Publications by authors named "Liye Wang"

54 Publications

BRAF V600E Mutation in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: A Case Report and Literature Review.

Oncol Res Treat 2021 Nov 24:1-7. Epub 2021 Nov 24.

Department of Oncology, Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center, The State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou, China.

Background: The B-Raf proto-oncogene (BRAFV600E) gene mutation has been identified in a variety of malignancies, but no evidence of the efficacy of vemurafenib treatment in BRAFV600E mutant breast cancer (BC) has been reported.

Case Presentation: We reported a 60-year-old woman with confirmed triple-negative BC with BRAFV600E mutation. Progression-free survival (PFS) for first-line chemotherapy was 7 months. The patient received vemurafenib and albumin-bound paclitaxel as second-line therapy, exhibiting regression of some pulmonary metastatic lesions with concomitant progression of other lesions, and achieved 4.4 months of PFS. Genetic testing of the progressed pulmonary lesion revealed the BRAFV600E mutation, and acquired new mutations and AR amplification. The patient ultimately died of multiple organ failure and achieved 12 months of overall survival.

Conclusions: The BRAFV600E mutation may be a potential prognostic factor and therapeutic target for BC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000520453DOI Listing
November 2021

Miller-Payne Grading and 70-Gene Signature Are Associated With Prognosis of Hormone Receptor-Positive, Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-Negative Early-Stage Breast Cancer After Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy.

Front Oncol 2021 24;11:735670. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Medical Oncology, Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou, China.

Introduction: HR+/HER2- breast cancer (BC) has a much lower pathological complete response (pCR) rate to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). Therefore, to better stratify the relapse risk for HR+/HER2- non-pCR populations, it is essential to accurate identification new prognostic markers.

Materials And Methods: The study retrospectively analyzed 105 stage II-III patients who were diagnosed with HR+/HER2- BC and received NAC followed by breast and axilla surgery between 2013 and 2019 in Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center. The Miller-Payne (MP) grading system was used to evaluate pathological responses to NAC. The 70-gene signature was used to classify the prognosis signatures.

Results: Among the 105 patients, the study demonstrated that larger tumor size and lower progesterone receptor level at baseline and larger tumor size postoperative were statistically significantly associated with worse disease-free survival (DFS) ( = 0.004, = 0.021, and = 0.001, respectively). Among 54 patients who underwent the 70-gene assays, 26 (48.1%) had a low-risk signature; 28 (51.9%) patients had a high-risk signature. Patients with poor response (MP grades 1-2) were more likely to with a high-risk 70-gene signature than those with good response (MP grades 4-5). The final analysis showed that DFS was longer in the low-risk group than in the high-risk group [52.4 vs. 36.1 months of the median DFS, hazard ratio (HR) for recurrence, 0.29; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.10-0.80; = 0.018]. DFS was longer in the good response (MP grades 3-4) group than in the poor response (MP grades 1-2) group (94.7% vs. 60% of the patients free from recurrence; HR, 0.16; 95% CI, 0.05-0.47; = 0.037). When stratified by MP grades combined with the 70-gene signature, subgroup analyses showed the good-response low-risk group with the best DFS, whereas the poor-response high-risk group showed the worst DFS ( = 0.048). Due to the short median follow-up time of 34.5 months (5.9-75.1 months), MP grades and the 70-gene signature did not show significant prognostic value for overall survival.

Conclusion: The study showed that analysis of MP grades combined with the 70-gene signature with residual NAC-resistant breast samples has a significant correlation with DFS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.735670DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8498026PMC
September 2021

Immunogenicity of 23-Valent Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease - Hebei Province, China, September-December, 2019.

China CDC Wkly 2021 Apr;3(16):331-334

National Immunization Program, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China.

What Is Already Known On This Topic?: The global burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is serious. Pneumococcal infection is associated with acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD). The 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) is recommended for COPD patients to decrease AECOPD due to pneumococcus, but evidence on the immunogenicity of PPSV23 in COPD patients is limited.

What Is Added By This Report?: This study showed good immunogenicity of one dose of PPSV23 in COPD patients. Antibody levels against all 23 vaccine serotypes were assessed before and four weeks after vaccination of COPD patients with one dose of PPSV23. The percent of COPD patients who had two-fold increases in pneumococcal antibody levels following vaccination ranged from 65.2% (serotype 3) to 94.4% (serotype 2). There were statistically significant differences in immunogenicity by serotype.

What Are The Implications For Public Health Practice?: This study supports current recommendations for PPSV23 vaccination of COPD patients in China to provide protection from pneumococcal diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.46234/ccdcw2021.089DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8393071PMC
April 2021

A novel peptidomimetic therapeutic for selective suppression of lung cancer stem cells over non-stem cancer cells.

Bioorg Chem 2021 11 8;116:105340. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Department of Pharmacological & Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Houston, 4849 Calhoun Rd, Houston, TX 77204-5037, USA; Department of Cancer Systems Imaging, MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1881 East Road, Houston, TX 77030-4009, USA. Electronic address:

Cancers are highly heterogeneous and typically contain a small subset of drug-resisting cells called tumor initiating cells or cancer stem cells (CSCs). CSCs can self-renew, divide asymmetrically, and often cause tumor invasion and metastasis. Therefore, treatments specifically targeting CSCs are critical to improve patient survival. Recently, we identified a highly specific peptidomimetic (peptoid - PCS2) that selectively binds to the CSC subpopulation of lung cancer over the remaining cancer cells (non-CSCs). Subsequently, we identified plectin as the target of PCS2. Plectin is an intracellular structural protein, which is involved in tumor invasion and metastasis when it appears on cell surface. While PCS2 monomer did not display any anti-cancer activity, we designed a series of homo-dimeric versions of PCS2, and identified PCS2D1.2 optimized homo-dimer that displayed highly specific cytotoxicity towards CSCs over non-CSCs. PCS2D1.2 effectively blocked the in vitro colony formation and cell migration, hallmarks of CSCs. Furthermore, PCS2D1.2 reduced the in vivo tumor formation. In both in vitro and in vivo studies, PCS2D1.2 effectively reduced plectin expression and/or plectin-rich CSCs, but had no effect on non-CSCs. Therefore, PCS2D1.2 has the potential to be developed as a highly CSC specific drug candidate, which can be used in combination with current anti-cancer drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioorg.2021.105340DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8588801PMC
November 2021

Multiscale research on spatial supply-demand mismatches and synergic strategies of multifunctional cultivated land.

J Environ Manage 2021 Dec 25;299:113605. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

College of Public Administration, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, China.

Multifunctional cultivated land has both sides of supply and demand, and their matches are very important to boost the high-quality development of agriculture and rural areas. The supply-demand match index and GIS spatial analysis were employed to explore the supply-demand mismatches and synergic strategies of multifunctional cultivated land. Taking the Wuhan Metropolitan Area (WMA), China as an example, we obtained the following results: (1) There were obvious supply-demand mismatches of multifunctional cultivated land in the production function, ecological function, and landscape culture function. The spatial distribution of supply-demand mismatches of the three different functions of cultivated land is different. The supply of cultivated land production function is less than the demand, while the supply of landscape culture function is greater than the demand. The supply matches the demand of cultivated land in the ecological function. (2) The supply-demand mismatches of multifunctional cultivated land have scale effects. From the 1 km × 1 km grid scale to the township, county (district), and prefecture-level city scales, the proportion of deficit regions of production function and ecological function decreases with increasing scale. In contrast, the deficit regions of landscape culture function are always concentrated in the center of the WMA. It is considered that we should improve the supply of cultivated land in the production function, protect ecological function and enhance the demand of landscape culture function. Moreover, the management of multifunctional cultivated land needs to strengthen the multiscale spatial linkage and differential strategies of the supply side and demand side.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.113605DOI Listing
December 2021

Clinical genomic profiling to identify actionable alterations for very early relapsed triple-negative breast cancer patients in the Chinese population.

Ann Med 2021 12;53(1):1358-1369

Department of Medical Oncology, Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou, PR China.

Background: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) represents about 19% of all breast cancer cases in the Chinese population. Lack of targeted therapy contributes to the poorer outcomes compared with other breast cancer subtypes. Comprehensive genomic profiling helps to explore the clinically relevant genomic alterations (CRGAs) and potential therapeutic targets in very-early-relapsed TNBC patients.

Methods: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumour tissue specimens from 23 patients with very-early-relapsed TNBC and 13 patients with disease-free survival (DFS) more than 36 months were tested by FoundationOne CDx (F1CDx) in 324 genes and select gene rearrangements, along with genomic signatures including microsatellite instability (MSI) and tumour mutational burden (TMB).

Results: In total, 137 CRGAs were detected in the 23 very-early-relapsed TNBC patients, averaging six alterations per sample. The mean TMB was 4 Muts/Mb, which was higher than that in non-recurrence patients, and is statistically significant. The top-ranked altered genes were TP53 (83%), PTEN (35%), RB1 (30%), PIK3CA (26%) and BRCA1 (22%). RB1 mutation carriers had shorter DFS. Notably, 100% of these patients had at least one CRGA, and 87% of patients had at least one actionable alteration. In pathway analysis, patients who carried a mutation in the cell cycle pathway were more likely to experience very early recurrence. Strikingly, we detected one patient with ERBB2 amplification and one patient with ERBB2 exon20 insertion, both of which were missed by immunohistochemistry (IHC). We also detected novel alterations of ROS1-EPHA7 fusion for the first time, which has not been reported in breast cancer before.

Conclusions: The comprehensive genomic profiling can identify novel treatment targets and address the limited options in TNBC patients. Therefore, incorporating F1CDx into TNBC may shed light on novel therapeutic opportunities for these very-early-relapsed TNBC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07853890.2021.1966086DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8381897PMC
December 2021

Microbial Roles in Dissolved Organic Matter Transformation in Full-Scale Wastewater Treatment Processes Revealed by Reactomics and Comparative Genomics.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 08 2;55(16):11294-11307. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, No. 163, Xianlin Avenue, Nanjing 210023, Jiangsu, P. R. China.

Understanding the degradation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) is vital for optimizing DOM control. However, the microbe-mediated DOM transformation during wastewater treatment remains poorly characterized. Here, microbes and DOM along full-scale biotreatment processes were simultaneously characterized using comparative genomics and high-resolution mass spectrometry-based reactomics. Biotreatments significantly increased DOM's aromaticity and unsaturation due to the overproduced lignin and polyphenol analogs. DOM was diversified by over five times in richness, with thousands of nitrogenous and sulfur-containing compounds generated through microbe-mediated oxidoreduction, functional group transfer, and C-N and C-S bond formation. Network analysis demonstrated microbial division of labor in DOM transformation. However, their roles were determined by their functional traits rather than taxa. Specifically, network and module hubs exhibited rapid growth potentials and broad substrate affinities but were deficient in xenobiotics-metabolism-associated genes. They were mainly correlated to liable DOM consumption and its transformation to recalcitrant compounds. In contrast, connectors and peripherals were potential degraders of recalcitrant DOM but slow in growth. They showed specialized associations with fewer DOM molecules and probably fed on metabolites of hub microbes. Thus, developing technologies (e.g., carriers) to selectively enrich peripheral degraders and consequently decouple the liable and recalcitrant DOM transformation processes may advance DOM removal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.1c02584DOI Listing
August 2021

Development of radioactive tracing coupled with LC/MS-IT-TOF methodology for the discovery and identification of diaveridine metabolites in pigs.

Food Chem 2021 Nov 25;363:130200. Epub 2021 May 25.

National Reference Laboratory of Veterinary Drug Residues (HZAU), Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei 430070, PR China; MAO Key Laboratory for Detection of Veterinary Drug Residues, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei 430070, PR China; MOA Laboratory of Risk Assessment for Quality and Safety of Livestock and Poultry Products, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei 430070, PR China. Electronic address:

We developed a sensitive and reliable method by coupling radiotracing with LC/MS-IT-TOF to identify diaveridine metabolites. Tritium-labeled diaveridine was orally administered to pigs and their organs, blood, bile, and excreta were collected. Under optimized conditions, radioactive recovery was >90% and the highest numbers of metabolites were detected. MCX-based solid-phase extraction was conducted for urine, plasma, and bile purification. Methanol-chloroform 1:1 (v/v), methanol-chloroform 6:1 (v/v), methanol, methanol-chloroform 1:1 (v/v), and methanol were used as solvents to extract feces, liver, kidney, fat and muscle, respectively. The method validation confirmed satisfactory H-H exchange efficiency (<5%), chromatographic column efficiency (≥97.5%), LOQ (10.73 μg/kg), and analytical accuracy (97.6-107.8%) and precision (RSD < 5%). Moreover, novel in vivo metabolites were detected in the pigs, including D2 (3'-desmethyl-diaveridine monoglucuronide), D3 (diaveridine monoglucuronide). Hence, the analytical method developed herein lays an empirical foundation for further systematic studies of the diaveridine metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.130200DOI Listing
November 2021

Trends and predictors of eclampsia among singleton and multiple gestations in the United States, 1989-2018.

Pregnancy Hypertens 2021 Aug 26;25:56-61. Epub 2021 May 26.

Center of Excellence in Health Equity, Training, and Research, Baylor College of Medicine, 2450 Holcombe Blvd, Houston, TX 77030, USA; Department of Family Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, 3701, Kirby Drive, Houston, TX 77098, USA.

Objective: To examine temporal trends of eclampsia by plurality in the US spanning three decades (1989-2018); and to investigate risk factors for eclampsia among singleton and multiple pregnancies in the US during the study period.

Study Design: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the Natality data files, including information on all births within the gestational age of 20-42 weeks from 1989 through 2018. We used joinpoint regression analysis to evaluate trends in rates of eclampsia over the study period. We employed logistic regression models to examine the association between plurality and eclampsia after adjusting for socio-demographic and gestational factors.

Main Outcome Measures: The primary outcome was eclampsia among singleton and multiple pregnancies.

Findings: There was a 2.8% (95% CI: -5.4, -0.1) average annual reduction in eclampsia rates among singletons, whereas among multiples there was a decline of about 3.7% (95% CI: -6.4, -1.0) annually. Mothers with multiple pregnancies had three-fold increased adjusted odds (OR = 95% CI: 2.95-3.21) of experiencing eclampsia when compared to those with singleton gestations. Non-Hispanic (NH) Black mothers with singletons had 37% greater adjusted odds of developing eclampsia than their NH-White peers (95%CI: 1.33-1.42).

Conclusion: There was an overall decreasing trend in eclampsia incidence in the US from 1989 to 2018, regardless of plurality. The occurrence of eclampsia was associated with plurality, race/ethnicity, maternal age and maternal BMI. Given the heterogeneity in clinical presentations of eclampsia, personalized/standardized risk prediction models are needed to enable consistent diagnosis and timely intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.preghy.2021.05.013DOI Listing
August 2021

Immunogenicity of trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2021 09 13;17(9):3131-3136. Epub 2021 May 13.

National Immunization Program, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China.

Current evidence on the immunogenicity of influenza vaccination in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is limited. To address this need for additional knowledge, we conducted a study on the immunogenicity of trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine (TIV) in COPD patients. We recruited patients from respiratory outpatient clinics of three hospitals in Tangshan, Hebei province who had stable confirmed COPD, were less than 80 y old, and reported not having had influenza or receiving TIV during the study season prior to enrollment. Patients who had a history of allergy to any TIV component or were classified as having very severe COPD were excluded from the study. Eligible and consenting participants were given one dose of TIV after obtaining a baseline blood sample. A second blood sample was obtained 5 weeks later. We used hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays to measure antibody responses. We considered seropositive to be an HI titer ≥1:10. We considered seroprotection to be an HI titer ≥1:40 and seroconversion to be either a change from seronegative to a post-vaccination titer of ≥1:40 or a fourfold rise in antibody titer among baseline seropositive subjects. Each subject was followed for 1 month to assess the frequency and type of adverse events. Eighty-eight subjects completed our study; the median age was 64 y; most (62.5%) had moderately severe COPD; 48.9% of the subjects had comorbid conditions in addition to COPD. Post-vaccination seropositive rates for influenza H1N1, H3N2, and B were all 100%; corresponding seroprotection rates were 96.6%, 93.2%, and 98.9%; seroconversion rates were 81.8%, 87.5%, and 75.0%. There were no statistical differences in seroconversion ( = .10) and seroprotection ( = .30) among the three types of influenza virus. Geometric mean titers (1:) of HI antibodies to H1N1, H3N2, and B were 18.8 (95% CI: 14.0-25.1), 12.2 (95% CI: 9.6-15.4), and 31.8 (95% CI: 26.1-38.8) at baseline, and 267.0 (95% CI: 213.8-333.4), 190.3 (95% CI: 151.7-238.6), and 201.1 (95% CI: 166.5-242.8) after vaccination. The immunogenicity of one dose of influenza vaccine was excellent in COPD patients. Our study supports recommending influenza vaccination for COPD patients to provide protection from influenza and its complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2021.1911515DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8381819PMC
September 2021

Algae Biofilm Reduces Microbe-Derived Dissolved Organic Nitrogen Discharges: Performance and Mechanisms.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 05 23;55(9):6227-6238. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, No. 163 Xianlin Avenue, Nanjing 210023, Jiangsu, P. R. China.

Microbe-derived dissolved organic nitrogen (mDON) can readily induce harmful phytoplankton blooms, and thus, restricting its discharges is necessary. Recently, algae biofilm (AB) has attracted increasing interest for its advantages in nutrient recovery. However, its features in mDON control remain unexplored. Herein, AB's mDON formation and utilization performance, molecular characteristics, and metabolic traits have been investigated, with activated sludge (AS) as the benchmark for comparisons. Comparatively, AB reduced mDON formation by 83% when fed with DON-free wastewater. When fed with AS's effluent, it consumed at least 72% of the exogenous mDON and notably reduced the amount of protein/amino sugar-like compounds. Irrespective of the influent, AB ultimately produced more various unsaturated hydrocarbon and lignin analogues. Redundancy and network analysis highlighted the algal-bacterial synergistic effects exemplified by cross-feeding in reducing mDON concentrations and shaping mDON pools. Moreover, metagenomics-based metabolic reconstruction revealed that cyanobacteria and spp. facilitated mDON uptake, ammonification, and recycling, which supplied the extensive nitrogen assimilatory demand for amino acids, vitamins, and cofactors biosynthesis, and therefore promoted mDON scavenging. Our findings demonstrate that regardless of the secondary or tertiary process, cyanobacteria-dominated AB is promising to minimize bioavailable mDON discharges, which has implications for future eutrophication control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.0c06915DOI Listing
May 2021

Revealing taxon-specific heavy metal-resistance mechanisms in denitrifying phosphorus removal sludge using genome-centric metaproteomics.

Microbiome 2021 03 22;9(1):67. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, N.O.163, Xianlin Avenue, Nanjing, Jiangsu, People's Republic of China.

Background: Denitrifying phosphorus removal sludge (DPRS) is widely adopted for nitrogen and phosphorus removal in wastewater treatment but faces threats from heavy metals. However, a lack of understanding of the taxon-specific heavy metal-resistance mechanisms hinders the targeted optimization of DPRS's robustness in nutrient removal.

Results: We obtained 403 high- or medium-quality metagenome-assembled genomes from DPRS treated by elevating cadmium, nickel, and chromium pressure. Then, the proteomic responses of individual taxa under heavy metal pressures were characterized, with an emphasis on functions involving heavy metal resistance and maintenance of nutrient metabolism. When oxygen availability was constrained by high-concentration heavy metals, comammox Nitrospira overproduced highly oxygen-affinitive hemoglobin and electron-transporting cytochrome c-like proteins, underpinning its ability to enhance oxygen acquisition and utilization. In contrast, Nitrosomonas overexpressed ammonia monooxygenase and nitrite reductase to facilitate the partial nitrification and denitrification process for maintaining nitrogen removal. Comparisons between phosphorus-accumulating organisms (PAOs) demonstrated different heavy metal-resistance mechanisms adopted by Dechloromonas and Candidatus Accumulibacter, despite their high genomic similarities. In particular, Dechloromonas outcompeted the canonical PAO Candidatus Accumulibacter in synthesizing polyphosphate, a potential public good for heavy metal detoxification. The superiority of Dechloromonas in energy utilization, radical elimination, and damaged cell component repair also contributed to its dominance under heavy metal pressures. Moreover, the enrichment analysis revealed that functions involved in extracellular polymeric substance formation, siderophore activity, and heavy metal efflux were significantly overexpressed due to the related activities of specific taxa.

Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that heavy metal-resistance mechanisms within a multipartite community are highly heterogeneous between different taxa. These findings provide a fundamental understanding of how the heterogeneity of individual microorganisms contributes to the metabolic versatility and robustness of microbiomes inhabiting dynamic environments, which is vital for manipulating the adaptation of microbial assemblages under adverse environmental stimuli. Video abstract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40168-021-01016-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7986553PMC
March 2021

Compositional characteristics of dissolved organic matter in pharmaceutical wastewater effluent during ozonation.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 8;778:146278. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Jiangsu, PR China. Electronic address:

The compositional characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in pharmaceutical wastewater effluent can affect the further improvement and application of the ozone treatment process. The present study investigated the changes of chemical structures, molecular weight (MW) distribution, hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity distribution, fluorescence properties and the molecular composition of DOM in pharmaceutical wastewater effluent during ozonation. Besides, the toxicity change of pharmaceutical wastewater effluent during ozonation was estimated. The results show that ozone is prone to attack high MW fractions, which contributes the most to the UV value and could improve the biodegradability of refractory DOM in pharmaceutical wastewater effluent. Hydrophobic acid contained the most aromatic and unsaturated bonded organic matter, and was more readily oxidized under ozonation. In fluorescent components, ozonation significantly decreased humic-like acid compounds, and hydrophobic humic-like compounds exhibited the highest removal through parallel factor analysis. At the molecular level, the main organics removed by ozone were compounds with high H/C and low O/C, especially compounds where H/C >1.5. The CHO, CHON and CHOS compounds exhibited high removal under ozonation in formula classes. Lignin compounds, condensed aromatics compounds, and unsaturated hydrocarbons were effectively removed by ozone in compound classes. After ozonation, the number of lipid and sugar compounds increased. In addition, O/Cwa (the intensity-weighted average parameters of O/C) and NOSCwa (nominal oxidation state of carbon) were significantly positively correlated with acute toxicity on the luminescence. With the increase of ozone dose, the acute toxicity of pharmaceutical wastewater effluent after ozonation first decreased and then increased.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.146278DOI Listing
July 2021

Trends and predictors of preterm birth among Asian Americans by ethnicity, 1992-2018.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2021 Mar 11:1-7. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Center of Excellence in Health Equity, Training, and Research, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.

Background: In an increasingly diverse United States (US) population, racial disparities in preterm birth outcomes continue to widen.

Objective: In this study, we examined temporal trends and risk of preterm birth among Asian American women over a quarter century (1992-2018).

Study Design: This is a retrospective cohort study using the 1992-2018 Natality data files. We conducted joinpoint regression analyses to examine trends in preterm birth among Asian Americans and non-Hispanic (NH) Whites. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were used to identify risk factors associated with preterm birth among Asian Americans and their ethnic sub-groups as compared to NH-Whites.

Results: There were a total of 251,278 preterm births among Asian American women, corresponding to a rate of 10.0%, which was relatively stable over time. The incidence of extremely, very and moderate-to-late preterm birth among Asian Americans was 0.4%, 0.9% and 8.7% respectively. Overall, Asian American women exhibited lower adjusted odds (OR = 0.92; 95% CI: 0.88-0.97) of preterm birth than their NH-White counterparts. Comparing Asian American subgroups to NH-Whites, Filipinas and Vietnamese mothers had increased adjusted odds, whereas Chinese, Korean, Japanese and Asian Indian women showed decreased adjusted odds for preterm birth.

Conclusion: The risk of preterm birth varied among the ethnic subgroups of Asian Americans in the United States. Future studies should explore the socio-cultural and environmental nuances that might explain these differences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14767058.2021.1900103DOI Listing
March 2021

Screening priority indicator pollutants in full-scale wastewater treatment plants by non-target analysis.

J Hazard Mater 2021 07 23;414:125490. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, 210023 Jiangsu, PR China. Electronic address:

Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are the main sources of emerging contaminants (ECs) in aquatic environment. However, the standards for limiting emerging pollutants in effluent are extremely lacking. We investigated the occurrence and removal of emerging pollutants in 16 WWTPs in China using non-target analysis. 568 substances screened out were divided into 9 kinds including 167 pharmaceuticals, 113 natural substances, 85 pesticides, 86 endogenous substances, 64 chemical raw materials, 14 personal care products, 17 food additives, 6 hormones and 16 others. And they were divided into 5 fates. Pesticides and pharmaceutical compounds seemed to be the most notable categories, the kinds detected in each sample is the largest compared with other compounds. Besides, the average removal rate of pesticides and pharmaceuticals in all WWTPs were the lowest, at 9.54% and 23.77%, respectively. Priority pollutants were screened by considering distribution of pollutants with different fates. Pollutants with the same fate especially "consistent" in different WWTPs had attracted attention. 4 potential priority pollutants including metoprolol, carbamazepine, 10, 11-dihydro-10, 11-dihydroxycarbamazepine and irbesartan were proposed. And it was found that the 4 compounds, "consistent suspects" and "consistent non-targets" had similar rankings of removal rate in 16 WWTPs, which can reflect the performance of different WWTPs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.125490DOI Listing
July 2021

Spatial optimization of urban land and cropland based on land production capacity to balance cropland protection and ecological conservation.

J Environ Manage 2021 May 5;285:112054. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

College of Public Administration, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, China. Electronic address:

Cropland protection strategies have provided a strong contribution to limit cropland transformation worldwide. However, it negatively affects ecological land (e.g., forest, grassland, and wetland). Identifying a win-win approach for cropland protection and ecological conservation is important. Land use optimization plays a vital role in solving conflicts among land uses. Thus, in this research, taking China (mainland) as the study area, we optimized the spatial distribution of urban land and cropland to balance the requirement of cropland protection strategies and their negative effects on ecological land according to the spatial heterogeneity of land agricultural production capacity by using the LAND System Cellular Automata model for Potential Effects (LANDSCAPE). Specifically, we developed three optimization scenarios from compensational, occupancy, and occupancy and compensational sectors. We also developed one non-optimization scenario to remain comparable. Results show that compared with the non-optimization scenario, the reduced loss of ecological land in compensational, occupancy, and occupancy and compensational optimization scenario is 7180, 247, and 7277 km, respectively. Our research indicates that we should prioritize the quality of compensated cropland when developing cropland protection strategies and planning, considering the low efficiency of the occupancy optimization and the cost of policymaking and implementing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.112054DOI Listing
May 2021

Safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of BAT8001 in patients with HER2-positive breast cancer: An open-label, dose-escalation, phase I study.

Cancer Commun (Lond) 2021 02 2;41(2):171-182. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Department of Medical Oncology, Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510060, P. R. China.

Background: The introductions of anti- human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) agents have significantly improved the treatment outcome of patients with HER2-positive breast cancer. BAT8001 is a novel antibody-drug conjugate targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2)-expressing cells composed of a trastuzumab biosimilar linked to the drug-linker Batansine. This dose-escalation, phase I study was designed to assess the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and preliminary anti-tumor activity of BAT8001 in patients with HER2-positive locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer.

Methods: This trial was conducted in subjects with histologically confirmed HER2-positive breast cancer (having evaluable lesions and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1) using a 3 + 3 design of escalating BAT8001 doses. Patients received BAT8001 intravenously in a 21-day cycle, with dose escalation in 5 cohorts: 1.2, 2.4, 3.6, 4.8, and 6.0 mg/kg. The primary objective was to evaluate the safety and tolerability of BAT8001. Preliminary activity of BAT8001 was also assessed as a secondary objective.

Results: Between March 2017 to May 2018, 29 HER2-positive breast cancer patients were enrolled. The observed dose-limiting toxicities were grade 4 thrombocytopenia and grade 3 elevated transaminase. The maximum tolerated dose was determined to be 3.6 mg/kg. Grade 3 or greater adverse events (AEs) occurred in 14 (48.3%) of 29 patients, including thrombocytopenia in 12 (41.4%) patients, aspartate aminotransferase increased in 4 (13.8%) patients, γ-glutamyl transferase increased in 2 (6.9%) patients, alanine aminotransferase increased in 2 (6.9%) patients, diarrhea in 2 (6.9%) patients. Objective response was observed in 12 (41.4%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 23.5%-61.1%) and disease control (including patients achieving objective response and stable disease) was observed in 24 (82.8%; 95% CI = 64.2%-94.2%) patients.

Conclusions: BAT8001 demonstrated favorable safety profiles, with promising anti-tumor activity in patients with HER2-positive locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer. BAT8001 has the potential to provide a new therapeutic option in patients with metastatic HER2-positive breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cac2.12135DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7896747PMC
February 2021

An ultrasensitive, homogeneous fluorescence quenching immunoassay integrating separation and detection of aflatoxin M based on magnetic graphene composites.

Mikrochim Acta 2021 01 28;188(2):59. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Detection Technology for Animal-Derived Food Safety, Beijing Laboratory of Food Quality and Safety, College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100193, China.

A homogeneous fluorescence quenching immunoassay is described for simultaneous separation and detection of aflatoxin M (AFM) in milk. The novel assay relies on monoclonal antibody (mAb) functionalized FeO decorated reduced-graphene oxide (rGO-FeO-mAb) as both capture probe and energy acceptor, combined with tetramethylrhodamine cadaverine-labeled aflatoxin B (AFB-TRCA) as the energy donor. In the assay, AFB-TRCA binds to rGO-FeO-mAb in the absence of AFM, quenching the fluorescence of TRCA by resonance energy transfer. Significantly, the immunoassay integrates sample preparation and detection into a single step, by using magnetic graphene composites to avoid washing and centrifugation steps, and the assay can be completed within 10 min. Under optimized conditions, the visual and quantitative detection limits of the assay for AFM were 50 and 3.8 ng L, respectively, which were significantly lower than those obtained by fluorescence polarization immunoassay using the same immunoreagents. Owing to its operation and highly sensitivity, the proposed assay provides a powerful tool for the detection of AFM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00604-021-04715-2DOI Listing
January 2021

Temporal trends in preterm birth phenotypes by plurality: Black-White disparity over half a century.

J Perinatol 2021 02 15;41(2):204-211. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Center of Excellence in Health Equity, Training, and Research, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.

Objective: To examine trends in rates of preterm birth by race and plurality; to evaluate the association between race, plurality, and phenotypes of preterm birth.

Study Design: Temporal trends analyses for preterm birth by race and plurality were performed for the years 1971-2018. Adjusted logistic regression models were utilized to evaluate the association between race, plurality, and phenotypes of preterm birth.

Results: We observed that 1105,266 (0.7%), 1901,604 (1.2%), and 14,769,746 (9.3%) births belonged to extreme preterm, very preterm, and moderate-to-late preterm categories, respectively. We also observed that the risk of extreme preterm (RR: 2.69, 95% CI: 2.642-2.75) was highest for Black mothers as compared to White mothers.

Conclusion: Over the study period, preterm births disproportionately impacted Black mothers as well as pregnancies of higher plurality. With the persistence of racial disparities and growing trend of delayed childbearing and multiple pregnancies, targeted intervention is necessitated toward these vulnerable subgroups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41372-020-00912-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7886650PMC
February 2021

A Feature Tensor-Based Epileptic Detection Model Based on Improved Edge Removal Approach for Directed Brain Networks.

Front Neurosci 2020 21;14:557095. Epub 2020 Dec 21.

College of Electronic and Optical Engineering, College of Microelectronics, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing, China.

Electroencephalograph (EEG) plays a significant role in the diagnostics process of epilepsy, but the detection rate is unsatisfactory when the length of interictal EEG signals is relatively short. Although the deliberate attacking theories for undirected brain network based on node removal method can extract potential network features, the node removal method fails to sufficiently consider the directionality of brain electrical activities. To solve the problems above, this study proposes a feature tensor-based epileptic detection method of directed brain networks. First, a directed functional brain network is constructed by calculating the transfer entropy of EEG signals between different electrodes. Second, the edge removal method is used to imitate the disruptions of brain connectivity, which may be related to the disorder of brain diseases, to obtain a sequence of residual networks. After that, topological features of these residual networks are extracted based on graph theory for constructing a five-way feature tensor. To exploit the inherent interactions among multiple modes of the feature tensor, this study uses the Tucker decomposition method to get a core tensor which is finally reshaped into a vector and input into the support vectors machine (SVM) classifier. Experiment results suggest that the proposed method has better epileptic screening performance for short-term interictal EEG data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2020.557095DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7779617PMC
December 2020

Berberine-Loaded Thiolated Pluronic F127 Polymeric Micelles for Improving Skin Permeation and Retention.

Int J Nanomedicine 2020 8;15:9987-10005. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

College of Food and Drug, Luoyang Normal University, Luoyang 471934, People's Republic of China.

Background: Challenges associated with local antibacterial and anti-inflammatory drugs include low penetration and retention of drugs at the expected action site. Additionally, improving these challenges allows for the prevention of side effects that are caused by drug absorption into the systemic circulation and helps to safely treat local skin diseases.

Methods: In the current study, we successfully prepared a thiolated pluronic F127 polymer micelles (BTFM), which binds to keratin through a disulphide bond, to produce skin retention. In addition, the small particle size of polymer micelles promotes the penetration of carriers into the skin. The current study was divided into two experiments: an in vitro experiment; an in vivo experiment that involved the penetration of the micelle-loaded drugs into the skin of rats, the skin irritation test and the anti-inflammatory activity of the drug-loaded micelles on dimethyl benzene-induced ear edema in mice.

Results: Results from our in vitro transdermal experiment revealed that the amount of drug absorbed through the skin was decreased after the drug was loaded in the BTFM. Further, results from the vivo study, which used fluorescence microscopy to identify the location of the BTFM after penetration, revealed that there was strong fluorescence in the epidermis layer, but there was no strong fluorescence in the deep skin layer. In addition, the BTFM had a very good safety profile with no potentially hazardous skin irritation and transdermal administration of BTFM could significantly suppress ear edema induced by dimethyl benzene. Therefore, these findings indicated that BTFM reduced the amount of drug that entered the systemic circulation. Our results also demonstrated that the BTFM had a certain affinity for keratin.

Conclusion: Our experimental results suggest that the BTFM may be an effective drug carrier for local skin therapy with good safety profile.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S270336DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7733396PMC
December 2020

Low-threshold near-infrared lasing at room temperature using low-toxicity AgSe quantum dots.

Nanoscale 2020 Nov;12(42):21879-21884

College of Electronic and Optical Engineering & College of Microelectronics, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing 210023, China.

The development of colloidal near-infrared quantum dot (QD) lasers has been hindered by the high state degeneracy of lead salt QDs. Here, we show that this challenge can be addressed by utilizing orthorhombic Ag2Se QDs. We demonstrate that the lowest quantized states of Ag2Se QDs display a low, 2-fold degeneracy by employing femtosecond transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy. The optical gain threshold is evaluated to be 156 μJ cm-2, corresponding to ∼1.4 excitons per QD on average. Consequently, the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) threshold of Ag2Se QD films is as low as 183 μJ cm-2. A large modal gain (∼470 cm-1) of the film is observed by variable stripe length (VSL) measurements. We leverage the low-threshold gain of the QDs to produce microlasers that exhibit single-mode near-infrared emission and a low threshold of 163 μJ cm-2 at room temperature. In addition, the cytotoxicity of Ag2Se QDs is remarkably negligible. Our work represents a significant step toward environmental-friendly near-infrared QD lasers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0nr05098aDOI Listing
November 2020

Joint prediction and time estimation of COVID-19 developing severe symptoms using chest CT scan.

Med Image Anal 2021 01 10;67:101824. Epub 2020 Oct 10.

Department of Research and Development, Shanghai United Imaging Intelligence Co., Ltd., Shanghai 200232, China; School of Biomedical Engineering, ShanghaiTech University, Shanghai 201210, China; Department of Brain and Cognitive Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

With the rapidly worldwide spread of Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), it is of great importance to conduct early diagnosis of COVID-19 and predict the conversion time that patients possibly convert to the severe stage, for designing effective treatment plans and reducing the clinicians' workloads. In this study, we propose a joint classification and regression method to determine whether the patient would develop severe symptoms in the later time formulated as a classification task, and if yes, the conversion time will be predicted formulated as a classification task. To do this, the proposed method takes into account 1) the weight for each sample to reduce the outliers' influence and explore the problem of imbalance classification, and 2) the weight for each feature via a sparsity regularization term to remove the redundant features of the high-dimensional data and learn the shared information across two tasks, i.e., the classification and the regression. To our knowledge, this study is the first work to jointly predict the disease progression and the conversion time, which could help clinicians to deal with the potential severe cases in time or even save the patients' lives. Experimental analysis was conducted on a real data set from two hospitals with 408 chest computed tomography (CT) scans. Results show that our method achieves the best classification (e.g., 85.91% of accuracy) and regression (e.g., 0.462 of the correlation coefficient) performance, compared to all comparison methods. Moreover, our proposed method yields 76.97% of accuracy for predicting the severe cases, 0.524 of the correlation coefficient, and 0.55 days difference for the conversion time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.media.2020.101824DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7547024PMC
January 2021

Design and Synthesis of a Novel NIR Celecoxib-Based Fluorescent Probe for Cyclooxygenase-2 Targeted Bioimaging in Tumor Cells.

Molecules 2020 Sep 4;25(18). Epub 2020 Sep 4.

Department of Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of 10 Houston, Houston, TX 77204, USA.

Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) imaging agents are potent tools for early cancer diagnosis. Almost all of the COX2 imaging agents using celecoxib as backbone were chemically modified in the position of N-atom in the sulfonamide group. Herein, a novel COX-2 probe (CCY-5) with high targeting ability and a near-infrared wavelength (achieved by attaching a CY-5 dye on the pyrazole ring of celecoxib using a migration strategy) was evaluated for its ability to probe COX-2 in human cancer cells. CCY-5 is expected to have high binding affinity for COX-2 based on molecular docking and enzyme inhibition assay. Meanwhile, CCY-5 caused stronger fluorescence imaging of COX-2 overexpressing cancer cells (Hela and SCC-9 cells) than that of normal cell lines (RAW 264.7 cells). Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treated RAW264.7 cells revealed an enhanced fluorescence as LPS was known to induce COX-2 in these cells. In inhibitory studies, a markedly reduced fluorescence intensity was observed in cancer cells, when they were co-treated with a COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib. Therefore, CCY-5 may be a selective bioimaging agent for cancer cells overexpressing COX-2 and could be useful as a good monitoring candidate for effective diagnosis and therapy in cancer treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25184037DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7570625PMC
September 2020

Predictive models for the degradation of 4 pharmaceutically active compounds in municipal wastewater effluents by the UV/HO process.

Chemosphere 2021 Jan 16;263:127944. Epub 2020 Aug 16.

State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210023, PR China.

Pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) have been frequently detected in aquatic environment and raised concerns because of their environmental persistence and potential ecological risk, especially carbamazepine (CBZ), erythromycin (ERY), atenolol (ATL) and clofibric acid (CA). The UV/HO advanced oxidation process was considered as an effective process to remove pharmaceuticals in wastewater. Because of the diverse structure of pharmaceuticals and the various wastewater matrices, this study established two models to predict the degradation of 4 PhACs in wastewater by UV/HO. Besides, the degradation pathway and toxicity of 4 PhACs by UV/HO were explored. The degradation of 4 PhACs by UV/HO followed the pseudo first-order kinetics pattern. The degradation rate of pharmaceuticals decreased as CBZ > ATL > CA > ERY. A kinetic model combining the steady state concentrations of HO∙ successfully predicted the degradation process of pharmaceuticals in 14 secondary municipal wastewater effluents. Also, a water matrix prediction model by response surface methodology (RSM) was established to estimate the degradation of pharmaceuticals well. A detailed and systematic comparison of two models in the objectives of models, predicting target contaminants, types of wastewater and parameters of models was made. In addition, the tentative transformation pathways of 4 PhACs by UV/HO were proposed. 4 PhACs after UV/HO treatment enhanced the toxicity, and prolongation of treatment time can reduce the toxicity on the luminescence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.127944DOI Listing
January 2021

Combination of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors with Chemotherapy in Lung Cancer.

Onco Targets Ther 2020 27;13:7229-7241. Epub 2020 Jul 27.

College of Laboratory Medicine, Jilin Medical University, Jilin 132013, People's Republic of China.

Tremendous progress has been achieved in the field of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) therapy in lung cancer in recent years. To generate robust, long-lasting anti-tumor immune responses in lung cancer patients, combinational ICI therapies have been explored deeply. Conventionally, chemotherapy was considered as immunosuppressive. It is now recognized that chemotherapy could also reinstate cancer cell immune-surveillance and enable the perception of cancer cells as dangerous. That is to say that chemotherapeutic drugs are not only a source of direct cytotoxic effects but also an adjuvant for anti-tumor immunity. Recently, multiple clinical studies of ICIs combined with chemotherapeutic drugs have been explored and proved effective. However, there are still crucial questions that are not well addressed, such as the optimal dose and schedule for a given combination may differ across disease indications, and the appropriate strategy of selecting patient population that can benefit from ICIs remains unclear. To facilitate more rational lung cancer ICIs therapy development, this review summarizes the immune-regulatory effects and related mechanisms of chemotherapeutic drugs and the clinical progress of ICIs and their combination with chemotherapies in lung cancer treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OTT.S255491DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7394580PMC
July 2020

Comparison of diclofenac transformation in enriched nitrifying sludge and heterotrophic sludge: Transformation rate, pathway, and role exploration.

Water Res 2020 Oct 6;184:116158. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Jiangsu, 210023, PR China.

The adverse effects of diclofenac (DCF) on ecosystems and human health have induced increasing interest in its elimination in environment. DCF can be removed to some extent by nitrifying and heterotrophic microbes during wastewater treatment process. However, the actual roles of nitrifying and heterotrophic microbes in the transformation of DCF remain unclear. In this study, batch experiments were conducted to explore the biological transformation of DCF in enriched nitrifying sludge (NS), heterotrophic sludge (HS) and activated sludge (AS) systems. DCF was removed three times faster in enriched NS than in HS. Three transformation pathways of DCF in enriched NS, HS, and AS were proposed and compared. Hydroxylation was the crucial transformation step in the three transformation pathways. A faster hydroxylation reaction contributed to the faster removal of DCF in enriched NS. More transformation products (TPs) and reaction types (i.e. reductive dechlorination, sulphidation and methylation reactions) were observed in HS. Furthermore, some TPs that were resistant to degrade in enriched NS, such as DCF-benzoic acid, could be further transformed in HS. Accordingly, enriched NS could remove DCF more rapidly while HS could further transform some TPs resistant to degrade in enriched NS. Nitrifying and heterotrophic microbes may cooperatively and rapidly eliminate not only DCF, but also its TPs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2020.116158DOI Listing
October 2020

Temporal Trends in the Rates of Singletons, Twins and Higher-order Multiple Births Over Five Decades Across Racial Groups in the United States.

Int J MCH AIDS 2020 20;9(3):257-259. Epub 2020 Jul 20.

Center of Excellence in Health Equity, Training and Research, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA.

We analysed Natality data obtained from the National Vital Statistics System from 1971 through 2018. Overall, the rates of singletons declined among all racial groups over the five decades of the study. However, the rates of twins and higher-order multiples increased over the same period although for the past two decades, the rates of higher-order multiples had substantially plummeted. The global health implication of these findings is that policy changes in the US in the form of professional practice guidelines have succeeded in reducing the birth of vulnerable populations (i.e., higher-order multiples) who are predominantly created using assisted reproductive technology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21106/ijma.377DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7376828PMC
July 2020

Characteristics of DOM in 14 AAO processes of municipal wastewater treatment plants.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Nov 1;742:140654. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, PR China. Electronic address:

The characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) such as chemical composition, molecular weight (MW) distribution and hydrophobic/hydrophilic distribution can affect wastewater treatment efficiency, effluent quality and ecological risk. Fluorescence spectroscopy could provide a quick estimate of DOM characteristics during the monitoring of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In this study, the characteristic and quantitative correlation of DOM from 14 anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (AAO) processes of WWTPs located in different provinces (municipalities) of China were investigated. The results showed that DOM of MW <1 kDa was the largest group of DOM in influent and secondary effluent, and DOM removal increased as the MW increased. Hydrophilic (HPI) fraction and hydrophobic acid (HPO-A) comprised the major portion of DOM in influent and secondary effluent and exhibited the lowest rate of removal. In addition, DOM concentrations in the northern provinces were higher than in the southern provinces, which were related to the water quality, economy and population. There were positive correlations between specific fluorescence intensity (SFI) and the MW <1 kDa, 1-5 kDa and <10 kDa fractions. The smaller the molecular weight, the better the correlation. Strong positive correlations between regional fluorescence proportion (f) and HPI were found. SFI and f may be explored as potential indicators of the MW fractions and the hydrophobic/hydrophilic distribution of DOM in AAO processes WWTPs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.140654DOI Listing
November 2020

Nitric Oxide (NO) and NO Synthases (NOS)-Based Targeted Therapy for Colon Cancer.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jul 13;12(7). Epub 2020 Jul 13.

College of Laboratory Medicine, Jilin Medical University, Jilin 132013, China.

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most lethal malignancies worldwide and CRC therapy remains unsatisfactory. In recent decades, nitric oxide (NO)-a free-radical gas-plus its endogenous producer NO synthases (NOS), have attracted considerable attention. NO exerts dual effects (pro- and anti-tumor) in cancers. Endogenous levels of NO promote colon neoplasms, whereas exogenously sustained doses lead to cytotoxic functions. Importantly, NO has been implicated as an essential mediator in many signaling pathways in CRC, such as the Wnt/β-catenin and extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathways, which are closely associated with cancer initiation, metastasis, inflammation, and chemo-/radio-resistance. Therefore, NO/NOS have been proposed as promising targets in the regulation of CRC carcinogenesis. Clinically relevant NO-donating agents have been developed for CRC therapy to deliver a high level of NO to tumor sites. Notably, inducible NOS (iNOS) is ubiquitously over-expressed in inflammatory-associated colon cancer. The development of iNOS inhibitors contributes to targeted therapies for CRC with clinical benefits. In this review, we summarize the multifaceted mechanisms of NO-mediated networks in several hallmarks of CRC. We review the clinical manifestation and limitations of NO donors and NOS inhibitors in clinical trials. We also discuss the possible directions of NO/NOS therapies in the immediate future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071881DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7408898PMC
July 2020
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