Publications by authors named "Loes J Bolle"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

No evidence for reduced growth in resident fish species in the era of de-eutrophication in a coastal area in NW Europe.

Mar Environ Res 2021 Jul 18;169:105364. Epub 2021 May 18.

Wageningen Marine Research, IJmuiden, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Coastal areas in north-western Europe have been influenced by elevated nutrient levels starting in the 1960s. Due to efficient measures, both nitrate and phosphate levels decreased since the mid-1980s. The co-occurring declines in nutrient loadings and fish productivity are often presumed to be causally linked. We investigated whether four resident fish species (twaite shad, bull-rout, thick-lipped grey mullet and eelpout), that spend the majority of their life in the vicinity of the coast, differed in growth between the historic eutrophication period compared to the recent lower nutrient-level period. Based on Von Bertalanffy growth models of length at age, and the analysis of annual otolith increments, we investigated the difference in sex-specific growth patterns and related these to temperature, eutrophication level (Chlorophyll a), growth window and fish density. In all four species, annual otolith growth rates during the early life stages differed between the two periods, mostly resulting in larger lengths at age in the recent period. All species showed significant correlations between increment size and temperature, explaining the observed period differences. The lack of an effect of total fish biomass provided no evidence for density dependent growth. A correlation with chlorophyll was found in bull-rout, but the relationship was negative, thus not supporting the idea of growth enhanced by high nutrient levels. In conclusion, we found no evidence for reduced growth related to de-eutrophication. Our results indicate that temperature rise due to climate change had a greater impact on growth than reduced food availability due to de-eutrophication. We discuss potential consequences of growth changes for length-based indicators used in management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marenvres.2021.105364DOI Listing
July 2021

Effect of Pile-Driving Sounds on the Survival of Larval Fish.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2016 ;875:91-100

Defence Materiel Organisation, 2509 LV, The Hague, The Netherlands.

Concern exists about the potential effects of pile-driving sounds on fish, but evidence is limited, especially for fish larvae. A device was developed to expose larvae to accurately reproduced pile-driving sounds. Controlled exposure experiments were carried out to examine the lethal effects in common sole larvae. No significant effects were observed at zero-to-peak pressure levels up to 210 dB re 1 μPa(2) and cumulative sound exposure levels up to 206 dB re 1 μPa(2)·s, which is well above the US interim criteria for nonauditory tissue damage in fish. Experiments are presently being carried out for European sea bass and herring larvae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-2981-8_11DOI Listing
June 2016

Common sole larvae survive high levels of pile-driving sound in controlled exposure experiments.

PLoS One 2012 14;7(3):e33052. Epub 2012 Mar 14.

IMARES, IJmuiden, The Netherlands.

In view of the rapid extension of offshore wind farms, there is an urgent need to improve our knowledge on possible adverse effects of underwater sound generated by pile-driving. Mortality and injuries have been observed in fish exposed to loud impulse sounds, but knowledge on the sound levels at which (sub-)lethal effects occur is limited for juvenile and adult fish, and virtually non-existent for fish eggs and larvae. A device was developed in which fish larvae can be exposed to underwater sound. It consists of a rigid-walled cylindrical chamber driven by an electro-dynamical sound projector. Samples of up to 100 larvae can be exposed simultaneously to a homogeneously distributed sound pressure and particle velocity field. Recorded pile-driving sounds could be reproduced accurately in the frequency range between 50 and 1000 Hz, at zero to peak pressure levels up to 210 dB re 1µPa(2) (zero to peak pressures up to 32 kPa) and single pulse sound exposure levels up to 186 dB re 1µPa(2)s. The device was used to examine lethal effects of sound exposure in common sole (Solea solea) larvae. Different developmental stages were exposed to various levels and durations of pile-driving sound. The highest cumulative sound exposure level applied was 206 dB re 1µPa(2)s, which corresponds to 100 strikes at a distance of 100 m from a typical North Sea pile-driving site. The results showed no statistically significant differences in mortality between exposure and control groups at sound exposure levels which were well above the US interim criteria for non-auditory tissue damage in fish. Although our findings cannot be extrapolated to fish larvae in general, as interspecific differences in vulnerability to sound exposure may occur, they do indicate that previous assumptions and criteria may need to be revised.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0033052PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3303794PMC
July 2012

Mapping the spawning grounds of North Sea cod (Gadus morhua) by direct and indirect means.

Proc Biol Sci 2008 Jul;275(1642):1543-8

The Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science, Lowestoft, Suffolk NR33 OHT, UK.

Despite recent evidence for sub-stock structuring, North Sea cod are assessed as a single unit. As a consequence, knowledge of sub-stock trends is poor. In particular, there are no recent evaluations of which spawning grounds are active. Here we report results from the first ichthyoplankton survey to cover the whole North Sea. Also, this survey, conducted in 2004, was the first to make extensive use of DNA-based molecular methods to unambiguously identify early developmental stage cod eggs. We compare the findings from the plankton survey with estimated egg production inferred from the distribution of mature cod in contemporaneous trawl surveys. Results from both approaches were in general agreement and showed hot spots of egg production around the southern and eastern edges of the Dogger Bank, in the German Bight, the Moray Firth and to the east of the Shetlands. These areas broadly coincide with known spawning locations from the period 1940 to 1970. We were, however, unable to directly detect significant numbers of cod eggs at the historic spawning ground off Flamborough (northeast coast of England). The results demonstrate that most of the major spawning grounds of cod in the North Sea are still active but that some localized populations may have been reduced to the point where it is now difficult to detect the presence of eggs in the plankton.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2008.0201DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2602663PMC
July 2008
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