Publications by authors named "Liyu Cao"

28 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Seven-year disease-free survival in a patient with osteoclast-like giant cell-containing pancreatic undifferentiated carcinoma: a case report and literature review.

Int J Clin Exp Pathol 2020 1;13(12):3200-3205. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Department of Pathology, Immunology, and Laboratory Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Florida Gainesville, FL, USA.

Background: Undifferentiated carcinoma with osteoclast-like giant cells (UCOGC) of the pancreas is a very rare variant of pancreatic malignant neoplasm. It is regarded as a highly aggressive tumor with a worse prognosis than conventional pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

Case Presentation: A 54-year-old male patient presented with 3-month recurrent epigastric distress. Computed tomography of the abdomen showed a large cystic mass in the distal pancreas. On macroscopic examination, the lesion had numerous multiloculated cystic cavities. Microscopically, the tumor predominantly comprised a considerable number of evenly distributed non-neoplastic osteoclast-like giant cells and a few neoplastic pleomorphic cells. Although extensive histologic sampling was conducted, a classic ductal adenocarcinoma component was not identified. The patient received no further treatment after his surgery and has been doing well with no evidence of recurrence or metastasis for >7 years.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that pure UCOGC has a significantly better prognosis and supports that pure UCOGC may represent a biologically distinct variant of pancreatic carcinoma and it should be separated from other undifferentiated pancreatic carcinomas.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7791393PMC
December 2020

Overground Walking Decreases Alpha Activity and Entrains Eye Movements in Humans.

Front Hum Neurosci 2020 22;14:561755. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Department of Psychology (III), Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany.

Experiments in animal models have shown that running increases neuronal activity in early visual areas in light as well as in darkness. This suggests that visual processing is influenced by locomotion independent of visual input. Combining mobile electroencephalography, motion- and eye-tracking, we investigated the influence of overground free walking on cortical alpha activity (~10 Hz) and eye movements in healthy humans. Alpha activity has been considered a valuable marker of inhibition of sensory processing and shown to negatively correlate with neuronal firing rates. We found that walking led to a decrease in alpha activity over occipital cortex compared to standing. This decrease was present during walking in darkness as well as during light. Importantly, eye movements could not explain the change in alpha activity. Nevertheless, we found that walking and eye related movements were linked. While the blink rate increased with increasing walking speed independent of light or darkness, saccade rate was only significantly linked to walking speed in the light. Pupil size, on the other hand, was larger during darkness than during light, but only showed a modulation by walking in darkness. Analyzing the effect of walking with respect to the stride cycle, we further found that blinks and saccades preferentially occurred during the double support phase of walking. Alpha power, as shown previously, was lower during the swing phase than during the double support phase. We however could exclude the possibility that the alpha modulation was introduced by a walking movement induced change in electrode impedance. Overall, our work indicates that the human visual system is influenced by the current locomotion state of the body. This influence affects eye movement pattern as well as neuronal activity in sensory areas and might form part of an implicit strategy to optimally extract sensory information during locomotion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2020.561755DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7782973PMC
December 2020

Breast metastasis from EGFR/ALK negative lung adenocarcinoma: A case report.

Authors:
Liyu Cao Liting Lv

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 Dec;99(49):e23503

Department of Oncology Surgery, Affiliated Dongyang Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Dongyang, Zhejiang, China.

Introduction: Lung adenocarcinoma is the most common type of lung cancer. Distant metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma often occurs in multiple organs. The common metastasis sites of lung cancer include the lungs, brain, bones, adrenal glands, and lymph nodes; however, breast metastasis is rare.

Patient Concerns: In this report, we describe a case of breast metastasis from lung adenocarcinoma. A 55-year-old woman reported left breast pain for more than 1 month.

Diagnosis: Based on imaging, pathological examination, and immunohistochemical examination, the diagnosis of breast metastasis from lung adenocarcinoma was confirmed. Epidermal growth factor receptor mutations and anaplastic lymphoma kinase rearrangement were not detected by next-generation sequencing.

Interventions: The patient was treated with six courses of a combination of albumin-bound paclitaxel, cisplatin, and bevacizumab over 21 days.

Outcomes: After six cycles of palliative chemotherapy, her left breast pain and swelling subsided; in addition, her serum CA12-5, CYFRA, and CEA levels normalized by April 2019. PR status was evaluated as per the RECIST 1.1 criteria. The patient developed brain metastases 3 months later and died due to multiple organ failure.

Conclusion: The possibility of breast metastasis should be considered in patients with existing malignant tumors and breast pain. Clinical and imaging examinations are helpful for diagnosis, and pathological and immunohistochemical analyses are the most important diagnostic tools.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000023503DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7717722PMC
December 2020

FoxM1 is Upregulated in Osteosarcoma and Inhibition of FoxM1 Decreases Osteosarcoma Cell Proliferation, Migration, and Invasion.

Cancer Manag Res 2020 9;12:9857-9867. Epub 2020 Oct 9.

Department of Pathology, School of Basic Medical Science, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230032, People's Republic of China.

Background: Osteosarcoma (OS) is a highly aggressive bone malignancy that is mostly diagnosed in children and young adults. Increasing evidence indicates that the transcription factor Forkhead Box M1 (FoxM1) plays a key role in the pathogenesis of various tumors. However, the function of FoxM1 in OS has not been clearly elucidated.

Methods: In the present study, we first analyzed the expressions of FoxM1 in human OS and myositis ossificans (MO, included as a control) tissues by immunohistochemistry. To investigate the functional significance of FoxM1 in OS tumorigenesis, we examined the effects of FoxM1 downregulation in MG-63 and HOS-MNNG cells by either short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated gene silencing or treatment with thiostrepton, a specific FoxM1 inhibitor.

Results: FoxM1 was detected in 82.1% (55/67) of OS vs only 10% (2/20) of MO samples. High expressions of FoxM1 were also detected in three human OS cell lines (HOS-MNNG, MG-63, and U-2OS). FoxM1 downregulation significantly reduced MG-63 and HOS-MNNG cell proliferation, migration, and invasion as well as cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase and increased apoptotic cell death.

Conclusion: The present study demonstrated the critical role of FoxM1 in the pathogenesis of OS. Therefore, FoxM1 may serve as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of OS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CMAR.S270825DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7555408PMC
October 2020

Rapid and Accumulated Modulation of Action-Effects on Action.

J Cogn Neurosci 2020 Dec 28;32(12):2333-2341. Epub 2020 Sep 28.

Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg, Germany.

Auditory feedback to a keypress is used in many devices to facilitate the motor output. The timing of auditory feedback is known to have an impact on the motor output, yet it is not known if a keypress action can be modulated on-line by an auditory feedback or how quick an auditory feedback can influence an ongoing keypress. Furthermore, it is not clear if the prediction of auditory feedback already changes the early phase of a keypress action independent of sensory feedback, which would suggest that such prediction changes the motor plan. In the current study, participants pressed a touch-sensitive device with auditory feedback in a self-paced manner. The auditory feedback was given either after a short (60 msec) or long (160 msec) delay, and the delay was either predictable or not. Our results showed that the keypress peak force was modulated by the amount of auditory feedback delay even when the delay was unpredictable, thus demonstrating an on-line modulation effect. The latency of the on-line modulation was suggested to be as low as 70 msec, indicating a very fast sensory to motor mapping circuit in the brain. When the auditory feedback delay was predictable, a change in the very early phase of keypress motor output was found, suggesting that the prediction of sensory feedback is crucial to motor control. Therefore, even a simple keypress action contains rich motor dynamics, which depend on expected as well as on-line perceived sensory feedback.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/jocn_a_01633DOI Listing
December 2020

Action force modulates action binding: evidence for a multisensory information integration explanation.

Exp Brain Res 2020 Sep 2;238(9):2019-2029. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Psychology (III), Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg, 97070, Würzburg, Germany.

Action binding refers to the observation that the perceived time of an action (e.g., a keypress) is shifted towards the distal sensory feedback (usually a sound) triggered by that action. Surprisingly, the role of somatosensory feedback for this phenomenon has been largely ignored. We fill this gap by showing that the somatosensory feedback, indexed by keypress peak force, is functional in judging keypress time. Specifically, the strength of somatosensory feedback is positively correlated with reported keypress time when the keypress is not associated with an auditory feedback and negatively correlated when the keypress triggers an auditory feedback. The result is consistent with the view that the reported keypress time is shaped by sensory information from different modalities. Moreover, individual differences in action binding can be explained by a sensory information weighting between somatosensory and auditory feedback. At the group level, increasing the strength of somatosensory feedback can decrease action binding to a level not being detected statistically. Therefore, a multisensory information integration account (between somatosensory and auditory inputs) explains action binding at both a group level and an individual level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00221-020-05861-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7438375PMC
September 2020

Prediction of Smoking Behavior From Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms With Machine Learning Approaches.

Front Psychiatry 2020 14;11:416. Epub 2020 May 14.

State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Infectious Diseases, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.

Smoking is a complex behavior with a heritability as high as 50%. Given such a large genetic contribution, it provides an opportunity to prevent those individuals who are susceptible to smoking dependence from ever starting to smoke by predicting their inherited predisposition with their genomic profiles. Although previous studies have identified many susceptibility variants for smoking, they have limited power to predict smoking behavior. We applied the support vector machine (SVM) and random forest (RF) methods to build prediction models for smoking behavior. We first used 1,431 smokers and 1,503 non-smokers of African origin for model building with a 10-fold cross-validation and then tested the prediction models on an independent dataset consisting of 213 smokers and 224 non-smokers. The SVM model with 500 top single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) selected using logistic regression (p<0.01) as the feature selection method achieved an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.691, 0.721, and 0.720 for the training, test, and independent test samples, respectively. The RF model with 500 top SNPs selected using logistic regression (p<0.01) achieved AUCs of 0.671, 0.665, and 0.667 for the training, test, and independent test samples, respectively. Finally, we used the combined logistic (p<0.01) and LASSO (λ=10) regression to select features and the SVM algorithm for model building. The SVM model with 500 top SNPs achieved AUCs of 0.756, 0.776, and 0.897 for the training, test, and independent test samples, respectively. We conclude that machine learning methods are promising means to build predictive models for smoking.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.00416DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7241440PMC
May 2020

Methylation-Driven Genes Identified as Novel Prognostic Indicators for Thyroid Carcinoma.

Front Genet 2020 31;11:294. Epub 2020 Mar 31.

Department of Thyroid and Breast Surgery, Affiliated Dongyang Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Dongyang, China.

Background: Aberrant DNA methylation plays an crucial role in tumorigenesis through regulating gene expression. Nevertheless, the exact role of methylation in the carcinogenesis of thyroid cancer and its association with prognosis remains unclear. The purpose of this study is to explore the DNA methylation-driven genes in thyroid cancer by integrative bioinformatics analysis.

Methods: The transcriptome profiling data and DNA methylation data of thyroid cancer were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. The methylmix R package was used to screen DNA methylation-driven genes in thyroid cancer. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis were conducted to annotate the function of methylation-driven genes. Univariate Cox regression analyses was performed to distinguish prognosis-related methylation-driven genes. Multivariate Cox regression analyses was utilized to build a prognostic multi-gene signature. A survival analysis was carried out to determine the individual prognostic significance of this multi-gene signature.

Results: A total of 51 methylation-driven genes were identified. The functional analysis indicated that these genes were significantly enriched in diverse biological processes (BP) and pathways related to the malignancy processes. Four of these genes (RDH5, TREM1, BIRC7, and SLC26A7) were selected to construct the risk evaluation model. Patients in the low-risk group had an conspicuously better overall survival (OS) than those in high-risk group ( < 0.001). The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for this model was 0.836, suggesting a good specificity and sensitivity. Subsequent survival analysis revealed that this four-gene signature served as an independent indicator for the prognosis of thyroid cancer. Moreover, the prognostic signature was well validated in a external thyroid cancer cohort.

Conclusion: We identified methylation-driven genes in thyroid cancer with independent prognostic value, which may offer new insight into molecular mechanisms of thyroid cancer and provide new possibility for individualized treatment of thyroid cancer patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2020.00294DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7136565PMC
March 2020

Walking enhances peripheral visual processing in humans.

PLoS Biol 2019 10 11;17(10):e3000511. Epub 2019 Oct 11.

Department of Psychology, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany.

Cognitive processes are almost exclusively investigated under highly controlled settings during which voluntary body movements are suppressed. However, recent animal work suggests differences in sensory processing between movement states by showing drastically changed neural responses in early visual areas between locomotion and stillness. Does locomotion also modulate visual cortical activity in humans, and what are the perceptual consequences? Our study shows that walking increased the contrast-dependent influence of peripheral visual input on central visual input. This increase is prevalent in stimulus-locked electroencephalogram (EEG) responses (steady-state visual evoked potential [SSVEP]) alongside perceptual performance. Ongoing alpha oscillations (approximately 10 Hz) further positively correlated with the walking-induced changes of SSVEP amplitude, indicating the involvement of an altered inhibitory process during walking. The results predicted that walking leads to an increased processing of peripheral visual input. A second study indeed showed an increased contrast sensitivity for peripheral compared to central stimuli when subjects were walking. Our work shows complementary neurophysiological and behavioural evidence corroborating animal findings that walking leads to a change in early visual neuronal activity in humans. That neuronal modulation due to walking is indeed linked to specific perceptual changes extends the existing animal work.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000511DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6808500PMC
October 2019

Gene Expression Profiling for Diagnosis of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: A Multicenter, Retrospective Cohort Study.

Front Oncol 2019 7;9:354. Epub 2019 May 7.

Department of Pathology, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai, China.

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) accounts for 12-20% of all breast cancers. Diagnosis of TNBC is sometimes quite difficult based on morphological assessment and immunohistochemistry alone, particularly in the metastatic setting with no prior history of breast cancer. Molecular profiling is a promising diagnostic approach that has the potential to provide an objective classification of metastatic tumors with unknown primary. In this study, performance of a novel 90-gene expression signature for determination of the site of tumor origin was evaluated in 115 TNBC samples. For each specimen, expression profiles of the 90 tumor-specific genes were analyzed, and similarity scores were obtained for each of the 21 tumor types on the test panel. Predicted tumor type was compared to the reference diagnosis to calculate accuracy. Furthermore, rank product analysis was performed to identify genes that were differentially expressed between TNBC and other tumor types. Analysis of the 90-gene expression signature resulted in an overall 97.4% (112/115, 95% CI: 0.92-0.99) agreement with the reference diagnosis. Among all specimens, the signature correctly classified 97.6% of TNBC from the primary site (41/42) and lymph node metastasis (41/42) and 96.8% of distant metastatic tumors (30/31). Furthermore, a list of genes, including , and , was identified as differentially expressed between TNBC and other tumor types, suggesting their potential use as discriminatory markers. Our results demonstrate excellent performance of a 90-gene expression signature for identification of tumor origin in a cohort of both primary and metastatic TNBC samples. These findings show promise for use of this novel molecular assay to aid in differential diagnosis of TNBC, particularly in the metastatic setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2019.00354DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6513966PMC
May 2019

Association and cis-mQTL analysis of variants in serotonergic genes associated with nicotine dependence in Chinese Han smokers.

Transl Psychiatry 2018 11 7;8(1):243. Epub 2018 Nov 7.

State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.

Variants in serotonergic genes are implicated in nicotine dependence (ND) in subjects of European and African origin, but their involvement with smoking in Asians is largely unknown. Moreover, mechanisms underlying the ND risk-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in these genes are rarely investigated. The Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) score was used to assess ND in 2616 male Chinese Han smokers. Both association and interaction analysis were used to examine the association of variants in the serotonergic genes with FTND. Further, expression and methylation quantitative trait loci (cis-mQTL) analysis was employed to determine the association of individual SNPs with the extent of methylation of each CpG locus. Individual SNP-based association analysis revealed that rs1176744 in HTR3B was marginally associated with FTND (p = 0.042). Haplotype-based association analysis found that one major haplotype, T-T-A-G, formed by SNPs rs3758987-rs4938056-rs1176744-rs2276305, located in the 5' region of HTR3B, showed a significant association with FTND (p = 0.00025). Further, a significant genetic interactive effect affecting ND was detected among SNPs rs10160548 in HTR3A, and rs3758987, rs2276305, and rs1672717 in HTR3B (p = 0.0074). Finally, we found four CpG sites (CpG_4543549, CpG_4543464, CpG_4543682, and CpG_4546888) to be significantly associated with three cis-mQTL SNPs (i.e., rs3758987, rs4938056, and rs1176744) located in our detected haplotype within HTR3B. In sum, we showed SNP rs1176744 (Tyr129Ser) to be associated with ND. Together with the SNPs rs3758987 and rs4938056 in HTR3B, they formed a major haplotype, which had significant association with ND. We further showed these SNPs contribute to ND through four methylated sites in HTR3B. All these findings suggest that variants in the serotonergic system play an important role in ND in the Chinese Han population. More importantly, these findings demonstrated that the involvement of this system in ND is through gene-by-gene interaction and methylation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41398-018-0290-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6221882PMC
November 2018

Identification and validation of a 44-gene expression signature for the classification of renal cell carcinomas.

J Exp Clin Cancer Res 2017 Dec 6;36(1):176. Epub 2017 Dec 6.

Department of Pathology, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai, China.

Background: Renal cancers account for more than 3% of all adult malignancies and cause more than 23,400 deaths per year in China alone. The four most common types of kidney tumours include clear cell, papillary, chromophobe and benign oncocytoma. These histological subtypes vary in their clinical course and prognosis, and different clinical strategies have been developed for their management. Some kidney tumours can be very difficult to distinguish based on the pathological assessment of morphology and immunohistochemistry.

Methods: Six renal cell carcinoma microarray data sets, including 106 clear cell, 66 papillary, 42 chromophobe, 46 oncocytoma and 35 adjacent normal tissue samples, were subjected to integrative analysis. These data were combined and used as a training set for candidate gene expression signature identification. In addition, two independent cohorts of 1020 RNA-Seq samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas database and 129 qRT-PCR samples from Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center (FUSCC) were analysed to validate the selected gene expression signature.

Results: A 44-gene expression signature derived from microarray analysis was strongly associated with the histological differentiation of renal tumours and could be used for tumour subtype classification. The signature performance was further validated in 1020 RNA-Seq samples and 129 qRT-PCR samples with overall accuracies of 93.4 and 93.0%, respectively.

Conclusions: A 44-gene expression signature that could accurately discriminate renal tumour subtypes was identified in this study. Our results may prompt further development of this gene expression signature into a molecular assay amenable to routine clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13046-017-0651-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5717815PMC
December 2017

Role of the Cerebellum in Adaptation to Delayed Action Effects.

Curr Biol 2017 Aug 3;27(16):2442-2451.e3. Epub 2017 Aug 3.

School of Psychology, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QB, UK; Institute of Neuroscience and Psychology, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QB, UK.

Actions are typically associated with sensory consequences. For example, knocking at a door results in predictable sounds. These self-initiated sensory stimuli are known to elicit smaller cortical responses compared to passively presented stimuli, e.g., early auditory evoked magnetic fields known as M100 and M200 components are attenuated. Current models implicate the cerebellum in the prediction of the sensory consequences of our actions. However, causal evidence is largely missing. In this study, we introduced a constant delay (of 100 ms) between actions and action-associated sounds, and we recorded magnetoencephalography (MEG) data as participants adapted to the delay. We found an increase in the attenuation of the M100 component over time for self-generated sounds, which indicates cortical adaptation to the introduced delay. In contrast, no change in M200 attenuation was found. Interestingly, disrupting cerebellar activity via transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) abolished the adaptation of M100 attenuation, while the M200 attenuation reverses to an M200 enhancement. Our results provide causal evidence for the involvement of the cerebellum in adapting to delayed action effects, and thus in the prediction of the sensory consequences of our actions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2017.06.074DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5571438PMC
August 2017

The role of brain oscillations in predicting self-generated sounds.

Neuroimage 2017 02 3;147:895-903. Epub 2016 Nov 3.

Institute of Neuroscience and Psychology, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.

Being able to predict self-generated sensory consequences is an important feature of normal brain functioning. In the auditory domain, self-generated sounds lead to smaller brain responses (e.g., auditory evoked responses) compared to externally generated sounds, which is usually referred to as the sensory attenuation effect. Here we investigated the role of brain oscillations underlying this effect. With magnetoencephalography, we show that self-generated sounds are associated with increased pre-stimulus alpha power and decreased post-stimulus gamma power and alpha/beta phase locking in auditory cortex. All these oscillatory changes are correlated with changes in evoked responses, suggesting a tight link between these oscillatory events and sensory attenuation. Furthermore, the pre- and post- oscillatory changes correlate with each other across participants, supporting the idea that they constitute a neural information processing sequence for self-generated sounds. In line with findings of alpha oscillations reflecting feedback and gamma oscillations feedforward processes and models of predictive coding, we suggest that pre-stimulus alpha power represent prediction and post-stimulus gamma power represent prediction error, which is further processed with post-stimulus alpha/beta phase resetting. The correlation between these oscillatory events is further validated with cross-trial analysis, which provides additional support for the proposed information processing sequence that might reflect a general mechanism for the prediction of self-generated sensory input.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2016.11.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5315057PMC
February 2017

Auditory perception modulated by word reading.

Exp Brain Res 2016 10 21;234(10):3049-57. Epub 2016 Jun 21.

Institute of Clinical Neuroscience and Medical Psychology, Medical Faculty, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, 40225, Germany.

Theories of embodied cognition positing that sensorimotor areas are indispensable during language comprehension are supported by neuroimaging and behavioural studies. Among others, the auditory system has been suggested to be important for understanding sound-related words (visually presented) and the motor system for action-related words. In this behavioural study, using a sound detection task embedded in a lexical decision task, we show that in participants with high lexical decision performance sound verbs improve auditory perception. The amount of modulation was correlated with lexical decision performance. Our study provides convergent behavioural evidence of auditory cortex involvement in word processing, supporting the view of embodied language comprehension concerning the auditory domain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00221-016-4706-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5025489PMC
October 2016

Beta Rebound in Visuomotor Adaptation: Still the Status Quo?

Authors:
Liyu Cao Yi-Ming Hu

J Neurosci 2016 06;36(24):6365-7

Research Institute of Information Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, Peoples' Republic of China, and Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1007-16.2016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6601919PMC
June 2016

Effect of survivin on tumor growth of colorectal cancer in vivo.

Int J Clin Exp Pathol 2015 1;8(10):13267-72. Epub 2015 Oct 1.

Department of Pathology, Anhui Medical University Hefei 230032, Anhui Province, China.

Survivin, a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis gene family regulates two critical processes in neoplastic transformation, namely, cell proliferation and apoptosis. This study aimed to detect the effect of survivin on tumor growth of colorectal cancer (CRC) in vivo. We found that inhibition of survivin by interference decreased the sizes and weights of xenografts in nude mice. The number of apoptotic cells of the shRNA survivin group was higher than that of the black group and the shRNA control group. The downregulated expression of survivin decreased the expression levels of bcl2 and ki67. Our results indicated that inhibition of survivin significantly enhanced the inhibition of tumor growth and induced apoptosis. Survivin is an attractive target for CRC treatment.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4680473PMC
October 2016

[Expression of microRNA in ALK-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma and CD30-positive peripheral T cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified].

Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi 2015 Aug;44(8):565-70

Department of Pathology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230032, China; E-mail:

Objective: To study the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in ALK-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma and CD30 positive peripheral T cell lymphoma (not otherwise specified), and discuss the pathogenesis of miRNAs in ALK-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma.

Methods: Three cases of ALK-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma of lymph node, 3 cases of CD30-positive peripheral T cell lymphoma (not otherwise specified) of lymph node and 3 cases of reactive hyperplasia of lymph node were detected by high flow microarray of miRNAs. The method of real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was further applied for 7 miRNAs in 15 cases of ALK-negatie anaplastic large cell lymphomas of lymph node and 15 cases of CD30-positive peripheral T cell lymphoma (not otherwise specified) of lymph node.

Results: The significant difference of 13 miRNAs was found between ALK-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma and CD30 positive peripheral T cell lymphoma (not otherwise specified) (P < 0.05), of which the result of 5 miRNAs was consistent with miRNAs expression spectrum: miR-664b-5p, miR-1275, miR-4739, miR-4736 and miR-504-5p, the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Compared with reactive hyperplasia of lymph nodes, miR-664b-5p, miR-1275 and miR-4739 were significantly under-expressed (P = 0.004, P = 0.021, P = 0.031) and miR-4736 and miR-504-5p were significantly over-expressed (P = 0.009, P = 0.007) in ALK negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma.

Conclusions: MiR-664b-5p, miR-1275, miR-4739, miR-4736 and miR-504-5p may become an important indicator in the differentiation ALK-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma from CD30-positive peripheral T cell lymphoma (not otherwise specified). MiR-4739, miR-4736 and miR-1275 may play important role in pathogenesis of negative-anaplastic large cell lymphoma by target genes: TNFRSF8 and TMOD1.
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August 2015

Cultural Differences in Perceiving Sounds Generated by Others: Self Matters.

Front Psychol 2015 2;6:1865. Epub 2015 Dec 2.

School of Psychology, University of Glasgow Glasgow, UK.

Sensory consequences resulting from own movements receive different neural processing compared to externally generated sensory consequences (e.g., by a computer), leading to sensory attenuation, i.e., a reduction in perceived intensity or brain evoked responses. However, discrepant findings exist from different cultural regions about whether sensory attenuation is also present for sensory consequences generated by others. In this study, we performed a cross culture (between Chinese and British) comparison on the processing of sensory consequences (perceived loudness) from self and others compared to an external source in the auditory domain. We found a cultural difference in processing sensory consequences generated by others, with only Chinese and not British showing the sensory attenuation effect. Sensory attenuation in this case was correlated with independent self-construal scores. The sensory attenuation effect for self-generated sensory consequences was not replicated. However, a correlation with delusional ideation was observed for British. These findings are discussed with respects to mechanisms of sensory attenuation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01865DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4667006PMC
December 2015

Attention Wins over Sensory Attenuation in a Sound Detection Task.

PLoS One 2015 24;10(8):e0136585. Epub 2015 Aug 24.

University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom.

'Sensory attenuation', i.e., reduced neural responses to self-induced compared to externally generated stimuli, is a well-established phenomenon. However, very few studies directly compared sensory attenuation with attention effect, which leads to increased neural responses. In this study, we brought sensory attenuation and attention together in a behavioural auditory detection task, where both effects were quantitatively measured and compared. The classic auditory attention effect of facilitating detection performance was replicated. When attention and sensory attenuation were both present, attentional facilitation decreased but remained significant. The results are discussed in the light of current theories of sensory attenuation.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0136585PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4547802PMC
May 2016

Lymph node metastasis in differentiated-type early gastric cancer: a single-center retrospective analysis of surgically resected cases.

Scand J Gastroenterol 2016 Jan 22;51(1):48-54. Epub 2015 Jul 22.

a 1 Department of Gastroenterology, Anhui Geriatric Institute, First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Key Laboratory of Gastroenterology of Anhui Province , Hefei 230022, Anhui, China.

Background: Lymph node metastasis (LNM) from early gastric cancer (EGC) is rare, especially for differentiated-type EGC. However, LNM has been reported in a few cases after endoscopic curative resection of differentiated-type EGC. This study aimed to evaluate LNM risk factors to identify those that should be considered during the preoperative evaluation of differentiated-type EGC.

Patients And Methods: A total of 976 EGC patients who underwent radical gastrectomy were reviewed in this study. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to analyze the predictive factors for LNM based on the histology of the differentiated-type EGC cases.

Results: Differentiated-type EGC was observed in 59% of the cases. The rate of LNM was 6.6% (38/576 patients) in the differentiated-type EGC cases. Macroscopic shape, ulcers, tumor size, deeper invasion and lymphovascular invasion were shown to be related to LNM in differentiated-type EGC. Multivariate analysis revealed that size, depth, ulceration and lymphovascular invasion were independent predictors of LNM in differentiated-type EGC. When lymphovascular invasion was absent, the presence of one or more of the risk factors of ulcer lesions, tumor size >30 mm and submucosal invasion increased the rate of LNM. Thirteen patients who underwent radical gastrectomy were shown to have differentiated-type EGC with LNM that met the standard and expanded criteria of endoscopic submucosal dissection.

Conclusions: As endoscopic resection is widely used, it is important to clarify the clinical significance of LNM in differentiated-type EGC and to screen for LNM with this incidence in mind and to follow the clinical courses of such cases, especially in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/00365521.2015.1054425DOI Listing
January 2016

ING4 enhances paclitaxel's effect on colorectal cancer growth in vitro and in vivo.

Int J Clin Exp Pathol 2015 1;8(3):2919-27. Epub 2015 Mar 1.

Department of Gastroenterology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Anhui Medical University Hefei 230022, Anhui Province, China.

Inhibitor of growth 4 (ING4) is a tumor suppressor that can inhibit cell growth and induce apoptosis. ING4 expression levels show negative correlation with the clinical stage, histological grade, and lymph node metastasis of colorectal cancer. Further insights are needed to analyze the effect of adenovirus-mediated ING4 on colorectal cancer cell growth and the response to paclitaxel treatment. In this study, we found adenovirus-mediated ING4 expression reduced proliferation and enhanced apoptosis in the SW1116 cells. p-Stat3 and Ki-67 expression significantly decreased in the SW1116 cells treated with Ad-ING4, PTX, or Ad-ING4+PTX compared with those treated with PBS or Ad-GFP both in vitro and in vivo (P<0.05). In animal experiments, the mice treated with Ad-ING4, PTX, or Ad-ING4+PTX exhibited significantly inhibited growth of SW1116 xenografts compared with those treated with PBS or Ad-GFP (P<0.05) and the combination (Ad-ING4+PTX) treatment exhibited the highest inhibition. Our results highlight that Ad-ING4 significantly inhibits growth and induces apoptosis in SW1116 colorectal cancer cells and suppresses tumor growth in SW1116 xenografts by downregulating p-Stat3 and Ki-67 expression. A combination of Ad-ING4 and PTX exhibits the highest inhibition, indicating that ING4 enhances sensitivity to chemotherapy.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4440109PMC
May 2016

A cross-culture, cross-gender comparison of perspective taking mechanisms.

Proc Biol Sci 2014 Jun 7;281(1785):20140388. Epub 2014 May 7.

Institute of Neuroscience and Psychology, University of Glasgow, , Glasgow, UK, Aston Brain Centre, Aston University, , Birmingham, UK.

Being able to judge another person's visuo-spatial perspective is an essential social skill, hence we investigated the generalizability of the involved mechanisms across cultures and genders. Developmental, cross-species, and our own previous research suggest that two different forms of perspective taking can be distinguished, which are subserved by two distinct mechanisms. The simpler form relies on inferring another's line-of-sight, whereas the more complex form depends on embodied transformation into the other's orientation in form of a simulated body rotation. Our current results suggest that, in principle, the same basic mechanisms are employed by males and females in both, East-Asian (EA; Chinese) and Western culture. However, we also confirmed the hypothesis that Westerners show an egocentric bias, whereas EAs reveal an other-oriented bias. Furthermore, Westerners were slower overall than EAs and showed stronger gender differences in speed and depth of embodied processing. Our findings substantiate differences and communalities in social cognition mechanisms across genders and two cultures and suggest that cultural evolution or transmission should take gender as a modulating variable into account.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2014.0388DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4024296PMC
June 2014

Development of carcinoid tumors of the glandular stomach and effects of eradication in Helicobacter pylori-infected Mongolian gerbils.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2008 Jan-Mar;9(1):25-30

Division of Oncological Pathology, Aichi Cancer Center Research Institute, Chikusa, Nagoya, Japan.

The relation between Helicobacter pylori (Hp) eradication and prevention of stomach carcinoid development has hitherto remained unclear. We therefore examined this problem using an Hp-infected and Hp-eradicated Mongolian gerbil (MG) model. Enterochromaffin-like (ECL) lesions (hyperplasia/dysplasia and carcinoid) were histopathologically evaluated in the glandular stomachs of Hp-infected and Hp-eradicated MGs. In addition, serum gastrin levels were analyzed. Hp infection induced significant increase in the development of ECL lesions in the glandular stomach, as well as serum gastrin levels as compared with non-infected MGs, while Hp eradication was associated with significant alleviation. The development of ECL lesions in the glandular stomach strongly correlated with titers of anti-Hp antibodies and serum gastrin levels in MGs. In conclusion, Hp infection induces carcinoid development, and Hp eradication prevents its occurrence in the glandular MG stomach, this being strongly linked with reduction in serum gastrin levels.
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February 2009

4-Vinyl-2,6-dimethoxyphenol (canolol) suppresses oxidative stress and gastric carcinogenesis in Helicobacter pylori-infected carcinogen-treated Mongolian gerbils.

Int J Cancer 2008 Apr;122(7):1445-54

Division of Oncological Pathology, Aichi Cancer Center Research Institute, Aichi, Japan.

Oxidative stress is linked to gastric carcinogenesis because of its ability to damage DNA. Here we examined antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of 4-vinyl-2,6-dimethoxyphenol (canolol), a recently identified potent antioxidative compound obtained from crude canola oil, on Helicobacter (H.) pylori-induced gastritis and gastric carcinogenesis using a Mongolian gerbil model. The animals were allocated to H. pylori-infection alone (12 weeks) or H.pylori + N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) administration (52 weeks). After oral inoculation of H. pylori, they were fed for 10 and 44 weeks with or without 0.1% canolol. H. pylori-induced gastritis, 5'-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling and scores for cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) immunohistochemistry were attenuated in the canolol-treated groups. Expression of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), COX-2 and iNOS mRNA in the gastric mucosa, and serum 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), anti-H. pylori IgG and gastrin levels were also significantly lower in canolol-treated groups. Furthermore, the incidence of gastric adenocarcinomas was markedly reduced in the H. pylori + MNU + canolol-treated group [15.0% (6/40)] compared to the control group [39.4% (13/33)] (p < 0.05). These data indicate canolol to be effective for suppressing inflammation, gastric epithelial cell proliferation and gastric carcinogenesis in H. pylori-infected Mongolian gerbils. Interestingly, the viable H. pylori count was not changed by the canolol containing diet. Thus, the data point to the level of inflammation because of H. pylori rather than the existence of the bacteria as the determining factor. Importantly, canolol appears to suppress induction of mRNAs for inflammatory cytokines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.23245DOI Listing
April 2008

Severity of gastritis determines glandular stomach carcinogenesis in Helicobacter pylori-infected Mongolian gerbils.

Cancer Sci 2007 Apr 31;98(4):478-83. Epub 2007 Jan 31.

Division of Oncological Pathology, Aichi Cancer Center Research Institute, 1-1 Kanokoden, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8681, Japan.

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection causes chronic gastritis and is also related to gastric carcinoma. The present study focused on severity of H. pylori-induced gastritis as a determinant of carcinogenesis. Seven-week-old male Mongolian gerbils were inoculated with H. pylori at experimental weeks 0, 12, or 18, then given N-methyl-N-nitorosourea (MNU) from weeks 20-40. At week 70, stomachs were then excised for histological examination 70, 58, or 52 weeks after H. pylori inoculation, respectively (Groups A, B, and C for long-, middle-, and short-term). The respective incidences of glandular stomach adenocarcinomas were 65.0% (13/20), 20.0% (2/10), and 23.0% (3/13) (P<0.05). Higher scores of infiltration of inflammatory cells, hyperplasia, intestinal metaplasia and mucosal bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling index in antrum and corpus mucosa, were seen in group A than B or C (P<0.05) and serum anti-H. pylori IgG titer and gastrin levels were also significantly higher, along with mRNA levels for mucosal interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). The results demonstrated the term and severity of H. pylori infection to play important roles in gastric carcinogenesis, with essential involvement of chronic inflammation, especially increased rates of cell proliferation, in H. pylori-associated carcinogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1349-7006.2007.00416.xDOI Listing
April 2007

Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated expression is associated with tobacco smoke exposure in esophageal cancer tissues and benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide in cell lines.

Int J Cancer 2007 Jan;120(1):91-5

Department of Pathology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China.

Esophageal cancer is a substantial health problem because of its usually late stage at diagnosis and poor prognosis. Tobacco smoking and alcohol use are the most important risk factors in the development of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Our previous study demonstrated the binding of benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide (BPDE), a carcinogen present in tobacco smoke and environmental pollution, to the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene. To understand how this binding affects the alteration of ATM expression and to identify biomarkers for the detection of esophageal cancer, we analyzed ATM mRNA expression in tissue specimens from patients with esophageal SCC and premalignant lesions using in situ hybridization. We then performed in vitro experiments to verify and extend our ex vivo observations. We found that ATM expression was increased in esophageal SCC and its premalignant lesions when compared with normal tissues and that increased ATM expression was associated with tobacco smoke exposure and tumor de-differentiation. Moreover, BPDE induced ATM expression in esophageal SCC cell lines in a time-dependent manner. In summary, the BPDE in tobacco smoke may be responsible for increased ATM expression in premalignant and malignant esophageal tissues. Our findings suggest that the ATM gene should be further evaluated as a biomarker for the early detection of esophageal cancer and tobacco use in patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.22121DOI Listing
January 2007

Increased 5-lipoxygenase expression and induction of apoptosis by its inhibitors in esophageal cancer: a potential target for prevention.

Carcinogenesis 2005 Apr 20;26(4):785-91. Epub 2005 Jan 20.

Department of Clinical Cancer Prevention, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

Arachidonic acid (AA) is the major precursor of several classes of signal molecules and the alteration of its metabolism is involved in human carcinogenesis. For instance, 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) converts AA to hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids or leukotrienes (LTs), which are able to enhance proliferation, increase survival and suppress the apoptosis of human cells. To determine the potential use of 5-LOX inhibitors in the prevention of esophageal cancer, we first analyzed the 5-LOX expression in esophageal tissue samples using immunohistochemistry and then examined the effect of the 5-LOX inhibitors AA861 and REV5901 on cell viability and apoptosis in esophageal cancer cell lines. 5-LOX expression was present in 79% (127/161) of esophageal cancer but in only 13% (4/32) of normal esophageal mucosa. 5-LOX was also expressed in all the eight esophageal cancer cell lines. Moreover, 5-LOX inhibitors caused a dose- and time-dependent reduction of cell viability, which was due to the induction of apoptosis and associated with LTB4 suppression. Our data also showed that both LTB4, a product of 5-LOX and LTB4 receptor antagonist U-75302 were able to prevent AA861 and REV5901 on induction of apoptosis. The present study demonstrated that 5-LOX protein expression is increased in esophageal cancer and that 5-LOX inhibitors can induce esophageal cancer cells to undergo apoptosis, suggesting that 5-LOX may be an effective target in the prevention of esophageal cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgi026DOI Listing
April 2005