Publications by authors named "Liz Steed"

44 Publications

Community pharmacy-delivered interventions for public health priorities: a systematic review of interventions for alcohol reduction, smoking cessation and weight management, including meta-analysis for smoking cessation.

BMJ Open 2016 Feb 29;6(2):e009828. Epub 2016 Feb 29.

School of Medicine, Pharmacy and Health, Durham University Queen's Campus, Stockton-on-Tees, UK FUSE, UKCRC Centre for Translational Research in Public Health, Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne, UK Wolfson Research Institute for Health and Wellbeing, Durham University Queen's Campus, Stockton-on-Tees, UK.

Objectives: To systematically review the effectiveness of community pharmacy-delivered interventions for alcohol reduction, smoking cessation and weight management.

Design: Systematic review and meta-analyses. 10 electronic databases were searched from inception to May 2014.

Eligibility Criteria For Selecting Studies:

Study Design: randomised and non-randomised controlled trials; controlled before/after studies, interrupted times series.

Intervention: any relevant intervention set in a community pharmacy, delivered by the pharmacy team. No restrictions on duration, country, age, or language.

Results: 19 studies were included: 2 alcohol reduction, 12 smoking cessation and 5 weight management. Study quality rating: 6 'strong', 4 'moderate' and 9 'weak'. 8 studies were conducted in the UK, 4 in the USA, 2 in Australia, 1 each in 5 other countries. Evidence from 2 alcohol-reduction interventions was limited. Behavioural support and/or nicotine replacement therapy are effective and cost-effective for smoking cessation: pooled OR was 2.56 (95% CI 1.45 to 4.53) for active intervention vs usual care. Pharmacy-based interventions produced similar weight loss compared with active interventions in other primary care settings; however, weight loss was not sustained longer term in a range of primary care and commercial settings compared with control. Pharmacy-based weight management interventions have similar provider costs to those delivered in other primary care settings, which are greater than those delivered by commercial organisations. Very few studies explored if and how sociodemographic or socioeconomic variables moderated intervention effects. Insufficient information was available to examine relationships between effectiveness and behaviour change strategies, implementation factors, or organisation and delivery of interventions.

Conclusions: Community pharmacy-delivered interventions are effective for smoking cessation, and demonstrate that the pharmacy is a feasible option for weight management interventions. Given the potential reach, effectiveness and associated costs of these interventions, commissioners should consider using community pharmacies to help deliver public health services.
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February 2016

Exercise for Men with Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Eur Urol 2016 Apr 26;69(4):693-703. Epub 2015 Nov 26.

Department of Oncology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.

Context: Exercise could be beneficial for prostate cancer survivors. However, no systematic review across cancer stages and treatment types addressing potential benefits and harms exists to date.

Objective: To assess the effects of exercise on cancer-specific quality of life and adverse events in prostate cancer trials.

Evidence Acquisition: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, CINAHL, PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus, and PEDro. We also searched grey literature databases, including trial registers. Searches were from database inception to March 2015. Standardised mean differences (SMDs) were calculated for meta-analysis.

Evidence Synthesis: We included 16 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) involving 1574 men with prostate cancer. Follow-up varied from 8 wk to 12 mo. RCTs involved men with stage I-IV cancers. A high risk of bias was frequently due to problematic intervention adherence. Seven trials involving 912 men measured cancer-specific quality of life. Pooling of the data from these seven trials revealed no significant effect on this outcome (SMD 0.13, 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.08 to 0.34, median follow-up 12 wk). Sensitivity analysis of studies that were judged to be of high quality indicated a moderate positive effect estimate (SMD 0.33, 95% CI 0.08-0.58; median follow-up 12 wk). Similar beneficial effects were seen for cancer-specific fatigue, submaximal fitness, and lower body strength. We found no evidence of benefit for disease progression, cardiovascular health, or sexual function. There were no deaths attributable to exercise interventions. Other serious adverse events (eg, myocardial infarction) were equivalent to those seen in controls.

Conclusions: These results support the hypothesis that exercise interventions improve cancer-specific quality of life, cancer-specific fatigue, submaximal fitness, and lower body strength.

Patient Summary: This review shows that exercise/physical activity interventions can improve quality of life, fatigue, fitness, and function for men with prostate cancer.
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April 2016

Understanding patient participation behaviour in studies of COPD support programmes such as pulmonary rehabilitation and self-management: a qualitative synthesis with application of theory.

NPJ Prim Care Respir Med 2015 Sep 17;25:15054. Epub 2015 Sep 17.

Centre for Primary Care and Public Health, Blizard Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK.

Background: In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the problem of poor patient participation in studies of self-management (SM) and pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) programmes (together referred to as COPD support programmes) is established. Understanding this problem beyond the previously reported socio-demographics and clinical factors is critical.

Aims: The aim of this study was to explore factors that explain patient participation in studies of COPD support programmes.

Methods: Thematic 'framework' synthesis was conducted on literature published from 1984 to 1 February 2015. Emergent themes and subthemes were mapped onto the adapted 'attitude-social influence-external barriers' and the 'self-regulation' models to produce analytical themes.

Results: Ten out of 12 studies were included: PR (n=9) and SM (n=1). Three descriptive themes with 38 subthemes were mapped onto the models' constructs, and it generated four analytical themes: 'attitude', 'social influences' and 'illness' and 'intervention representations'. The following factors influenced (1) attendance-helping oneself through health improvements, perceived control of worsening condition, perceived benefits and positive past experience of the programme, as well as perceived positive influence of professionals; (2) non-attendance-perceived negative effects and negative past experience of the programme, perceived physical/practical concerns related to attendance, perceived severity of condition/symptoms and perceived negative influence of professionals/friends; (3) dropout-no health improvements perceived after attending a few sessions of the programme, perceived severity of the condition and perceived physical/practical concerns related to attendance.

Conclusions: Psychosocial factors including perceived practical/physical concerns related to attendance influenced patients' participation in COPD support programmes. Addressing the negative beliefs/perceptions via behaviour change interventions may help improve participation in COPD support programmes and, ultimately, patient outcomes.
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September 2015

Community pharmacy interventions for public health priorities: protocol for a systematic review of community pharmacy-delivered smoking, alcohol and weight management interventions.

Syst Rev 2014 Aug 22;3:93. Epub 2014 Aug 22.

School for Medicine, Pharmacy and Health, Durham University, Durham TS17 6BH, UK.

Background: Community pharmacists can deliver health care advice at an opportunistic level, related to prescription or non-prescription medicines and as part of focused services designed to reduce specific risks to health. Obesity, smoking and excessive alcohol intake are three of the most significant modifiable risk factors for morbidity and mortality in the UK, and interventions led by community pharmacists, aimed at these three risk factors, have been identified by the government as public health priorities. In 2008, the Department of Health for England stated that 'a sound evidence base that demonstrates how pharmacy delivers effective, high quality and value for money services is needed'; this systematic review aims to respond to this requirement.

Methods/design: We will search the databases MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Social Sciences Citation Index, ASSIA, IBSS, Sociological Abstracts, Scopus and NHS Economic Evaluation Database for studies that have evaluated interventions based on community pharmacies that aim to target weight management, smoking cessation and alcohol misuse. We will include all randomised controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomised controlled trials (NRCTs), controlled before-after studies (CBAs) and interrupted time series (ITS) and repeated measures studies. Data from included studies will be extracted by two independent reviewers and will include study details methods, results, intervention implementation/costs and methodological quality. Meta-analysis will be conducted if appropriate; if not, the synthesis will be restricted to a narrative overview of individual studies looking at the same question.

Discussion: The review aims to summarise the evidence base on the effectiveness of community pharmacy interventions on health and health behaviours in relation to weight management, smoking cessation and alcohol misuse. It will also explore if, and how, socio-economic status, gender, ethnicity and age moderate the effect of the interventions and will describe how the interventions included in the review have been organised, implemented and delivered, since context is an important factor governing the success of public health interventions. The findings from this review will have an impact on the commissioning of public health services aiming to promote healthy weight, smoking cessation and prevent excessive alcohol consumption.

Systematic Review Registration: The review has been registered with PROSPERO (registration no. CRD42013005943). Available at:
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August 2014

Lifestyle changes for improving disease-specific quality of life in sedentary men on long-term androgen-deprivation therapy for advanced prostate cancer: a randomised controlled trial.

Eur Urol 2014 May 4;65(5):865-72. Epub 2013 Oct 4.

Academic Urology Unit, Department of Oncology, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK. Electronic address:

Background: Prostate cancer is a key driver of cancer-related global disability-adjusted life-years. Androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) for advanced disease is linked to fatigue, reduced physical function, and quality of life (QoL).

Objective: To evaluate the effect of a lifestyle intervention on disease-specific QoL, diastolic blood pressure, and cancer-related fatigue in sedentary men receiving long-term ADT for advanced prostate cancer.

Design, Setting, And Participants: A total of 100 hundred sedentary men with locally advanced or metastatic prostate cancer on long-term ADT were randomised to an intervention or usual care group.

Intervention: A 12-wk lifestyle intervention consisting of aerobic and resistance exercise with parallel dietary advice.

Outcome Measurements And Statistical Analysis: Disease-specific QoL was measured using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Prostate (FACT-P) and Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Fatigue (FACT-F) questionnaires at 12 wk postintervention and at 6 mo following withdrawal of support. Analysis of covariance and mixed regression were conducted.

Results And Limitations: Clinically relevant improvements in FACT-P were seen at 12 wk in the intervention group compared with controls (mean difference: 8.9 points; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.7-14.2; adjusted p=0.001). No difference was apparent at 6 mo (mean difference: 3.3 points; 95% CI, -2.6 to 9.3; adjusted p=0.27). No difference in diastolic blood pressure was seen at either follow-up (all p > 0.05). Clinically relevant improvements in FACT-F were seen at 12 wk (mean difference: 5.3 points; 95% CI, 2.7-7.9; adjusted p<0.001) and maintained following withdrawal of supervision (mean difference: 3.9 points; 95% CI, 1.1-6.8; adjusted p=0.007). Improvements in exercise tolerance and behaviour were maintained at 6 mo (adjusted p<0.001 and 0.038).

Conclusions: A lifestyle intervention resulted in a clinically meaningful improvement in disease-specific QoL that was not maintained postintervention. No effect on blood pressure occurred. Durability of response was seen in fatigue and exercise behaviour. Further evaluation of support structures is essential.

Trial Registration: ISRCTN88605738.
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May 2014

How does change occur following a theoretically based self-management intervention for type 2 diabetes.

Psychol Health Med 2014 10;19(5):536-46. Epub 2013 Oct 10.

a Centre for Primary Care and Public Health , Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London , London , UK.

The purpose of this study was to test the extent that constructs from two theoretical models (self-regulatory theory and social cognitive theory) mediated change in outcomes following a self-management intervention. One hundred and twenty four individuals with type 2 diabetes who had participated in a randomised controlled trial of a diabetes self-management programme were analysed for the extent that illness beliefs and self-efficacy mediated change in self-management behaviours and illness specific quality of life. Exercise specific self-efficacy significantly mediated change in exercise at three months (B = .03; .01, p < .05) while monitoring specific self-efficacy mediated change in monitoring behaviour at both three (B = .04; .01, p < .01) and nine months follow-up (B = 5.97; 1.01, p < .01). Belief in control over diabetes mediated change in illness specific quality of life at three months (B = -.07; .28, p < .05) and nine months (B = .79; .28, p < .01) follow-ups, as well as change in exercise behaviour at immediately post-intervention (B = -.12; .17, p < .05). Behaviour-specific self-efficacy may have a stronger role in mediating self-management behaviours than illness beliefs; however, belief in control over diabetes may be important to manipulate for change in quality of life. This suggests different theoretical constructs may mediate change dependent on outcome.
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May 2015

Primary care delays in diagnosing cancer: what is causing them and what can we do about them?

J R Soc Med 2013 Nov 9;106(11):437-40. Epub 2013 Oct 9.

Primary Care and Public Health Sciences, King's College London, Capital House, London SE1 3QD, UK.

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November 2013

Interventions for promoting habitual exercise in people living with and beyond cancer.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013 Sep 24(9):CD010192. Epub 2013 Sep 24.

Queen Mary University of London, Barts & The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Centre for Primary Care and Public Health, Blizard Institute, Yvonne Carter Building, 58 Turner Street, London, UK, E1 2AB.

Background: The beneficial effects of regular exercise for people living with or beyond cancer are becoming apparent. However, how to promote exercise behaviour in sedentary cancer cohorts is not as well understood. A large majority of people living with or recovering from cancer do not meet exercise recommendations. Hence, reviewing the evidence on how to promote and sustain exercise behaviour is important.

Objectives: To assess the effects of interventions to promote exercise behaviour in sedentary people living with and beyond cancer and to address the following questions: Which interventions are most effective in improving aerobic fitness and skeletal muscle strength and endurance? What adverse effects are attributed to different exercise interventions? Which interventions are most effective in improving exercise behaviour amongst patients with different cancers? Which interventions are most likely to promote long-term (12 months or longer) exercise behaviour? What frequency of contact with exercise professionals is associated with increased exercise behaviour? What theoretical basis is most often associated with increased exercise behaviour? What behaviour change techniques are most often associated with increased exercise behaviour?

Search Methods: We searched the following electronic databases: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 8, 2012), MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, CINAHL, PsycLIT/PsycINFO, SportDiscus and PEDro from inception to August 2012. We also searched the grey literature, wrote to leading experts in the field, wrote to charities and searched reference lists of other recent systematic reviews.

Selection Criteria: We included only randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared an exercise intervention with a usual care approach in sedentary people over the age of 18 with a homogenous primary cancer diagnosis.

Data Collection And Analysis: Two review authors working independently (LB and KH) screened all titles and abstracts to identify studies that might meet the inclusion criteria, or that cannot be safely excluded without assessment of the full text (e.g. when no abstract is available). All eligible papers were formally abstracted by at least two members of the review author team working independently (LB and KH) and using the data collection form. When possible, and if appropriate, we performed a fixed-effect meta-analysis of study outcomes. For continuous outcomes (e.g. cardiorespiratory fitness), we extracted the final value, the standard deviation of the outcome of interest and the number of participants assessed at follow-up in each treatment arm, to estimate standardised mean difference (SMD) between treatment arms. SMD was used, as investigators used heterogeneous methods to assess individual outcomes. If a meta-analysis was not possible or was not appropriate, we synthesised studies as a narrative.

Main Results: Fourteen trials were included in this review, involving a total of 648 participants. Only studies involving breast, prostate or colorectal cancer were identified as eligible. Just six trials incorporated a target level of exercise that could meet current recommendations. Only three trials were identified that attempted to objectively validate independent exercise behaviour with accelerometers or heart rate monitoring. Adherence to exercise interventions, which is crucial for understanding treatment dose, is often poorly reported. It is important to note that the fundamental metrics of exercise behaviour (i.e. frequency, intensity and duration, repetitions, sets and intensity of resistance training), although easy to devise and report, are seldom included in published clinical trials.None of the included trials reported that 75% or greater adherence (the stated primary outcome for this review) of the intervention group met current aerobic exercise recommendations at any given follow-up. Just two trials reported six weeks of resistance exercise behaviour that would meet the guideline recommendations. However, three trials reported adherence of 75% or greater to an aerobic exercise goal that was less than the current guideline recommendation of 150 minutes per week. All three incorporated both supervised and independent exercise components as part of the intervention, and none placed restrictions on the control group in terms of exercise behaviour. These three trials shared programme set goals and the following behaviour change techniques: generalisation of a target behaviour; prompting of self-monitoring of behaviour; and prompting of practise. Despite the uncertainty surrounding adherence in many of the included trials, interventions caused improvements in aerobic exercise tolerance at 8 to 12 weeks (from 7 studies, SMD 0.73, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.51 to 0.95) in intervention participants compared with controls. At six months, aerobic exercise tolerance was also improved (from 5 studies, SMD 0.70, 95% CI 0.45 to 0.94), but it should be noted that four of the five trials used in this analysis had a high risk of bias, hence caution is warranted in interpretation of results. Attrition over the course of these interventions is typically low (median 6%).

Authors' Conclusions: Interventions to promote exercise in cancer survivors who report better levels of adherence share some common behaviour change techniques. These involve setting programme goals, prompting practise and self-monitoring and encouraging participants to attempt to generalise behaviours learned in supervised exercise environments to other, non-supervised contexts. However, expecting most sedentary survivors to achieve current guideline recommendations of at least 150 minutes per week of aerobic exercise is likely to be unrealistic. As with all well-designed exercise programmes in any context, prescriptions should be designed around individual capabilities, and frequency, duration and intensity or sets, repetitions, intensity or resistance training should be generated on this basis.
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September 2013

The community intensive therapy team: development and philosophy of a new service.

Clin Child Psychol Psychiatry 2006 Oct;11(4):591-605

Tonteg Child and Family Clinic, Pontypridd, UK.

The Community Intensive Therapy Team (CITT) has been operating since 1998. It was developed to cater for the needs of patients with complex difficulties referred to a specialist Child and Adolescent Health Service (CAMHS) in South Wales, UK. The patients served by the CITT are comparable with patients who might be referred for admission to an inpatient unit and include patients with eating disorders, psychosis, affective disorders, adjustment disorders or repetitive self-harm. The theoretical model used is based on a biopsychosocial model which aims to empower and support family members. The philosophy of the CITT is to work with the child and family in their own environment, tailoring the therapy to the needs of all concerned. CITT makes use of the strengths within the patient, the family and extended family, the agencies already involved and the environment. Since its introduction, the CITT has been able to manage all the complex referrals made to it from the generic Tier 2/3 CAMHS teams it serves, with minimal recourse to inpatient beds.
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October 2006

Self management for men with lower urinary tract symptoms: randomised controlled trial.

BMJ 2007 Jan 21;334(7583):25. Epub 2006 Nov 21.

Clinical Effectiveness Unit, Royal College of Surgeons of England, London WC2A 3PE.

Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of self management as a first line intervention for men with lower urinary tract symptoms.

Design: Randomised controlled trial.

Setting: A teaching hospital and a district general hospital in London.

Participants: 140 men (mean age 63 (SD 10.7) years), recruited between January 2003 and April 2004, referred by general practitioners to urological outpatient departments with uncomplicated lower urinary tract symptoms.

Interventions: Self management and standard care (n=73) or standard care alone (n=67). The self management group took part in three small group sessions comprising education, lifestyle advice, and training in problem solving and goal setting skills.

Main Outcome Measures: The primary outcome measure was treatment failure measured at 3, 6, and 12 months. Symptom severity (international prostate symptom score; higher scores represent a poorer outcome) was used as a secondary outcome.

Results: At three months, treatment failure had occurred in 7 (10%) of the self management group and in 27 (42%) of the standard care group (difference=32%, 95% confidence interval 18% to 46%). Corresponding differences in the frequency of treatment failure were 42% (27% to 57%) at six months and 48% (32% to 64%) at 12 months. At three months, the mean international prostate symptom score was 10.7 in the self management group and 16.4 in the standard care group (difference=5.7, 3.7 to 7.7). Corresponding differences in score were 6.5 (4.3 to 8.7) at six months and 5.1 (2.7 to 7.6) at 12 months.

Conclusions: Self management significantly reduced the frequency of treatment failure and reduced urinary symptoms. Because of the large observed benefit of self management, the results of this study support the case for a large multicentre trial to confirm whether self management could be considered as first line treatment for men with lower urinary tract symptoms.

Trial Registration: National Research Register N0263115137; Clinical trials NCT00270309 [].
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January 2007

Evaluation of the UCL diabetes self-management programme (UCL-DSMP): a randomized controlled trial.

J Health Psychol 2005 Mar;10(2):261-76

Royal Free & University College Medical School, London, W1N 8AA, UK.

Self-management has been described as the cornerstone of care for diabetes. Many self-management studies are limited by poor methodology and poor descriptions of the intervention. The current study developed a theoretically based self-management programme for patients with type 2 diabetes, which was evaluated via a randomized controlled trial. At immediate post-intervention and three-month follow-up the intervention group showed significant improvement relative to controls on self-management behaviours, quality of life and illness beliefs. A trend towards improved HbA1c was also observed. Documentation in a manual and development of a training programme for facilitators ensures the programme is replicable.
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March 2005

Self-management interventions for chronic illness.

Lancet 2004 Oct 23-29;364(9444):1523-37

Unit of Health Psychology, Centre for Behavioural and Social Sciences in Medicine, University College London, London, UK.

An increasing number of interventions have been developed for patients to better manage their chronic illnesses. They are characterised by substantial responsibility taken by patients, and are commonly referred to as self-management interventions. We examine the background, content, and efficacy of such interventions for type 2 diabetes, arthritis, and asthma. Although the content and intensity of the programmes were affected by the objectives of management of the illness, the interventions differed substantially even within the three illnesses. When comparing across conditions, it is important to recognise the different objectives of the interventions and the complexity of the issues that they are attempting to tackle. For both diabetes and asthma, the objectives are concerned with the underlying control of the condition with clear strategies to achieve the desired outcome. By contrast, strategies to deal with symptoms of pain and the consequences of disability in arthritis can be more complex. The interventions that were efficacious provide some guidance as to the components needed in future programmes to achieve the best results. But to ensure that these results endure over time remains an important issue for self-management interventions.
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November 2004

Cognitive change 5 years after coronary artery bypass surgery.

Health Psychol 2003 Nov;22(6):579-86

Unit of Health Psychology, Centre for Behavioural and Social Sciences in Medicine, University College London, London, United Kingdom.

A longitudinal study of cognitive function after coronary artery bypass surgery examined 107 participants using 11 tests, preoperatively and at 6 days, 8 weeks, and 5 years after surgery. The overall neuropsychological (NP) change score declined at 6 days, showed some recovery at 8 weeks, and declined again at 5 years. The number of microemboli recorded during surgery, postoperative short-term cognitive change, and degree of recovery at 8 weeks were identified as predictors of change in NP score to 5 years. This suggests that even over a 5-year period, operative damage is detectable. Patients' vulnerability to short-term deterioration and resilience or ability to recover over a few weeks from operative cerebral insult are important processes of unknown mechanisms.
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November 2003

A systematic review of psychosocial outcomes following education, self-management and psychological interventions in diabetes mellitus.

Patient Educ Couns 2003 Sep;51(1):5-15

Unit of Health Psychology, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Sciences, University College London, Wolfson Building, 8 Riding House Street, London W1N 8AA, UK.

Self-management and psychological interventions for diabetes have become increasingly common and have shown some positive impact on glycemic control. The association of such interventions with psychosocial outcomes is however, less clear. The current review examines the impact of these interventions on psychosocial outcomes including depression, anxiety, adjustment and quality of life. A systematic search of the literature was performed on Medline, Embase and Psychlit. Reference lists were screened for studies that met inclusion/exclusion criteria. Studies were coded on outcomes both over time and relative to control groups. In addition studies were classified as being principally educational, self-management or psychological in type, and the different components in the intervention were determined. Thirty-six studies were identified. Detrimental effects were not generally seen following any type of intervention. Depression seemed to be particularly improved following psychological interventions, whilst quality of life improved more following self-management interventions. A number of methodological issues, such as the specificity of measure used, characteristics of the population and type of intervention were however, influential in the impact of interventions on outcomes. It is recommended that future studies would benefit from being larger with controlled designs, using diabetes specific measures and providing clearer descriptions of intervention components. This will allow greater understanding of what contexts different interventions are most suited to, and which components are key to, improving psychological well-being and quality of life.
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September 2003