-known risk factor for coronary artery disease and is associated with poor outcomes following an acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS). The optimal timing of an invasive strategy in patients with CKD and NSTE-ACS is unclear.

Hypothesis: Timing of PCI in CKD patients will not affect the risk of mortality or incidence of dialysis.

Methods: We queried the National Inpatient Sample database (NIS) to identify cases with NSTEMI and CKD. Patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) day 0 or 1 vs day 2 or 3 after admission were categorized as early vs delayed PCI, respectively. The primary outcomes of the study were in-hospital mortality and acute kidney injury requiring hemodialysis (AKI-D). The secondary outcomes were length of stay and hospital charges. Baseline characteristics were balanced using propensity score matching (PSM).

Results: After PSM, 3708 cases from the delayed PCI group were matched with 3708 cases from the early PCI group. The standardized mean differences between the 2 groups were substantially reduced after PSM. All other recorded variables were balanced between the 2 groups. In the early and delayed PCI groups, the incidence of AKI-D (2.5% vs 2.3%; P = 0.54) and in-hospital mortality (1.9% vs 1.4%; P = 0.12) was similar. Hospital charges and length of stay were higher in the delayed PCI group.

Conclusions: The incidence of AKI-D and in-hospital mortality among patients with CKD and NSTE-ACS were not significantly affected by the timing of PCI. However, delayed PCI added significant cost and length of stay. A prospective randomized study is required to validate this concept.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/clc.22828DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6490607PMC
December 2017

Relationship Between Obesity and Survival in Patients Hospitalized for Hypertensive Emergency.

Mayo Clin Proc 2018 02 7;93(2):263-265. Epub 2017 Dec 7.

John Ochsner Heart and Vascular Institute, Ochsner Medical Center, New Orleans, LA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mayocp.2017.07.015DOI Listing
February 2018

Regional and seasonal variations in heart failure admissions and mortality in the USA.

Arch Cardiovasc Dis 2018 04 27;111(4):297-301. Epub 2017 Nov 27.

Division of Cardiology, Einstein Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.acvd.2017.07.004DOI Listing
April 2018

Trends in mechanical circulatory support use and hospital mortality among patients with acute myocardial infarction and non-infarction related cardiogenic shock in the United States.

Clin Res Cardiol 2018 Apr 13;107(4):287-303. Epub 2017 Nov 13.

Department of Cardiology, Montefiore Medical Center, New York, NY, USA.

Background: Recent trends on outcomes in cardiogenic shock (CS) complicating acute myocardial infarction (AMI) suggest improvements in early survival. However, with the ever-changing landscape in management of CS, we sought to identify age-based trends in these outcomes and mechanical circulatory support (MCS) use among patients with both AMI and non-AMI associated shock.

Methods: We queried the 2005-2014 Nationwide Inpatient Sample databases to identify patients with a diagnosis of cardiogenic shock. Trends in the incidence of hospital-mortality, and use of MCS such as intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP), Impella/TandemHeart (IMP), and extra corporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) were analyzed within the overall population and among different age-categories (50 and under, 51-65, 66-80 and 81-99 years). We also made comparisons between patient groups admitted with CS complicating AMI and those with non-AMI associated CS.

Results: We studied 144,254 cases of CS, of which 55.4% cases were associated with an AMI. Between 2005 and 2014, an overall decline in IABP use (29.8-17.7%; ptrend < 0.01), and an uptrend in IMP use (0.1-2.6%; ptrend < 0.01), ECMO use (0.3-1.8%; ptrend < 0.01) and in-hospital mortality (44.1-52.5% AMI related, 49.6-53.5% non-AMI related; ptrend < 0.01) was seen. Patients aged 81-99 years had the lowest rate of MCS use (14.8%), whereas those aged 51-65 years had highest rate of MCS use (32.3%). Multivariable analysis revealed that patients aged 51-65 years (aOR 1.46, 95% CI 1.40-1.52; p<0.001), 66-80 years (aOR 2.51, 95% CI 2.39-2.63; p<0.01) and 81-99 years (aOR 5.04, 95% CI 4.78-5.32; p<0.01) had significantly higher hospital mortality compared to patients aged ≤ 50 years. Patients admitted with CS complicating AMI were older and had more comorbidities, but lower hospital mortality (45.0 vs. 48.2%; p < 0.001) when compared to non-AMI related CS. We also noted that the proportion of patients admitted with CS complicating AMI significantly decreased from 2005 to 2014 (65.3-45.6%; ptrend < 0.01) whereas those admitted without an associated AMI increased.

Conclusions: IABP use has declined whereas IMP and ECMO use has increased over time among CS admissions. Older age was associated with an incrementally higher independent risk for hospital mortality. Recent trends indicate an increase in both proportion of patients admitted with CS without associated AMI and in-hospital mortality across all CS admissions irrespective of AMI status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00392-017-1182-2DOI Listing
April 2018

Atrioesophageal Fistula Following Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation.

Rev Cardiovasc Med 2017;18(3):115-122

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Beaumont Health, Royal Oak, MI.

Atrioesophageal fistula (AEF) is a rare but catastrophic complication of catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF), with an incidence of 0.03% to 1.5% per year. We report two cases and review the epidemiology, clinical features, pathogenesis, and management of AEF after AF ablation. The principal clinical features of AEF include fever, hematemesis, and neurologic deficits within 2 months after ablation. The close proximity of the esophagus to the posterior left atrial wall is considered responsible for esophageal injury during ablation and the eventual development of AEF. Prophylactic proton pump inhibitors, esophageal temperature monitoring, visualization of the esophagus during catheter ablation, esophageal protection devices, esophageal cooling, and avoidance of energy delivery in close proximity to the esophagus are some techniques to prevent esophageal injury. Eliminating esophageal injury during AF ablation is of utmost importance in preventing AEF. A high index of suspicion and early intervention are necessary to prevent fatal outcomes. Early surgical repair is the mainstay of treatment.
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June 2019