Publications by authors named "Lloyd Haskell"

27 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Risk of Severe Bleeding With Extended Rivaroxaban to Prevent Venous Thromboembolism in Acute Medically Ill Patients With Bronchiectasis.

Clin Appl Thromb Hemost 2021 Jan-Dec;27:10760296211053316

6808Janssen Research and Development, LLC, Raritan, NJ, USA.

Bronchiectasis is a chronic inflammation of the bronchi with recurrent infections and hemoptysis. The MAGELLAN study compared oral rivaroxaban, 10 mg once daily (QD), for 35 ± 4 days with subcutaneous enoxaparin 40 mg QD for 10 ± 4 days followed by placebo for 25 ± 4 days to prevent venous thromboembolism in patients hospitalized with an acute medical illness. MAGELLAN included a subset of patients with bronchiectasis. In a post hoc analysis, we evaluated the incidence and severity of pulmonary bleeding in patients with bronchiectasis who were hospitalized for an acute medical illness. This analysis included MAGELLAN patients diagnosed with bronchiectasis at baseline. Patients were evaluated by treatment group for International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis major bleeding, non-major clinically relevant (NMCR) bleeding, and the composite of the 2 (ie, clinically relevant bleeding). Medically ill patients with bronchiectasis were randomized to rivaroxaban (n = 60) or enoxaparin/placebo (n = 61). There were 2 fatal pulmonary bleeds and 1 fatal gastrointestinal bleed in the rivaroxaban arm and no fatal or major bleeding in the enoxaparin/placebo arm. The incidence of major bleeding was 5% in the rivaroxaban arm. One NMCR bleed occurred in the rivaroxaban arm and 2 NMCR bleeds occurred in the enoxaparin/placebo arm. The incidence of clinically relevant bleeding was 6.7% versus 3.3% in the rivaroxaban and enoxaparin/placebo groups, respectively (relative risk = 2.06 [95% confidence interval: 0.351-12.046]). In-patients hospitalized with bronchiectasis and an acute medical illness, clinically relevant bleeding, including fatal pulmonary hemorrhage, occurs more frequently with extended rivaroxaban thromboprophylaxis than with enoxaparin followed by placebo.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/10760296211053316DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8559236PMC
November 2021

Safety and Effectiveness of Paclitaxel Drug-Coated Devices in Peripheral Artery Revascularization: Insights From VOYAGER PAD.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2021 Nov;78(18):1768-1778

Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado, USA; CPC Clinical Research, Aurora, Colorado, USA.

Background: Paclitaxel drug-coated devices (DCDs) were developed to improve lower extremity revascularization (LER) patency in peripheral artery disease (PAD) but have been associated with long-term mortality.

Objectives: This study assessed DCD safety and effectiveness in LER for PAD.

Methods: VOYAGER PAD (Vascular Outcomes Study of ASA [acetylsalicylic acid] Along with Rivaroxaban in Endovascular or Surgical Limb Revascularization for PAD) randomized patients with PAD who underwent LER to rivaroxaban or placebo. The primary VOYAGER PAD study efficacy and safety outcomes were composite cardiovascular and limb events and Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction major bleeding. For prespecified DCD analyses, primary safety and effectiveness outcomes were mortality and unplanned index limb revascularization (UILR). Major adverse limb events (MALE) were a secondary outcome. Inverse probability treatment weighting was used to account for each subject's propensity for DCD treatment. Effects of rivaroxaban were assessed with Cox proportional hazards models.

Results: Among 4,316 patients who underwent LER, 3,478 (80.6%) were treated for claudication, and 1,342 (31.1%) received DCDs. Median follow-up was 31 months, vital status was ascertained in 99.6% of patients, and there were 394 deaths. After weighting, DCDs were not associated with mortality (HR: 0.95; 95% CI: 0.83-1.09) or MALE (HR: 1.08; 95% CI: 0.90-1.30) but were associated with reduced UILR (3-year Kaplan-Meier: 21.5% vs 24.6%; HR: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.76-0.92). Irrespective of DCD use, consistent benefit of rivaroxaban for composite cardiovascular and limb events (P = 0.88) and safety of rivaroxaban with respect to bleeding (P = 0.57) were observed.

Conclusions: In >4,000 patients with PAD who underwent LER, DCDs were not associated with mortality or MALE but were associated with persistent reduction in UILR. These findings provide insight into the safety and effectiveness of DCDs in PAD. (Vascular Outcomes Study of ASA [acetylsalicylic acid] Along with Rivaroxaban in Endovascular or Surgical Limb Revascularization for PAD [VOYAGER PAD]; NCT02504216).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2021.08.052DOI Listing
November 2021

Reduction in Acute Limb Ischemia with Rivaroxaban versus Placebo in Peripheral Artery Disease after Lower Extremity Revascularization: Insights from VOYAGER PAD.

Circulation 2021 Oct 12. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO; CPC Clinical Research, Aurora, CO.

Patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) are at heightened risk of acute limb ischemia (ALI), a thrombotic event associated with amputation, disability, and mortality. Prior lower extremity revascularization (LER) is associated with increased ALI risk in chronic PAD. However, the pattern of risk, clinical correlates, and outcomes after ALI early after LER are not well-studied, and effective therapies to reduce ALI post-LER are lacking. VOYAGER PAD (NCT02504216) randomized patients with PAD undergoing LER to rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily or placebo on a background of low-dose aspirin. The primary outcome was a composite of ALI, major amputation of vascular cause, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or cardiovascular death. ALI was prospectively ascertained and adjudicated by a blinded committee. The cumulative incidence of ALI was calculated using Kaplan Meier estimates, and Cox proportional-hazards models were used to generate hazard ratios and associated confidence intervals. Analyses were performed as intention-to-treat. Among 6,564 patients followed for a median of 2.3 years, 382 (5.8%) had a total of 508 ALI events. In placebo patients, the 3-year cumulative incidence of ALI was 7.8%. After multivariable modeling, prior LER, baseline ABI <0.50, surgical LER, and longer target lesion length were associated with increased risk of ALI. Incident ALI was associated with subsequent all-cause mortality (HR 2.59, 95% CI 1.98-3.39) and major amputation (HR 24.87, 95% CI 18.68-33.12). Rivaroxaban reduced ALI relative to placebo by 33% (absolute risk reduction 2.6% at 3 years, HR 0.67, 95% CI 0.55-0.82, P=0.0001), with benefit starting early (HR 0.45, 95% CI 0.24-0.85, P=0.0068 at 30 days). Benefit was present for severe ALI (associated with death, amputation, or prolonged hospitalization and ICU stay, HR 0.58, 95% CI 0.40-0.83, P=0.003) and regardless of LER type (surgical vs endovascular revascularization, p-interaction=0.42) or clopidogrel use (p-interaction=0.59). After LER for symptomatic PAD, ALI is frequent, particularly early after LER, and is associated with poor prognosis. Low-dose rivaroxaban plus aspirin reduces ALI after LER, including ALI events associated with the most severe outcomes. The benefit of rivaroxaban for ALI appears early, continues over time, and is consistent regardless of revascularization approach or clopidogrel use.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.121.055146DOI Listing
October 2021

Low-dose rivaroxaban and aspirin among patients with peripheral artery disease: a meta-analysis of the COMPASS and VOYAGER trials.

Eur J Prev Cardiol 2021 Aug 31. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Department of Cardiology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, 13001 E 17th Pl, Boulder, Colorado 80045, USA.

Aims: Peripheral artery disease (PAD) patients suffer a high risk of major cardiovascular (CV) events, with athero-thrombo-embolism as the underlying pathophysiologic mechanism. Recently, two large randomized clinical trials evaluated the efficacy and safety of low-dose rivaroxaban twice daily plus aspirin in stable PAD outpatients and those immediately after peripheral revascularization. We sought to determine if the effects of low-dose rivaroxaban and aspirin compared to aspirin alone are consistent across this broad spectrum of PAD patients.

Methods And Results: We conducted a random-effects meta-analysis of the COMPASS and VOYAGER randomized trials among 11 560 PAD patients (4996 from COMPASS and 6564 from VOYAGER) in the primary analysis and 9332 (2768 from COMPASS and 6564 from VOYAGER) with lower extremity (LE)-PAD in the secondary analysis. The hazard ratio (HR) for the composite of CV death, myocardial infarction, ischaemic stroke, acute limb ischaemia, or major vascular amputation was 0.79 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.65-0.95) comparing low-dose rivaroxaban plus aspirin to aspirin alone. While the risk of major bleeding was increased with low-dose rivaroxaban plus aspirin compared to aspirin alone [HR: 1.51 (95% CI: 1.22-1.87)], there was no significant increase in severe bleeding [HR: 1.18 (95% CI: 0.79-1.76)]. Similar effects were observed in the subset with symptomatic LE-PAD.

Conclusions: Among PAD patients, low-dose rivaroxaban plus aspirin is superior to aspirin alone in reducing CV and limb outcomes including acute limb ischaemia and major vascular amputation. This reduction is offset by a relative increase in major bleeding, but not by an excess of fatal or critical organ bleeding. The consistency of findings of these trials supports the use of combination low-dose rivaroxaban plus aspirin in PAD patients across a broad spectrum of disease.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurjpc/zwab128DOI Listing
August 2021

Low-dose rivaroxaban plus aspirin in older patients with peripheral artery disease undergoing acute limb revascularization: insights from the VOYAGER PAD trial.

Eur Heart J 2021 10;42(39):4040-4048

CPC Clinical Research, 2115 N Scranton Street, Suite 2040, Aurora, CO, USA.

Aims: In this secondary analysis of the VOYAGER trial, rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice/day plus aspirin 100 mg/day was assessed in older adults. Advanced age is associated with elevated bleeding risk and unfavourable net benefit for dual antiplatelet therapy in chronic coronary artery disease. The risk-benefit of low-dose rivaroxaban in patients ≥75 years with peripheral artery disease (PAD) after lower extremity revascularization (LER) has not been described.

Methods And Results: The primary endpoint was a composite of acute limb ischaemia, major amputation, myocardial infarction, ischaemic stroke, or cardiovascular death. The principal safety outcome was thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) major bleeding analysed by the pre-specified age cut-off of 75 years. Of 6564 patients randomized, 1330 (20%) were >75 years. Absolute 3-year Kaplan-Meier cumulative incidence rates for primary efficacy (23.4% vs. 19.0%) and safety (3.5% vs. 1.5%) endpoints were higher in elderly vs. non-elderly patients. Efficacy of rivaroxaban (P-interaction 0.83) and safety (P-interaction 0.38) was consistent irrespective of age. The combination of intracranial and fatal bleeding was not increased in patients >75 years (2 rivaroxaban vs. 8 placebo). Overall, benefits (absolute risk reduction 3.8%, number needed to treat 26 for the primary endpoint) exceeded risks (absolute risk increase 0.81%, number needed to harm 123 for TIMI major bleeding).

Conclusion: Patients ≥75 years with PAD are at both heightened ischaemic and bleeding risk after LER. No excess harm with respect to major, intracranial or fatal bleeding was seen in older patients yet numerically greater absolute benefits were observed. This suggests that low-dose rivaroxaban combined with aspirin should be considered in PAD after LER regardless of age.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehab408DOI Listing
October 2021

Effect of Rivaroxaban and Aspirin in Patients With Peripheral Artery Disease Undergoing Surgical Revascularization: Insights From the VOYAGER PAD Trial.

Circulation 2021 Oct 12;144(14):1104-1116. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

CPC Clinical Research, Aurora, CO (M.R.N., N.G., W.H.C., T.B., N.J., C.N.H., W.R.H., M.P.B.).

Background: Patients with peripheral artery disease requiring lower extremity revascularization (LER) are at high risk of adverse limb and cardiovascular events. The VOYAGER PAD trial (Vascular Outcomes Study of ASA [Acetylsalicylic Acid] Along With Rivaroxaban in Endovascular or Surgical Limb Revascularization for PAD) demonstrated that rivaroxaban significantly reduced this risk. The efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban has not been described in patients who underwent surgical LER.

Methods: The VOYAGER PAD trial randomized patients with peripheral artery disease after surgical and endovascular LER to rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily plus aspirin or matching placebo plus aspirin and followed for a median of 28 months. The primary end point was a composite of acute limb ischemia, major vascular amputation, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or cardiovascular death. The principal safety outcome was Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction major bleeding. International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis bleeding was a secondary safety outcome. All efficacy and safety outcomes were adjudicated by a blinded independent committee.

Results: Of the 6564 randomized, 2185 (33%) underwent surgical LER and 4379 (67%) endovascular. Compared with placebo, rivaroxaban reduced the primary end point consistently regardless of LER method (-interaction, 0.43). After surgical LER, the primary efficacy outcome occurred in 199 (18.4%) patients in the rivaroxaban group and 242 (22.0%) patients in the placebo group with a cumulative incidence at 3 years of 19.7% and 23.9%, respectively (hazard ratio, 0.81 [95% CI, 0.67-0.98]; =0.026). In the overall trial, Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction major bleeding and International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis major bleeding were increased with rivaroxaban. There was no heterogeneity for Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction major bleeding (-interaction, 0.17) or International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis major bleeding (-interaction, 0.73) on the basis of the LER approach. After surgical LER, the principal safety outcome occurred in 11 (1.0%) patients in the rivaroxaban group and 13 (1.2%) patients in the placebo group; 3-year cumulative incidence was 1.3% and 1.4%, respectively (hazard ratio, 0.88 [95% CI, 0.39-1.95]; =0.75) Among surgical patients, the composite of fatal bleeding or intracranial hemorrhage (=0.95) and postprocedural bleeding requiring intervention (=0.93) was not significantly increased.

Conclusions: The efficacy of rivaroxaban is associated with a benefit in patients who underwent surgical LER. Although bleeding was increased with rivaroxaban plus aspirin, the incidence was low, with no significant increase in fatal bleeding, intracranial hemorrhage, or postprocedural bleeds requiring intervention. Registration: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique Identifier: NCT02504216.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.121.054835DOI Listing
October 2021

Total Ischemic Event Reduction With Rivaroxaban After Peripheral Arterial Revascularization in the VOYAGER PAD Trial.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2021 07 16;78(4):317-326. Epub 2021 May 16.

CPC Clinical Research, Aurora, Colorado, USA; Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) undergoing lower extremity revascularization (LER) are at high risk of major adverse limb and cardiovascular events. The VOYAGER PAD (Efficacy and Safety of Rivaroxaban in Reducing the Risk of Major Thrombotic Vascular Events in Subjects With Symptomatic Peripheral Artery Disease Undergoing Peripheral Revascularization Procedures of the Lower Extremities) trial demonstrated that rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily reduced first events by 15%. The benefit of rivaroxaban on total (first and subsequent) events in this population is unknown.

Objectives: This study sought to evaluate the total burden of vascular events in patients with PAD after LER and the efficacy of low-dose rivaroxaban on total events.

Methods: VOYAGER PAD randomized patients with PAD undergoing LER to rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily plus aspirin or aspirin alone. The primary endpoint was time to first event of acute limb ischemia, major amputation of a vascular cause, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or cardiovascular death. The current analysis considered all events (first and subsequent) for components of the primary endpoint as well as additional vascular events including peripheral revascularizations and venous thromboembolism. HRs were estimated by marginal proportional hazards models.

Results: Among 6,564 randomized events, there were 4,714 total first and subsequent vascular events including 1,614 primary endpoint events and 3,100 other vascular events. Rivaroxaban reduced total primary endpoint events (HR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.75-0.98; P = 0.02) and total vascular events (HR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.79-0.95; P = 0.003). An estimated 4.4 primary and 12.5 vascular events per 100 participants were avoided with rivaroxaban over 3 years.

Conclusions: Patients with symptomatic PAD who are undergoing LER have a high total event burden that is significantly reduced with rivaroxaban. Total event reduction may be a useful metric to quantify the efficacy of rivaroxaban in this setting. (Efficacy and Safety of Rivaroxaban in Reducing the Risk of Major Thrombotic Vascular Events in Subjects With Symptomatic Peripheral Artery Disease Undergoing Peripheral Revascularization Procedures of the Lower Extremities [VOYAGER PAD]; NCT02504216).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2021.05.003DOI Listing
July 2021

Rivaroxaban and Aspirin in Peripheral Artery Disease Lower Extremity Revascularization: Impact of Concomitant Clopidogrel on Efficacy and Safety.

Circulation 2020 12 3;142(23):2219-2230. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

Department of Vascular Medicine, Klinikum Darmstadt GmbH, Germany (R.B.).

Background: The VOYAGER PAD trial (Vascular Outcomes Study of ASA Along With Rivaroxaban in Endovascular or Surgical Limb Revascularization for Peripheral Artery Disease) demonstrated superiority of rivaroxaban plus aspirin versus aspirin to reduce major cardiac and ischemic limb events after lower extremity revascularization. Clopidogrel is commonly used as a short-term adjunct to aspirin after endovascular revascularization. Whether clopidogrel modifies the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban has not been described.

Methods: VOYAGER PAD was a phase 3, international, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in patients with symptomatic PAD undergoing lower extremity revascularization randomized to rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily plus 100 mg aspirin daily or rivaroxaban placebo plus aspirin. The primary efficacy outcome was a composite of acute limb ischemia, major amputation of a vascular cause, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or cardiovascular death. The principal safety end point was TIMI (Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction) major bleeding, with International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis major bleeding a secondary safety outcome. Clopidogrel use was allowed at the discretion of the investigator for up to 6 months after the qualifying revascularization.

Results: Of the randomized patients, 3313 (50.6%) received clopidogrel for a median duration of 29.0 days. Over 3 years, the hazard ratio for the primary outcome of rivaroxaban versus placebo was 0.85 (95% CI, 0.71-1.01) with clopidogrel and 0.86 (95% CI, 0.73-1.01) without clopidogrel without statistical heterogeneity ( for interaction=0.92). Rivaroxaban resulted in an early apparent reduction in acute limb ischemia within 30 days (hazard ratio, 0.45 [95% CI, 0.14-1.46] with clopidogrel; hazard ratio, 0.48 [95% CI, 0.22-1.01] without clopidogrel; for interaction=0.93). Compared with aspirin, rivaroxaban increased TIMI major bleeding similarly regardless of clopidogrel use ( for interaction=0.71). With clopidogrel use >30 days, rivaroxaban was associated with more International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis major bleeding within 365 days (hazard ratio, 3.20 [95% CI, 1.44-7.13]) compared with shorter durations of clopidogrel ( for trend=0.06).

Conclusions: In the VOYAGER PAD trial, rivaroxaban plus aspirin reduced the risk of adverse cardiovascular and limb events with an early benefit for acute limb ischemia regardless of clopidogrel use. The safety of rivaroxaban was consistent regardless of clopidogrel use but with a trend for more International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis major bleeding with clopidogrel use >30 days than with a shorter duration. These data support the addition of rivaroxaban to aspirin after lower extremity revascularization regardless of concomitant clopidogrel, with a short course (≤30 days) associated with less bleeding. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT02504216.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.120.050465DOI Listing
December 2020

Rivaroxaban in Peripheral Artery Disease after Revascularization.

N Engl J Med 2020 05 28;382(21):1994-2004. Epub 2020 Mar 28.

From Colorado Prevention Center (CPC) Clinical Research (M.P.B., M.R.N., W.H.C., L.D., N.J., C.N.H., W.R.H.), the Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine (M.P.B., C.N.H., W.R.H.), the Department of Surgery, Division of Vascular Surgery (M.R.N.), and the Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology (W.H.C.), University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, and the Department of Biostatistics and Informatics, Colorado School of Public Health (J.M.K.) - all in Aurora; the Department of Vascular Medicine, Klinikum Darmstadt, Darmstadt, and Center for Thrombosis and Hemostasis, University of Mainz, Mainz (R.M.B.), the Department of Vascular Medicine, Vascular Surgery-Angiology-Endovascular Therapy, University of Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (E.S.D.), and Bayer, Wuppertal (A.F.P., E.M.) - all in Germany; the Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton Health Sciences and McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada (S.S.A.); Duke Clinical Research Institute, Division of Cardiology, Duke University, Durham, NC (M.R.P.); the Vascular and Interventional Radiology Department, Careggi University Hospital, University of Florence, Florence, Italy (F.F.); Ivano-Frankivsk National Medical University, Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine (I.G.); B-A-Z County University Teaching Hospital, Miskolc, Hungary (L.M.); University of Latvia, Pauls Stradins University Hospital, Riga (D.K.K.); ECLA (Estudios Clínicos Latino América), ICR (Instituto Cardiovascular de Rosario), Rosario, Argentina (R.D.); the Division of Angiology, Medical University Graz, Graz, Austria (M.B.); and Janssen Research and Development, Raritan (L.P.H.), and Thrombosis Group Head, Clinical Development, Bayer U.S., Whippany (S.D.B.) - both in New Jersey.

Background: Patients with peripheral artery disease who have undergone lower-extremity revascularization are at high risk for major adverse limb and cardiovascular events. The efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban in this context are uncertain.

Methods: In a double-blind trial, patients with peripheral artery disease who had undergone revascularization were randomly assigned to receive rivaroxaban (2.5 mg twice daily) plus aspirin or placebo plus aspirin. The primary efficacy outcome was a composite of acute limb ischemia, major amputation for vascular causes, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or death from cardiovascular causes. The principal safety outcome was major bleeding, defined according to the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) classification; major bleeding as defined by the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH) was a secondary safety outcome.

Results: A total of 6564 patients underwent randomization; 3286 were assigned to the rivaroxaban group, and 3278 were assigned to the placebo group. The primary efficacy outcome occurred in 508 patients in the rivaroxaban group and in 584 in the placebo group; the Kaplan-Meier estimates of the incidence at 3 years were 17.3% and 19.9%, respectively (hazard ratio, 0.85, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.76 to 0.96; P = 0.009). TIMI major bleeding occurred in 62 patients in the rivaroxaban group and in 44 patients in the placebo group (2.65% and 1.87%; hazard ratio, 1.43; 95% CI, 0.97 to 2.10; P = 0.07). ISTH major bleeding occurred in 140 patients in the rivaroxaban group, as compared with 100 patients in the placebo group (5.94% and 4.06%; hazard ratio, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.10 to 1.84; P = 0.007).

Conclusions: In patients with peripheral artery disease who had undergone lower-extremity revascularization, rivaroxaban at a dose of 2.5 mg twice daily plus aspirin was associated with a significantly lower incidence of the composite outcome of acute limb ischemia, major amputation for vascular causes, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or death from cardiovascular causes than aspirin alone. The incidence of TIMI major bleeding did not differ significantly between the groups. The incidence of ISTH major bleeding was significantly higher with rivaroxaban and aspirin than with aspirin alone. (Funded by Bayer and Janssen Pharmaceuticals; VOYAGER PAD ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02504216.).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2000052DOI Listing
May 2020

Evaluation of machine learning methodology for the prediction of healthcare resource utilization and healthcare costs in patients with critical limb ischemia-is preventive and personalized approach on the horizon?

EPMA J 2020 Mar 3;11(1):53-64. Epub 2020 Jan 3.

5Health Economics and Outcomes Research, GNS Healthcare, 196 Broadway, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.

Background: Critical limb ischemia (CLI) is a severe stage of peripheral arterial disease and has a substantial disease and economic burden not only to patients and families, but also to the society and healthcare systems. We aim to develop a personalized prediction model that utilizes baseline patient characteristics prior to CLI diagnosis to predict subsequent 1-year all-cause hospitalizations and total annual healthcare cost, using a novel Bayesian machine learning platform, Reverse Engineering Forward Simulation™ (REFS™), to support a paradigm shift from reactive healthcare to Predictive Preventive and Personalized Medicine (PPPM)-driven healthcare.

Methods: Patients ≥ 50 years with CLI plus clinical activity for a 6-month pre-index and a 12-month post-index period or death during the post-index period were included in this retrospective cohort of the linked Optum-Humedica databases. REFS™ built an ensemble of 256 predictive models to identify predictors of all-cause hospitalizations and total annual all-cause healthcare costs during the 12-month post-index interval.

Results: The mean age of 3189 eligible patients was 71.9 years. The most common CLI-related comorbidities were hypertension (79.5%), dyslipidemia (61.4%), coronary atherosclerosis and other heart disease (42.3%), and type 2 diabetes (39.2%). Post-index CLI-related healthcare utilization included inpatient services (14.6%) and ≥ 1 outpatient visits (32.1%). Median annual all-cause and CLI-related costs per patient were $30,514 and $2196, respectively. REFS™ identified diagnosis of skin and subcutaneous tissue infections, cellulitis and abscess, use of nonselective beta-blockers, other aftercare, and osteoarthritis as high confidence predictors of all-cause hospitalizations. The leading predictors for total all-cause costs included region of residence and comorbid health conditions including other diseases of kidney and ureters, blindness of vision defects, chronic ulcer of skin, and chronic ulcer of leg or foot.

Conclusions: REFS™ identified baseline predictors of subsequent healthcare resource utilization and costs in CLI patients. Machine learning and model-based, data-driven medicine may complement physicians' evidence-based medical services. These findings also support the PPPM framework that a paradigm shift from post-diagnosis disease care to early management of comorbidities and targeted prevention is warranted to deliver a cost-effective medical services and desirable healthcare economy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13167-019-00196-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7028871PMC
March 2020

Health-care Cost Impact of Continued Anticoagulation With Rivaroxaban vs Aspirin for Prevention of Recurrent Symptomatic VTE in the EINSTEIN-CHOICE Trial Population.

Chest 2018 12 7;154(6):1371-1378. Epub 2018 Sep 7.

Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Padua Medical School, Padua, Italy.

Background: Using data from the Reduced-Dose Rivaroxaban in the Long-Term Prevention of Recurrent Symptomatic Venous Thromboembolism (EINSTEIN-CHOICE) trial, this study assessed cost impact of continued anticoagulation therapy with rivaroxaban vs aspirin.

Methods: Total health-care costs (2016 USD) associated with rivaroxaban and aspirin were calculated as the sum of clinical event costs and drug costs from a US managed care perspective. Clinical event costs were calculated by multiplying event rate by cost of care. One-year Kaplan-Meier clinical event rates for recurrent pulmonary embolism, recurrent DVT, all-cause mortality, and bleeding were obtained from EINSTEIN-CHOICE. Cost of care was determined by literature review. Drug costs were the product of drug price (wholesale acquisition cost) and treatment duration. A one-way sensitivity analysis was conducted.

Results: Rivaroxaban users had lower per patient per month (PPPM) clinical event costs compared with aspirin users ($123, $243, and $381 for rivaroxaban 10 mg, rivaroxaban 20 mg, and aspirin, respectively). However, vs aspirin, PPPM total health-care costs were $24 higher for patients treated with rivaroxaban 10 mg ($143 higher for rivaroxaban 20 mg) due to higher cost of rivaroxaban. With a 15% discount for rivaroxaban 10 mg, the lower cost of clinical events for the rivaroxaban-treated patients more than fully offset the higher drug costs, and yielded a $19 lower total health-care cost.

Conclusions: Continued therapy with rivaroxaban 10 and 20 mg vs aspirin was associated with lower clinical event costs but higher total health-care costs; with a 15% drug discount rivaroxaban 10 mg had lower total health-care costs than aspirin.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chest.2018.08.1059DOI Listing
December 2018

Rationale and design for the Vascular Outcomes study of ASA along with rivaroxaban in endovascular or surgical limb revascularization for peripheral artery disease (VOYAGER PAD).

Am Heart J 2018 05 3;199:83-91. Epub 2018 Feb 3.

CPC Clinical Research, Aurora, CO; University of Colorado School of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO. Electronic address:

Background: Patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) undergoing a lower-extremity revascularization are at heightened risk for ischemic cardiac and limb events. Although intensification of antithrombotic therapy after revascularization has demonstrated benefit in coronary disease populations, this approach has not been well studied or shown consistent benefit in PAD. Recent trial evidence demonstrated that a treatment strategy of rivaroxaban added to background antiplatelet therapy reduced ischemic risk in patients following recent acute coronary syndromes, as well as in patients with stable atherosclerotic vascular disease. Whether these benefits extend to the population of patients with symptomatic lower-extremity PAD undergoing revascularization is the objective of the VOYAGER PAD trial.

Study Design: VOYAGER PAD is an international randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban in symptomatic PAD patients undergoing a peripheral surgical and/or endovascular revascularization. Patients are randomized in a 1:1 ratio to either rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily or placebo, on a background of low-dose aspirin (100 mg daily). In addition, the use of a limited course of P2Y inhibition is allowed at the discretion of the site investigator. The primary efficacy end point is a novel composite of myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, cardiovascular death, acute limb ischemia, and major amputation of vascular etiology. The primary safety end point is major bleeding according to the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction definition. Enrolment began in August 2015 and will complete randomization of at least 6,500 patients by January 2018. This event-driven trial is expected to observe outcomes over a mean patient follow-up of 30 months.

Conclusions: VOYAGER PAD is evaluating the efficacy of rivaroxaban added to background antiplatelet therapy to reduce major cardiovascular and limb ischemic vascular outcomes in the high-risk population of PAD patients undergoing peripheral revascularization.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2018.01.011DOI Listing
May 2018

Cost comparison of continued anticoagulation with rivaroxaban versus placebo based on the 1-year EINSTEIN-Extension trial efficacy and safety results.

J Med Econ 2018 Jun 16;21(6):587-594. Epub 2018 Mar 16.

e Groupe d'analyse, Ltée , Montréal , QC , Canada.

Aims: The EINSTEIN-Extension trial (EINSTEIN-EXT) found that continued treatment with rivaroxaban for an additional 6 or 12 months (vs placebo) after 6-12 months of initial anticoagulation significantly reduced the risk of recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) with a small non-significant increased risk of major bleeding (none fatal or in critical site). This study aimed to compare total healthcare cost between rivaroxaban and placebo, based on the EINSTEIN-EXT event rates.

Methods: Total healthcare cost was calculated as the sum of treatment and clinical event costs from a US managed care perspective. Treatment duration and event rates were obtained from the EINSTEIN-EXT study. Adjustment on treatment duration was made by assuming a 10% non-adherence rate. Drug costs were based on wholesale acquisition costs. Cost estimates for clinical events (i.e. recurrent deep vein thrombosis [DVT], recurrent pulmonary embolism, major bleeding, clinically relevant non-major bleeding) were determined from the literature. Results were examined over a ±20% range of each cost component and over 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of event rate differences in deterministic (one-way) and probabilistic sensitivity analyses (PSA).

Results: Total healthcare cost was $1,454 lower for rivaroxaban-treated (vs placebo-treated) patients in the base-case, with a lower clinical event cost fully offsetting drug cost. The cost savings of recurrent DVT alone (-$3,102) was greater than drug cost ($2,723). Total healthcare cost remained lower for rivaroxaban in the majority (73%) of PSA (cost difference [95% CI] = -$1,454 [-$2,396, $1,231]).

Limitations: This study was conducted over the 1-year observation period of the EINSTEIN-EXT trial, which limited "real-world" applicability and examination of long-term economic impact. Assumptions on drug and clinical event costs were US-based and, thus, not applicable to other healthcare systems.

Conclusions: Total healthcare costs were estimated to be lower for patients continuing rivaroxaban therapy compared to those receiving placebo in VTE patients who had completed 6-12 months of VTE treatment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13696998.2018.1444615DOI Listing
June 2018

Evaluation of clinical outcomes among nonvalvular atrial fibrillation patients treated with rivaroxaban or warfarin, stratified by renal function
.

Clin Nephrol 2018 May;89(5):314-329

Background: Renal dysfunction increases the risk of thromboembolic and bleeding events in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF).

Materials And Methods: Adult NVAF patients with ≥ 6 months prior to first warfarin or rivaroxaban dispensing were selected from the IMS Health Real-World Data Adjudicated Claims database (05/2011 - 06/2015) with electronic medical records. Ischemic stroke events, thromboembolic events (venous thromboembolism, myocardial infarction, or ischemic stroke), and major bleeding events were compared between patients by renal function identified by 1) relevant ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes and 2) estimated creatinine clearance (eCrCl). Baseline confounders were adjusted using inverse probability of treatment weights.

Results: The diagnosis-based analysis included 39,872 rivaroxaban and 48,637 warfarin users (3,572 and 8,230 with renal dysfunction, respectively). The eCrCl-based analysis included 874 rivaroxaban and 1,069 warfarin users (66 and 208 with eCrCl < 60 mL/min, respectively). In the diagnosis-based analysis, rivaroxaban users with renal dysfunction had a significantly lower stroke rate (HR = 0.55, p = 0.0004) compared to warfarin users; rivaroxaban users with and without renal dysfunction had significantly lower thromboembolic event rates (HR = 0.62, p < 0.0001; and HR = 0.64, p < 0.0001, respectively), and similar major bleeding rates to warfarin users. In the eCrCl-based analysis, rivaroxaban users with eCrCl ≥ 60 mL/min had a significantly lower thromboembolic event rate, but other outcomes were not statistically significant.

Conclusion: Rivaroxaban-treated NVAF patients with diagnosed renal dysfunction had a significantly lower stroke rate compared to warfarin-treated patients. Regardless of renal dysfunction diagnoses, rivaroxaban users had lower thromboembolic event rates compared to warfarin users, and a similar rate of major bleeding. eCrCl-based analysis was limited by a small sample size.
.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.5414/CN109281DOI Listing
May 2018

A Cross-Study Analysis Evaluating the Effects of Food on the Pharmacokinetics of Rivaroxaban in Clinical Studies.

J Clin Pharmacol 2017 Dec 5;57(12):1607-1615. Epub 2017 Jul 5.

Janssen Scientific Affairs, LLC, Titusville, NJ, USA.

US prescribing guidelines recommend that 15- and 20-mg doses of rivaroxaban be administered with food for the treatment of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) and for reduction in the risk of recurrence of DVT and PE. In addition, the US prescribing guidelines recommend these doses be administered with an evening meal to reduce the risk of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF). The purpose of this model-based cross-study comparison was to examine the impact of food, with regard to both meal timing and content, on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of rivaroxaban, using data collected during its clinical development. Results of this analysis showed that a PK model built from pooled data in the AF population (for whom rivaroxaban was administered with an evening meal) and in the DVT population (for whom rivaroxaban was administered with a morning meal) can describe both data sets well. Furthermore, the PK model built from data in the AF population alone can adequately predict the PK profile of the DVT population and vice versa. This cross-study analysis also confirmed the findings from previous clinical pharmacology studies, which showed that meal content does not have a clinically relevant impact on the PK of rivaroxaban at 20 mg. Therefore, although the administration of rivaroxaban with food is necessary for maintaining high bioavailability, neither meal timing nor meal content appears to affect the PK of rivaroxaban.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcph.958DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5697651PMC
December 2017

Rivaroxaban or Aspirin for Extended Treatment of Venous Thromboembolism.

N Engl J Med 2017 03 18;376(13):1211-1222. Epub 2017 Mar 18.

From the Thrombosis and Atherosclerosis Research Institute and McMaster University, Hamilton, ON (J.I.W.), and the Department of Medicine, University of Ottawa and the Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa (P.S.W.) - both in Canada; Bayer Pharmaceuticals, Leverkusen (A.W.A.L., M.C.S.F., G.H., A.F.P., S.D.B.), Vascular Medicine, Klinikum Darmstadt, Darmstadt (R.B.), the Center for Thrombosis and Hemostasis, University Medical Center Mainz, Mainz (R.B.), and the Department of Hematology, Medical Clinic I, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden (J.B.-W.) - all in Germany; the Department of Epidemiology and Technology Assessment, University of Maastricht, Maastricht, the Netherlands (M.H.P.); the Division of Angiology and Hemostasis and the Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Geneva (H.B.); the Department of Haematology, Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney (T.A.B.); the Department of Haematology and Oncology, King's College London (J.B.-W.), the Department of Haematological Medicine, Guy's and St. Thomas' Hospitals, King's College Hospital (A.T.C.), and Thrombosis Research Institute and University College London (A.K.K.) - all in London; the University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle (B.L.D.); Centre d'Investigation Clinique 1408, Sainbiose U1059, Investigation Network on Venous Thromboembolism, Service de Médecine Vasculaire et Thérapeutique, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire, Hôpital Nord, Saint Etienne, France (H.D.); Janssen Research and Development, Raritan, NJ (L.H.); Hospital Beneficência Portuguesa, São Paulo (B.B.); Vascular Medicine and Hemostasis, University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium (P.V.); and the Department of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Sciences, Vascular Medicine Unit, University of Padua, Padua, Italy (P.P.).

Background: Although many patients with venous thromboembolism require extended treatment, it is uncertain whether it is better to use full- or lower-intensity anticoagulation therapy or aspirin.

Methods: In this randomized, double-blind, phase 3 study, we assigned 3396 patients with venous thromboembolism to receive either once-daily rivaroxaban (at doses of 20 mg or 10 mg) or 100 mg of aspirin. All the study patients had completed 6 to 12 months of anticoagulation therapy and were in equipoise regarding the need for continued anticoagulation. Study drugs were administered for up to 12 months. The primary efficacy outcome was symptomatic recurrent fatal or nonfatal venous thromboembolism, and the principal safety outcome was major bleeding.

Results: A total of 3365 patients were included in the intention-to-treat analyses (median treatment duration, 351 days). The primary efficacy outcome occurred in 17 of 1107 patients (1.5%) receiving 20 mg of rivaroxaban and in 13 of 1127 patients (1.2%) receiving 10 mg of rivaroxaban, as compared with 50 of 1131 patients (4.4%) receiving aspirin (hazard ratio for 20 mg of rivaroxaban vs. aspirin, 0.34; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.20 to 0.59; hazard ratio for 10 mg of rivaroxaban vs. aspirin, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.14 to 0.47; P<0.001 for both comparisons). Rates of major bleeding were 0.5% in the group receiving 20 mg of rivaroxaban, 0.4% in the group receiving 10 mg of rivaroxaban, and 0.3% in the aspirin group; the rates of clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding were 2.7%, 2.0%, and 1.8%, respectively. The incidence of adverse events was similar in all three groups.

Conclusions: Among patients with venous thromboembolism in equipoise for continued anticoagulation, the risk of a recurrent event was significantly lower with rivaroxaban at either a treatment dose (20 mg) or a prophylactic dose (10 mg) than with aspirin, without a significant increase in bleeding rates. (Funded by Bayer Pharmaceuticals; EINSTEIN CHOICE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02064439 .).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1700518DOI Listing
March 2017

The MARINER trial of rivaroxaban after hospital discharge for medical patients at high risk of VTE. Design, rationale, and clinical implications.

Thromb Haemost 2016 06 4;115(6):1240-8. Epub 2016 Feb 4.

Gary E. Raskob, PhD, Dean, College of Public Health and Regents' Professor, Epidemiology and Medicine, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, College of Public Health, 801 NE 13th Street, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA, Tel.: +1 405 271 2232, Fax: +1 405 271 3039, E-mail:

Hospital-associated venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a leading cause of premature death and disability worldwide. Evidence-based guidelines recommend that anticoagulant thromboprophylaxis be given to hospitalised medical patients at risk of VTE, but suggest against routine use of thromboprophylaxis beyond the hospital stay. The MARINER study is a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of thromboprophylaxis using rivaroxaban, begun at hospital discharge and continued for 45 days, for preventing symptomatic VTE in high-risk medical patients. Eligible patients are identified using the International Medical Prevention Registry on Venous Thromboembolism (IMPROVE VTE) risk score, combined with a laboratory test, D-dimer. The rivaroxaban regimen is 10 mg once daily for patients with CrCl ≥ 50 ml/min, or 7.5 mg once daily for patients with CrCl ≥ 30 ml/min and < 50 ml/min. The primary efficacy outcome is the composite of symptomatic VTE (lower extremity deep-vein thrombosis and non-fatal pulmonary embolism) and VTE-related death. The principal safety outcome is major bleeding. A blinded clinical events committee adjudicates all suspected outcome events. The sample size is event-driven with an estimated total of 8,000 patients to acquire 161 primary outcome events. Study design features that distinguish MARINER from previous and ongoing thromboprophylaxis trials in medically ill patients are: (i) use of a validated risk assessment model (IMPROVE VTE) and D-dimer determination for identifying eligible patients at high risk of VTE, (ii) randomisation at the time of hospital discharge, (iii) a 45-day treatment period and (iv) restriction of the primary efficacy outcome to symptomatic VTE events.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1160/TH15-09-0756DOI Listing
June 2016

Two doses of rivaroxaban versus aspirin for prevention of recurrent venous thromboembolism. Rationale for and design of the EINSTEIN CHOICE study.

Thromb Haemost 2015 Aug 21;114(3):645-50. Epub 2015 May 21.

Jeffrey I. Weitz, Thrombosis & Atherosclerosis Research Institute, and McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, E-mail:

Patients with unprovoked venous thromboembolism (VTE) are at high risk for recurrence. Although rivaroxaban is effective for extended VTE treatment at a dose of 20 mg once daily, use of the 10 mg dose may further improve its benefit-to-risk ratio. Low-dose aspirin also reduces rates of recurrent VTE, but has not been compared with anticoagulant therapy. The EINSTEIN CHOICE study is a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, active-controlled, event-driven study comparing the efficacy and safety of two once daily doses of rivaroxaban (20 and 10 mg) with aspirin (100 mg daily) for the prevention of recurrent VTE in patients who completed 6-12 months of anticoagulant therapy for their index acute VTE event. All treatments will be given for 12 months. The primary efficacy objective is to determine whether both doses of rivaroxaban are superior to aspirin for the prevention of symptomatic recurrent VTE, while the principal safety outcome is the incidence of major bleeding. The trial is anticipated to enrol 2,850 patients from 230 sites in 31 countries over a period of 27 months. In conclusion, the EINSTEIN CHOICE study will provide new insights into the optimal antithrombotic strategy for extended VTE treatment by comparing two doses of rivaroxaban with aspirin (clinicaltrials.gov NCT02064439).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1160/TH15-02-0131DOI Listing
August 2015

Length of stay and economic consequences with rivaroxaban vs enoxaparin/vitamin K antagonist in patients with DVT and PE: findings from the North American EINSTEIN clinical trial program.

J Med Econ 2014 Oct 4;17(10):691-5. Epub 2014 Aug 4.

Janssen Scientific Affairs, LLC , Raritan, NJ , USA.

Objective: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) (deep vein thrombosis [DVT] and pulmonary embolism [(PE]) represents a substantial economic burden to the healthcare system. Using data from the randomized EINSTEIN DVT and PE trials, this North American sub-group analysis investigated the potential of rivaroxaban to reduce the length of initial hospitalization in patients with acute symptomatic DVT or PE.

Methods: A post-hoc analysis of hospitalization and length-of-stay (LOS) data was conducted in the North American sub-set of patients from the randomized, open-label EINSTEIN trial program. Patients received either rivaroxaban (15 mg twice daily for 3 weeks followed by 20 mg once daily; n = 405) or dose-adjusted subcutaneous enoxaparin overlapping with (guideline-recommended 'bridging' therapy) and followed by a vitamin K antagonist (VKA) (international normalized ratio = 2.0-3.0; n = 401). The open-label study design allowed for the comparison of LOS between treatment arms under conditions reflecting normal clinical practice. LOS was evaluated using investigator records of dates of admission and discharge. Analyses were carried out in the intention-to-treat population using parametric tests. Costs were applied to the LOS based on weighted mean cost per day for DVT and PE diagnoses obtained from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project dataset.

Results: Of 382 patients hospitalized, 321 (84%), had acute symptomatic PE; few DVT patients required hospitalization. Similar rates of VTE patients were hospitalized in the rivaroxaban and enoxaparin/VKA treatment groups, 189/405 (47%) and 193/401 (48%), respectively. In hospitalized VTE patients, rivaroxaban treatment produced a 1.6-day mean reduction in LOS (median = 1 day) compared with enoxaparin/VKA (mean = 4.5 vs 6.1; median = 3 vs 4), translating to total costs that were $3419 lower in rivaroxaban-treated patients.

Conclusion: In hospitalized North American patients with VTE, treatment with rivaroxaban produced a statistically significant reduction in LOS. When treating DVT and PE patients, clinicians should consider newer anti-coagulants with less complex treatment regimens.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3111/13696998.2014.946993DOI Listing
October 2014

Predicting the risk of venous thromboembolism in patients hospitalized with heart failure.

Circulation 2014 Jul 26;130(5):410-8. Epub 2014 Jun 26.

From Université Paris Diderot, PRES Sorbonne Paris Cité and Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Saint Louis Lariboisière University Hospitals, U942 Inserm, Paris, France (A.M.); Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals Inc, Montville, NJ (T.E.S., Y.D.S.); Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands (H.R.B.); Janssen Research & Development LLC, Raritan, NJ (L.H.); People's Hospital of Peking University, Beijing, China (D.H.); Foothills Hospital, Calgary, Alberta, Canada (R.H.); Thomas Jefferson Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA (G.M.); Dresden-Friedrichstadt Hospital, Dresden, Germany (S.W.S.); Hofstra North Shore-LIJ School of Medicine, Manhasset, NY (A.C.S.); Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (V.F.T.); and King's College Hospital, London, UK (A.T.C.).

Background: Whether heart failure (HF) increases the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) is not well established. In the phase III MAGELLAN (Multicenter, rAndomized, parallel Group Efficacy and safety study for the prevention of venous thromboembolism in hospitalized medically iLL patients comparing rivaroxabAN with enoxaparin) trial, extended-duration rivaroxaban was compared with standard-duration enoxaparin followed by placebo for VTE prevention in 8101 hospitalized acutely ill patients with or without HF. The aim of this analysis was to evaluate the relationship between HF severity and the risk of VTE in MAGELLAN patients.

Methods And Results: Hospitalized patients diagnosed with HF were included according to New York Heart Association class III or IV at admission (n=2593). HF severity was determined by N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) plasma concentrations (median 1904 pg/mL). Baseline plasma D-dimer concentrations ranged from 0.6 to 1.7 μg/L for the less and more severe HF subgroups. Patients with more severe HF had a greater incidence of VTE versus patients with less severe HF, with a significant trend up to Day 10 (4.3% versus 2.2%; P=0.0108) and Day 35 (7.2% versus 4.1%; P=0.0150). Multivariable analysis confirmed that NT-proBNP concentration was associated with VTE risk up to Day 10 (P=0.017) and D-dimer concentration with VTE risk up to Day 35 (P=0.005). The association between VTE risk and HF severity that was observed in the enoxaparin/placebo group was not seen in the extended-duration rivaroxaban group.

Conclusions: Patients with more severe HF, as defined by high NT-proBNP plasma concentration, were at increased risk of VTE. NT-proBNP may be useful to identify high short-term risk, whereas elevated D-dimer may be suggestive of high midterm risk.

Clinical Trial Registration: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00571649.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.113.003126DOI Listing
July 2014

An open-label study to estimate the effect of steady-state erythromycin on the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of a single dose of rivaroxaban in subjects with renal impairment and normal renal function.

J Clin Pharmacol 2014 Dec 3;54(12):1407-20. Epub 2014 Jul 3.

Janssen Research and Development, LLC, Titusville, NJ, USA.

Two previously conducted rivaroxaban studies showed that, separately, renal impairment (RI) and concomitant administration of erythromycin (P-glycoprotein and moderate cytochrome P450 3A4 [CYP3A4] inhibitor) can result in increases in rivaroxaban exposure. However, these studies did not assess the potential for combined drug-drug-disease interactions, which-in theory-could lead to additive or synergistic increases in exposure. This study investigated rivaroxaban pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics when co-administered with steady-state (SS) erythromycin in subjects with either mild or moderate RI. Similar to previous studies, rivaroxaban administered alone in RI subjects, or when co-administered with SS erythromycin in normal renal function (NRF) subjects, increased rivaroxaban exposure. When combined, the co-administration of rivaroxaban 10 mg with SS erythromycin in subjects with mild or moderate RI produced mean increases in rivaroxaban AUC∞ and Cmax of approximately 76% and 56%, and 99% and 64%, respectively, relative to NRF subjects, with PD changes displaying a similar trend. No serious adverse events occurred and no persistent adverse events were reported at the end of study. Although these increases were slightly more than additive, rivaroxaban should not be used in patients with RI receiving concomitant combined P-glycoprotein and moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors, unless the potential benefit justifies the potential risk.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcph.352DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4241044PMC
December 2014

Rivaroxaban: a novel oral anticoagulant for the prevention and treatment of several thrombosis-mediated conditions.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2013 Jul 23;1291:42-55. Epub 2013 May 23.

Janssen Research & Development, LLC, Raritan, New Jersey 08869, USA.

The development of rivaroxaban (XARELTO®) is an important new medical advance in the field of oral anticoagulation. Thrombosis-mediated conditions constitute a major burden for patients, healthcare systems, and society. For more than 60 years, the prevention and treatment of these conditions have been dominated by oral vitamin K antagonists (such as warfarin) and the injectable heparins. Thrombosis can lead to several conditions, including deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, myocardial infarction, stroke, and/or death. Prevention and treatment of thrombosis with an effective, convenient-to-use oral anticoagulant with a favorable safety profile is critical, especially in an aging society in which the risk of thrombosis, and the potential for bleeding complications, is increasing. Rivaroxaban acts to prevent and treat thrombosis by potently inhibiting coagulation Factor Xa in the blood. Factor Xa converts prothrombin to thrombin, which initiates the formation of blood clots by converting fibrinogen to clot-forming fibrin and leads to platelet activation. After a large and novel clinical development program in over 75,000 patients to date, rivaroxaban has received approval for multiple indications in the United States, European Union, and other countries worldwide to prevent and treat several thrombosis-mediated conditions. This review will highlight some of the unique aspects of the rivaroxaban development program.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nyas.12136DOI Listing
July 2013

Rivaroxaban for thromboprophylaxis in acutely ill medical patients.

N Engl J Med 2013 Feb;368(6):513-23

Department of Vascular Surgery, King's College Hospital, London SE5 9RS, United Kingdom.

Background: The clinically appropriate duration of thromboprophylaxis in hospitalized patients with acute medical illnesses is unknown. In this multicenter, randomized, double-blind trial, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of oral rivaroxaban administered for an extended period, as compared with subcutaneous enoxaparin administered for a standard period, followed by placebo.

Methods: We randomly assigned patients 40 years of age or older who were hospitalized for an acute medical illness to receive subcutaneous enoxaparin, 40 mg once daily, for 10±4 days and oral placebo for 35±4 days or to receive subcutaneous placebo for 10±4 days and oral rivaroxaban, 10 mg once daily, for 35±4 days. The primary efficacy outcomes were the composite of asymptomatic proximal or symptomatic venous thromboembolism up to day 10 (noninferiority test) and up to day 35 (superiority test). The principal safety outcome was the composite of major or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding.

Results: A total of 8101 patients underwent randomization. A primary efficacy outcome event occurred in 78 of 2938 patients (2.7%) receiving rivaroxaban and 82 of 2993 patients (2.7%) receiving enoxaparin at day 10 (relative risk with rivaroxaban, 0.97; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.71 to 1.31; P=0.003 for noninferiority) and in 131 of 2967 patients (4.4%) who received rivaroxaban and 175 of 3057 patients (5.7%) who received enoxaparin followed by placebo at day 35 (relative risk, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.62 to 0.96; P=0.02). A principal safety outcome event occurred in 111 of 3997 patients (2.8%) in the rivaroxaban group and 49 of 4001 patients (1.2%) in the enoxaparin group at day 10 (P<0.001) and in 164 patients (4.1%) and 67 patients (1.7%) in the respective groups at day 35 (P<0.001).

Conclusions: In acutely ill medical patients, rivaroxaban was noninferior to enoxaparin for standard-duration thromboprophylaxis. Extended-duration rivaroxaban reduced the risk of venous thromboembolism. Rivaroxaban was associated with an increased risk of bleeding. (Funded by Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals and Janssen Research and Development; MAGELLAN ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00571649.).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1111096DOI Listing
February 2013

Extended-duration rivaroxaban thromboprophylaxis in acutely ill medical patients: MAGELLAN study protocol.

J Thromb Thrombolysis 2011 May;31(4):407-16

Department of Surgery and Vascular Medicine, King's College Hospital, London SE59RS, UK.

Patients with acute medical illnesses are at increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Thromboprophylaxis is recommended in these patients but questions remain regarding the optimal duration of therapy. The aim of this study is to determine whether oral rivaroxaban is non-inferior to standard-duration (approximately 10 days) subcutaneous (s.c.) enoxaparin for the prevention of VTE in acutely ill medical patients, and whether extended-duration (approximately 5 weeks) rivaroxaban is superior to standard-duration enoxaparin. Patients aged 40 years or older and hospitalized for various acute medical illnesses with risk factors for VTE randomly receive either s.c. enoxaparin 40 mg once daily (od) for 10 ± 4 days or oral rivaroxaban 10 mg od for 35 ± 4 days. The primary efficacy outcomes are the composite of asymptomatic proximal deep vein thrombosis (DVT), symptomatic DVT, symptomatic non-fatal pulmonary embolism (PE), and VTE-related death up to day 10 + 4 and up to day 35 + 4. The primary safety outcome is the composite of treatment-emergent major bleeding and clinically relevant non-major bleeding. As of July 2010, 8,101 patients from 52 countries have been randomized. These patients have a broad range of medical conditions: approximately one-third were diagnosed with acute heart failure, just under one-third were diagnosed with acute infectious disease, and just under one-quarter were diagnosed with acute respiratory insufficiency. MAGELLAN will determine the efficacy, safety, and pharmacological profile of oral rivaroxaban for the prevention of VTE in a diverse population of medically ill patients and the potential of extended-duration therapy to reduce incidence of VTE.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11239-011-0549-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3090572PMC
May 2011

V1/V2 Vasopressin receptor antagonism potentiates the renoprotection of renin-angiotensin system inhibition in rats with renal mass reduction.

Kidney Int 2009 Nov 22;76(9):960-7. Epub 2009 Jul 22.

Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research, Bergamo, Italy.

Blockade of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), the standard treatment for chronic proteinuric nephropathy, slows but may not halt progression of the disease, particularly when therapy is started late. Because vasopressin may also play a role in the progression of renal disease, we measured the effect of a dual V(1a) and V(2) vasopressin receptor antagonist (RWJ-676070) alone or combined with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition or angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockade on proteinuria and renal disease progression during overt nephropathy. Twenty-one days after renal mass reduction, a time of established injury, rats were given vehicle, RWJ-676070, enalapril, losartan, RWJ-676070 plus enalapril, or losartan in drinking water for an additional 39 days. RWJ-676070 returned the blood pressure to pre-treatment levels, which were significantly lower than those in vehicle-treated rats. Enalapril, losartan, and the combined therapies reduced blood pressure to a greater extent. RWJ-676070 afforded a partial antiproteinuric effect, which was enhanced by the addition of enalapril or losartan. Renal functional impairment, and glomerular and tubular changes were partially ameliorated by RWJ-676070; parameters significantly improved with either enalapril or losartan alone and improved to a greater extent with the combined therapies. Our findings suggest that vasopressin receptor antagonists could be of additional therapeutic value in the treatment of chronic proteinuric nephropathy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ki.2009.267DOI Listing
November 2009

Optimizing dose selection with modeling and simulation: application to the vasopeptidase inhibitor M100240.

J Clin Pharmacol 2004 Jun;44(6):621-31

Aventis Pharmaceuticals, 1041 Route 202-206, Bridgewater, NJ 08807, USA.

Dual inhibition of neutral endopeptidase 24.11 (NEP) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) has gained increasing interest in the treatment of hypertension, heart failure, and renoprotection. Specifically, M100240, the thioester of the dual ACE/NEP inhibitor MDL100,173, has been evaluated in the management of hypertension. A model-based analysis, including simulations, was employed to characterize the relationship between individual M100240 drug exposure and neurohormonal response and to optimize the dose selection for future clinical studies. Sixty-two healthy subjects and 189 hypertensive patients were studied after oral once-daily administration of 2.5, 5, 10, 25, or 50 mg M100240. Pharmacokinetic-biomarker and blood pressure response models were fitted to the data with the computer program NONMEM. A direct inhibitory E(max) model adequately described the relationship between MDL100,173 concentration and ACE activity. No clear concentration or dose-dependent NEP or blood pressure responses were evident. Given a target 90% ACE inhibition, simulation reveals that (1). 50 mg M100240 once daily produces adequate ACE inhibition 24 hours postdose in only 20% of subjects, and (2). higher and/or more frequent doses on the order of 25 mg three times daily or 50 mg twice daily are required to achieve the target ACE inhibition in at least 50% of patients over 24 hours. Insufficient blood pressure-lowering effects were observed in healthy subjects and hypertensive patients due to inadequate ACE and NEP inhibition with once-daily oral doses of up to 50 mg of M100240. Divided doses might provide target ACE inhibition in more patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0091270004265365DOI Listing
June 2004
-->