Publications by authors named "Llúcia González"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Prenatal and postnatal exposure to acetaminophen in relation to autism spectrum and attention-deficit and hyperactivity symptoms in childhood: Meta-analysis in six European population-based cohorts.

Eur J Epidemiol 2021 May 28. Epub 2021 May 28.

ISGlobal, Barcelona Institute for Global Health, C. Doctor Aiguader 88, 08003, Barcelona, Spain.

The potential etiological role of early acetaminophen exposure on Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is inconclusive. We aimed to study this association in a collaborative study of six European population-based birth/child cohorts. A total of 73,881 mother-child pairs were included in the study. Prenatal and postnatal (up to 18 months) acetaminophen exposure was assessed through maternal questionnaires or interviews. ASC and ADHD symptoms were assessed at 4-12 years of age using validated instruments. Children were classified as having borderline/clinical symptoms using recommended cutoffs for each instrument. Hospital diagnoses were also available in one cohort. Analyses were adjusted for child and maternal characteristics along with indications for acetaminophen use. Adjusted cohort-specific effect estimates were combined using random-effects meta-analysis. The proportion of children having borderline/clinical symptoms ranged between 0.9 and 12.9% for ASC and between 1.2 and 12.2% for ADHD. Results indicated that children prenatally exposed to acetaminophen were 19% and 21% more likely to subsequently have borderline or clinical ASC (OR = 1.19, 95% CI 1.07-1.33) and ADHD symptoms (OR = 1.21, 95% CI 1.07-1.36) compared to non-exposed children. Boys and girls showed higher odds for ASC and ADHD symptoms after prenatal exposure, though these associations were slightly stronger among boys. Postnatal exposure to acetaminophen was not associated with ASC or ADHD symptoms. These results replicate previous work and support providing clear information to pregnant women and their partners about potential long-term risks of acetaminophen use.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10654-021-00754-4DOI Listing
May 2021

Exposure to mercury among 9-year-old children and neurobehavioural function.

Environ Int 2021 01 20;146:106173. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

Epidemiology and Environmental Health Joint Research Unit, FISABIO-Universitat Jaume I-Universitat de València, Valencia, Spain; Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain.

Mercury (Hg) is an environmental neurotoxicant whose main route of exposure in humans is the consumption of seafood. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between Hg exposure at 9 years old and behaviour assessed at 9 and 11 years old. Study subjects were mother-child pairs participating in the INMA (Environment and Childhood) Project in Valencia (Spain). Total Hg (THg) was measured in hair samples from the children at 9 years old. Behaviour and emotions were assessed at 9 (n = 472) years and 11 (n = 385) years of age using the Child Behaviour Checklist test (CBCL) and the Conners Parents Rating Scale-Revised: Short Form (CPRS-R:S). Furthermore, the attention function was assessed by the Attention Network Test at 11 years old. Socio-demographic, lifestyle and dietary information was collected through questionnaires during pregnancy and childhood. Polymorphism in BDNF, APOE and GSTP1 were genotyped in cord blood DNA. Multivariable negative binomial regression models were built in order to study the association between THg concentrations and the scores obtained by the children at 9 and 11 years old. Effect modification by sex and genetic polymorphisms was assessed. The association between Hg levels and CBCL scores was positive (worse neurobehavioural development) for the CBCL internalizing and total problem scales (Incidence Rate Ratio [95% confidence interval] = 1.07 [1.01, 1.13] and 1.05 [0.99, 1.11], respectively). The association between Hg and the externalizing and total problems CBCL scales and the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) index of the CPRS-R:S was different according to sex, with boys obtaining worse scores with increasing Hg, compared to girls. Statistically significant interactions were also observed for genetic polymorphisms affecting the association between early exposure to Hg and both CBCL and CPRS-R:S scores. In conclusion, postnatal Hg exposure is associated with poorer neurobehavioural development in 9- and 11-year-old children. Sex and the presence of certain genetic polymorphisms modified this association.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2020.106173DOI Listing
January 2021

Postnatal exposure to mercury and neuropsychological development among preschooler children.

Eur J Epidemiol 2020 Mar 13;35(3):259-271. Epub 2020 Mar 13.

Epidemiology and Environmental Health Joint Research Unit, Foundation for the Promotion of Health and Biomedical Research in the Valencian Region, FISABIO-Public Health, FISABIO-Universitat Jaume I-Universitat de València, Av. Catalunya 21, 46020, Valencia, Spain.

The objective of this study was to describe the postnatal exposure to Hg and to evaluate its association with neuropsychological development among preschool children. The study population are 4-5 years old children (n = 1252) participant in the Spanish INMA Project. Total Hg was measured in cord blood and in hair samples taken at 4 years of age (2008-2012). Neuropsychological development was assessed using the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities (MSCA). Information on covariates and possible confounders was obtained by questionnaires during pregnancy and childhood. Generalized additive and linear regression models were built in order to assess the relationship between MSCA scores and Hg exposure. We also evaluated the magnitude of the possible bias generated from measurement error in seafood intake estimate from questionnaire and Hg determination. The geometric mean of hair Hg was 0.98 µg/g [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.94, 1.03]. In the regression analysis, the association between Hg and the MSCA scores was positive for all the scales and statistically significant for the verbal (β = 0.89; 95%CI 0.38, 1.39), memory (β = 0.42; 95%CI 0.09, 0.76) and general cognitive scales (β = 1.35; 95%CI 0.45, 2.25). However, these associations were clearly attenuated when we adjusted by the children's fish intake variables or when took into account theoretical scenarios of low precision in fish intake and Hg measurements. Hg levels in this Spanish population were high in comparison with other European countries; however, we did not observe adverse effects on child neuropsychological development associated with this postnatal exposure to Hg.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10654-020-00620-9DOI Listing
March 2020

Risk of child poverty and social exclusion in two Spanish regions: social and family determinants.

Gac Sanit 2021 May-Jun;35(3):216-223. Epub 2020 Jan 21.

Joint Research Unit in Epidemiology, Environment and Health, FISABIO-University of Valencia-Universitat Jaume I, Valencia, Spain; Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Spain; Predepartamental Unit of Medicine, Universitat Jaume I, Castellón de la Plana, Spain.

Objective: Describe the risk of poverty and social exclusion in children aged 8-11 years from Gipuzkoa and Valencia (Spain), through AROPE (At Risk Of Poverty or Social Exclusion) indicators, and evaluate their associated factors in the INMA Project (Childhood and Environment).

Method: Families in Gipuzkoa and Valencia (394 and 382, respectively) completed a questionnaire in 2015-2016. Low work intensity (LWI), at risk of poverty (RP) and material deprivation (MD) were estimated. AROPE consisted in meeting any of the previous sub-indicators. Socio-demographic, family and parental characteristics were considered. Frequencies, Venn's diagrams, and chi-square and Fisher tests were used in bivariate analysis and logistic regression in multivariate analysis.

Results: For LWI, RP, MD and AROPE, prevalence of 2.5%, 5.6%, 2.3% and 7.2% were obtained in Gipuzkoa, and 8.1%, 31.5%, 7.8% and 34.7% in Valencia, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, the AROPE was associated in both areas with maternal social class and non-nuclear families. In Gipuzkoa, it was also related to maternal education. In Valencia, other factors were the mother's foreign origin, and paternal education and smoking.

Conclusion: There is higher AROPE prevalence in Valencia. Social class and family type were shared factors, but a differential pattern is observed in other social determinants. It is essential to implement social policies to reduce this axis of inequalities in health, especially in childhood.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gaceta.2019.11.002DOI Listing
January 2020

Maternal circulating Vitamin D levels during pregnancy and behaviour across childhood.

Sci Rep 2019 10 15;9(1):14792. Epub 2019 Oct 15.

ISGlobal, Barcelona, Spain.

Vitamin D deficiency during critical periods of development could lead to persistent brain alterations. We aimed to assess the association between maternal vitamin D, the major circulatory form of vitamin D, at pregnancy and neurodevelopmental outcomes during childhood, namely: behavioural problems, Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) symptoms, and social competence. This study included 2,107 mother-child pairs of a Spanish population-based birth cohort. Maternal plasma vitamin D was measured in pregnancy. The outcomes were measured through questionnaires at 5, 8, 14, and 18 years old. We ran multivariate regression models adjusted for potential confounding variables. We found that per each 10 ng/mL increment of maternal vitamin D, children obtained higher social competence scores (coefficient = 0.77; 95% CI = 0.19, 1.35) at 5 years old. However, we observed null associations between maternal vitamin D and total behavioural problems and ADHD and ASD symptoms in children from 5 to 18 years old. Further studies carried out in countries where the population is exposed to lower vitamin D levels are needed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-51325-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6794315PMC
October 2019

Similarities and differences of dietary and other determinants of iodine status in pregnant women from three European birth cohorts.

Eur J Nutr 2020 Feb 8;59(1):371-387. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH, UK.

Purpose: As a component of thyroid hormones, adequate iodine intake is essential during pregnancy for fetal neurodevelopment. Across Europe, iodine deficiency is common in pregnancy, but data are lacking on the predictors of iodine status at this life stage. We, therefore, aimed to explore determinants of iodine status during pregnancy in three European populations of differing iodine status.

Methods: Data were from 6566 pregnant women from three prospective population-based birth cohorts from the United Kingdom (ALSPAC, n = 2852), Spain (INMA, n = 1460), and The Netherlands (Generation R, n = 2254). Urinary iodine-to-creatinine ratio (UI/Creat, µg/g) was measured in spot-urine samples in pregnancy (≤ 18-weeks gestation). Maternal dietary intake, categorised by food groups (g/day), was estimated from food-frequency questionnaires (FFQs). Multivariable regression models used dietary variables (energy-adjusted) and maternal characteristics as predictors of iodine status.

Results: Median UI/Creat in pregnant women of ALSPAC, INMA, and Generation R was 121, 151, and 210 µg/g, respectively. Maternal age was positively associated with UI/Creat in all cohorts (P < 0.001), while UI/Creat varied by ethnicity only in Generation R (P < 0.05). Of the dietary predictors, intake of milk and dairy products (per 100 g/day) was positively associated with UI/Creat in all cohorts [ALSPAC (B = 3.73, P < 0.0001); INMA (B = 6.92, P = 0.002); Generation R (B = 2.34, P = 0.001)]. Cohort-specific dietary determinants positively associated with UI/Creat included fish and shellfish in ALSPAC and INMA, and eggs and cereal/cereal products in Generation R.

Conclusions: The cohort-specific dietary determinants probably reflect not only dietary habits but iodine-fortification policies; hence, public-health interventions to improve iodine intake in pregnancy need to be country-specific.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-019-01913-wDOI Listing
February 2020

Maternal copper status and neuropsychological development in infants and preschool children.

Int J Hyg Environ Health 2019 04 1;222(3):503-512. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Epidemiology and Environmental Health Joint Research Unit, FISABIO-Universitat Jaume I-Universitat de València, Av. Catalunya 21, 46020 Valencia, Spain; Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Av. Monforte de Lemos, 3-5. Pabellón 11, 28029 Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

Introduction: Copper (Cu) is an essential element involved in biological processes; however, excessive Cu could be harmful because of its reactive nature. Very few studies have evaluated its potential neurotoxic effects. We aimed to evaluate the association between maternal Cu levels and children's neuropsychological development.

Methods: Study subjects were mother-child pairs from the Spanish INMA (i.e. Childhood and Environment) Project. Cu was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in serum samples taken at the first trimester of pregnancy (2003-2005). Neuropsychological development was assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID) at 12 months (n = 651) and the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities (MSCA) at 5 years of age (n = 490). Covariates were obtained by questionnaires during pregnancy and childhood. Multivariate linear and non-linear models were built in order to study the association between maternal Cu and child neuropsychological development.

Results: The mean ± standard deviation of maternal Cu concentrations was 1606 ± 272 μg/L. In the multivariate analysis, a negative linear association was found between maternal Cu concentrations and both the BSID mental scale (beta = -0.051; 95% confidence intervals [CI]: -0.102, -0.001) and the MSCA verbal scale (beta = -0.044; 95%CI:-0.094, 0.006). Boys obtained poorer scores than girls, with increasing Cu at 12 months (interaction p-value = 0.040 for the mental scale and 0.074 for the psychomotor scale). This effect modification disappeared at 5 years of age. The association between Cu and the MSCA scores (verbal, perceptive performance, global memory and motor, general cognitive, and executive function scales) was negative for those children with lowest maternal iron concentrations (<938μg/L).

Conclusion: The Cu concentrations observed in our study were within the reference range established for healthy pregnant women in previous studies. The results of this study contribute to the body of scientific knowledge with important information on the possible neurotoxic capability of Cu during pregnancy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheh.2019.01.007DOI Listing
April 2019

The role of parental social class, education and unemployment on child cognitive development.

Gac Sanit 2020 Jan - Feb;34(1):51-60. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Unidad Mixta de Investigación en Epidemiología, Ambiente y Salud FISABIO-Universitat Jaume I-Universitat de València, Valencia, Spain; Área de Investigación de Servicios en Salud, FISABIO Salud Pública, Valencia, Spain; Red de Investigación en Servicios de Salud en Enfermedades Crónicas (REDISSEC), Spain.

Objective: Assessing the association between socioeconomic gradient and cognitive development among children of a Spanish birth cohort aged 5-6 years from a gender perspective.

Method: Cognitive development was assessed on 525 children aged 5-6 years in the INMA-Valencia cohort, with the Global Cognitive Score (GCS) from McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities. Information on social class, education level and employment was collected for both parents in addition to other sociodemographic factors, parental, family and child characteristics. The relationship between maternal and paternal socioeconomic gradient and cognitive development was assessed by linear regressions and comparing the variance explained by each indicator measured in the mother and father.

Results: Maternal socioeconomic gradient indicators explained more variance on GCS than paternal. Maternal education and paternal social class had an important individual effect that stayed after adjusting by other parental, child and family determinants. In the multivariable analysis, maternal education, age and intelligence, paternal social class and the child's age and sex were significantly associated with cognitive development.

Conclusions: Diverse socioeconomic gradient factors have an important influence on cognitive development, maternal education being the strongest determinant. Policies should be implemented to mitigate the negative effects of this gradient on child development.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gaceta.2018.07.014DOI Listing
November 2020

Maternal selenium status and neuropsychological development in Spanish preschool children.

Environ Res 2018 10 8;166:215-222. Epub 2018 Jun 8.

Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Av. Monforte de Lemos, 3-5. Pabellón 11, 28029 Madrid, Spain; Epidemiology and Environmental Health Joint Research Unit, FISABIO-Universitat Jaume I-Universitat de València, Av. Catalunya 21, 46020 Valencia, Spain. Electronic address:

Background: The relationship between maternal selenium (Se) status and child neurodevelopment has been scarcely assessed. In a previous study we observed an inverse U-shaped association between maternal Se concentrations and infant neurodevelopment at 12 months of age. In this study, this non-linear association was explored at preschool age. The effect modification by breastfeeding, child's sex and cord blood mercury was also evaluated.

Methods: Study subjects were 490 mother-child pairs from the Spanish Childhood and Environment Project (INMA, 2003-2012). Child neuropsychological development was assessed at around 5 years of age by the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities (MSCA). Sociodemographic and dietary characteristics were collected by questionnaire at the first and third trimester of gestation and at 5 years of age. Se was measured in serum samples by ICP-MS at the end of the first trimester of pregnancy (mean ± standard deviation (SD) = 12.4 ± 0.6 weeks of gestation).

Results: The mean ± SD of maternal serum Se concentrations was 79.9 ± 8.1 µg/L. In multivariate analysis, no linear association was found between Se concentrations and the nine MSCA scales. Generalized additive models indicated inverted U-shaped relationships between Se concentrations and the verbal and global memory scales. When assessing the influence of effect modifiers, breastfeeding played a role: the association between Se and neuropsychological development was inverted U-shaped for the quantitative, general cognitive, working memory, fine motor, global motor and executive function scales only for non-breastfed children.

Conclusion: Low and high maternal Se concentrations seem to be harmful for child neuropsychological development, however further studies should explore this non-linear relationship.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2018.06.002DOI Listing
October 2018

Iodine intake from supplements and diet during pregnancy and child cognitive and motor development: the INMA Mother and Child Cohort Study.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2018 03 26;72(3):216-222. Epub 2017 Dec 26.

CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Spain.

Background: The effect of mild-to-moderate maternal iodine deficiency on the neuropsychological development of their offspring is uncertain. We aimed to assess the association between iodine status during pregnancy and the cognitive and motor development of children at 4-5 years.

Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study in four Spanish regions with recruitment of pregnant women between 2003 and 2008 and follow-up of their children up to 4-5 years (mean (SD)=4.8 (0.6)). Cognitive and motor function was assessed in 1803 children using the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities. Dietary iodine and supplementation were measured through questionnaires twice during pregnancy. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was measured in spot samples. The residuals of a regression of UIC against creatinine were used to define a variable corrected for creatinine (UIC~Cr).

Results: Neither iodine supplements nor iodised salt consumption or maternal UIC were associated with cognitive or motor function. After adjusting for creatinine, children of women with UIC~Cr <100 µg/L had 3.93 (95% CI -6.18 to -1.69) general cognitive scores lower than the reference (150-249 µg/L). Dietary iodine was inversely associated with motor scores and milk but not other dairy products or seafood consumption accounted for this association (beta: -1.36; 95% CI -2.12 to -0.61; per one daily milk serving).

Conclusions: We found an association between low maternal urinary iodine and lower cognitive scores in childhood, although only when corrected for creatinine, adding to the evidence that iodine deficiency may have potential harmful effects on neurodevelopment. Iodine supplementation does not appear to improve child's neurodevelopment at 4-5 years.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2017-209830DOI Listing
March 2018

Sleeping, TV, Cognitively Stimulating Activities, Physical Activity, and Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptom Incidence in Children: A Prospective Study.

J Dev Behav Pediatr 2018 04;39(3):192-199

ISGlobal, Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Barcelona, Spain.

Objective: To analyze associations between time spent sleeping, watching TV, engaging in cognitively stimulating activities, and engaging in physical activity, all at 4 years, and (1) attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and (2) behavior problems, both assessed at 7 years, in ADHD-free children at baseline.

Method: In total, 817 participants of the Infancia y Medio Ambiente birth cohort, without ADHD at baseline, were included. At the 4-year follow-up, parents reported the time that their children spent sleeping, watching TV, engaging in cognitively stimulating activities, and engaging in physical activity. At the 7-year follow-up, parents completed the Conners' Parent Rating Scales and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, which measure ADHD symptoms and behavior problems, respectively. Negative binomial regression models were used to assess associations between the activities at 4 years and ADHD symptoms and behavior problems at 7 years.

Results: Children (48% girls) spent a median (p25-p75) of 10 (10-11) hours per day sleeping, 1.5 (0.9-2) hours per day watching TV, 1.4 (0.9-1.9) hours per day engaging in cognitively stimulating activities, and 1.5 (0.4-2.3) hours per day engaging in physical activity. Longer sleep duration (>10 hours per day) was associated with a lower ADHD symptom score (adjusted incidence rate ratio = 0.97, 95% confidence interval, 0.95-1.00). Longer time spent in cognitively stimulating activities (>1 hours per day) was associated with lower scores of both ADHD symptoms (0.96, 0.94-0.98) and behavior problems (0.89, 0.83-0.97). Time spent watching TV and engaging in physical activity were not associated with either outcomes.

Conclusion: A shorter sleep duration and less time spent in cognitively stimulating activities were associated with an increased risk of developing ADHD symptoms and behavior problems.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/DBP.0000000000000539DOI Listing
April 2018

Selenium status during pregnancy: Influential factors and effects on neuropsychological development among Spanish infants.

Sci Total Environ 2018 Jan 17;610-611:741-749. Epub 2017 Aug 17.

Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain; Epidemiology and Environmental Health Joint Research Unit, FISABIO-Universitat Jaume I-Universitat de València, Valencia, Spain. Electronic address:

Selenium (Se) has been positively associated with neurodevelopment in early life. However, its margin of safety is rather narrow, and few prospective studies have evaluated its potential neurotoxic effects at intermediate levels. We aimed to explore the association between maternal Se concentrations and child neuropsychological development, including the genetic effect modification of the Se metabolizing gene INMT. Study subjects were 650 mother-child pairs from the Spanish Childhood and Environment Project (INMA, 2003-2005). Infant neuropsychological development was assessed around 12months of age by the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. Sociodemographic and dietary characteristics were collected by questionnaire at the first and third trimester of gestation. Se was measured in serum samples at the first trimester. The mean serum Se concentration was 79.7 (standard deviation=7.9) μg/L. In multivariate analysis, nonsignificant inverse linear associations were found between Se concentrations and standardized mental and psychomotor development scores (β (95% CI)=-0.13 (-0.29, 0.03) and β (95% CI)=-0.08 (-0.24, 0.07), respectively). Generalized additive models indicated inverted U-shaped relationships between Se concentrations and both scales. Using segmented regression, the turning point for the associations was estimated at 86μg/L for both scales. The association between Se and neuropsychological development was inverted U-shaped for children with the AG+AA genotype for rs6970396 INMT but a descending curve was suggested for the GG genotype. Further studies would be necessary in order to disentangle the complex equilibrium between the toxicity and benefits of Se exposure during the prenatal period.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.08.042DOI Listing
January 2018

Are Early Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviors Related to Working Memory at 7 and 14 Years of Age?

J Pediatr 2017 09 5;188:35-41.e1. Epub 2017 Jul 5.

ISGlobal, Center for Research in Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Barcelona, Spain; Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute (IMIM), Barcelona, Spain; Pompeu Fabra University (UPF), Barcelona, Spain; Biomedical Research Networking Centres Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Spain.

Objective: To evaluate the role of extracurricular physical activity and sedentary behavior at preschool and primary school age on working memory at primary school age and adolescence, respectively.

Study Design: This prospective study was based on a birth cohort across 4 Spanish regions. In the 3 younger subcohorts (n = 1093), parents reported lifestyle habits of child at age 4 years of age on a questionnaire, and children performed a computerized working memory task at 7 years of age. In the older subcohort (n = 307), the questionnaire was completed at 6 years of age and working memory was tested at 14 years of age. Adjusted regression models were developed to investigate the associations between lifestyle habits and working memory.

Results: Low extracurricular physical activity levels at 4 years of age were associated with a nonsignificant 0.95% (95% CI -2.81 to 0.92) reduction of correct responses in the working memory task at age 7 years of age. Low extracurricular physical activity levels at 6 years of age were associated with a 4.22% (95% CI -8.05 to -0.39) reduction of correct responses at age 14 years. Television watching was not associated with working memory. Other sedentary behaviors at 6 year of age were associated with a 5.07% (95% CI -9.68 to -0.46) reduction of correct responses in boys at 14 years of age.

Conclusion: Low extracurricular physical activity levels at preschool and primary school ages were associated with poorer working memory performance at primary school age and adolescence, respectively. High sedentary behavior levels at primary school age were related negatively to working memory in adolescent boys.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2017.05.079DOI Listing
September 2017

Distributions and determinants of urinary biomarkers of organophosphate pesticide exposure in a prospective Spanish birth cohort study.

Environ Health 2017 05 17;16(1):46. Epub 2017 May 17.

Epidemiology and Environmental Health Joint Research Unit, FISABIO-Universitat Jaume I-Universitat de València, Av. Catalunya 21, 46020, Valencia, Spain.

Background: Prenatal exposure to organophosphate pesticides (OPs) has been associated with impaired child development. Pesticide exposure determinants need to be studied in order to identify sources and pathways of pesticide exposure. The aim of this paper is to describe prenatal exposure to OPs and evaluate the associated factors in pregnant women.

Methods: The study population consisted of pregnant women (n = 573) who participated in the INMA birth cohort study in Valencia (Spain, 2003-2006). OP metabolites were analyzed in maternal urine at the 32nd week of gestation using a liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry method. The analysis included non-specific (diethyl phosphate [DEP], diethyl thiophosphate [DETP], dimethyl thiophosphate [DMTP], dimethyl dithiophosphate [DMDTP]) and specific metabolites (2-diethylamino-6-methyl-4-pyrimidinol [DEAMPY], 2-isopropyl-4-methyl-6-hydroxypyrimidine [IMPY], para-nitrophenol [PNP], and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol [TCPY]). Information about the sociodemographic, environmental, and dietary characteristics was obtained by questionnaire. The association between log-transformed OPs and covariates was analyzed using multivariable interval censored regression.

Results: The detection frequencies were low, DMTP and TCPY being the most frequently detected metabolites (53.8% and 39.1%, respectively). All the OP metabolites were positively associated with maternal intake of fruits and vegetables. Other maternal characteristics related to the OPs were body mass index (BMI) before pregnancy and smoking habit during pregnancy. Women with lower BMI and those who did not smoke presented higher OP concentrations. Moreover, mothers who had a yard or garden with plants at home or who lived in an urban area were also more exposed to OPs.

Conclusions: The OP detection frequencies and the concentrations observed in our study population were low, compared with most of the previously published studies. Given the high vulnerability of the fetus to neurotoxicant exposure, further research on the determinants of the body burden of OPs during pregnancy would be necessary. The knowledge gained from such studies would enhance the effectiveness of public health control and future recommendations in order to reduce the risk to both the health of pregnant women and the health and development of their children.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12940-017-0255-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5436449PMC
May 2017