Publications by authors named "Liversidge H"

50 Publications

Permanent tooth formation as a method of estimating age.

Front Oral Biol 2009 21;13:153-157. Epub 2009 Sep 21.

Unlabelled: The aims of this study were to describe maturity data of permanent tooth formation from a large sample and to adapt these for estimating age, to compare mean age dental formation stages between ethnic groups and sexes.

Methods: This was a retrospective, cross-sectional study of 1,050 panoramic radiographs of healthy dental patients in London aged 2 to 22. Similar numbers of each sex and ethnic group (White and Bangladeshi) were selected for each year of age. Permanent mandibular teeth were scored using 14 stages described by Moorrees and co-workers in 1963 plus crypt stage. Mean age of each tooth stage (age when 50% of sample had reached/ passed each stage) was calculated using probit regression for males and females by ethnic group for each stage. Data were combined where no significant difference between mean age for groups was observed. Average age 'within a stage' was also calculated for each tooth stage.

Results: No ethnic difference was noted in mean age. Canine root stages and third molar apex stages were significantly different between the sexes. The average age of most stages was considerably later than that given by Moorrees and co-workers. Accuracy of age estimation on a separate test sample of radiographs was considerably more accurate using these new data.

Conclusions: These results provide an accurate method to estimate age from developing permanent mandibular teeth. The lack of ethnic difference in dental maturity of individual teeth, suggest that these findings might be appropriate to accurately estimate age for other groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000242409DOI Listing
March 2010

Timing of human mandibular third molar formation.

Authors:
H M Liversidge

Ann Hum Biol 2008 May-Jun;35(3):294-321

Dental Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London, UK.

Background: Population differences in tooth formation using radiographs can be determined if the entire developmental sequence of a single tooth is studied. The only developing tooth visible radiographically from initiation to root completion is the third molar or wisdom tooth.

Aim: The timing of mandibular third molar formation was documented for two groups of children in England and two in South Africa.

Subjects And Methods: Panoramic radiographs of White and Bangladeshi children from London and Black African and Cape Coloured children from South Africa were examined (age 5-24). Mean age of entering third molar stages (crypt appearance to root completion) was calculated using logistic regression and compared between sex and group using a t-test.

Results: Average age of third molar stages was significantly (p < 0.001) later in three groups for almost all stages of the third molar compared to Black children. The average age of entering initial mineralization ranged from 7.97 to 9.74 years while average age of apex closed was 19.27-20.88.

Conclusion: These results show for the first time a significant difference in the timing of maturation of the mandibular third molar between groups with South African Black children being earlier than other groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03014460801971445DOI Listing
August 2008

Estimating age in Maori, Pacific Island, and European children from New Zealand.

J Forensic Sci 2008 Mar 14;53(2):401-4. Epub 2008 Feb 14.

Department of Oral Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.

The islands of New Zealand are populated by persons of European, Maori, and Pacific Island extraction. The purpose of this research is to quantify the levels of dental maturation of each of these three populations, in order to obtain data that will be useful in forensic identification and age estimation. The sample consisted of 1383 orthopantomographs (660 males, 723 females) of 477 Maori, 762 European, and 144 Pacific Island children between the ages of 3 and 14 years. Each radiograph was digitized and the stages of mineralization of the seven left mandibular permanent teeth were assessed using the eight stages described by Demirjian. Values for 1, 3, 5, 50, 95, 97, and 99% confidence intervals are listed for each maturity score. Intra-observer reliability was evaluated using Bland-Altman's method on data from re-scoring one out of every 20 radiographs and standard dental maturation curves were constructed for the three populations by means of a quantile regression method. Despite the fact that quantile regression analysis showed that across the age group investigated there were differences between boys and girls, knowledge of the sex does not increase the accuracy of the age estimate, simply because the magnitude of the error of age estimation is greater than the difference between the sexes. Our analysis also shows that population divergence is most marked after the age of 9 years, with a peak difference seen at age 10.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1556-4029.2007.00643.xDOI Listing
March 2008

Accuracy of age estimation in children using radiograph of developing teeth.

Forensic Sci Int 2008 Apr 18;176(2-3):173-7. Epub 2007 Oct 18.

Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Macerata, Via D. Minzoni, 62100 Macerata, Italy.

The aims of this study were: first, to determine the accuracy of the Cameriere method for assessing chronological age in children based on the relationship between age and measurement of open apices in teeth and, second, to compare the accuracy of this method with the widely used Demirjian et al. method and with the method proposed by Willems et al. Orthopantomographs taken from white Italian, Spain and Croatian children (401 girls, 355 boys) aged between 5 and 15 years were analysed following the Cameriere, Demirjian and Willems methods. The difference between chronological and dental age was calculated for each individual and each method (residual). The accuracy of each method was assessed using the mean of the absolute values of the residuals (mean prediction error). Results showed that the Cameriere method slightly underestimated the real age of children. The median of the residuals was 0.081 years (interquartile range, IQR=0.668 years) for girls and 0.036 years for boys (interquartile range, IQR=0.732 years). The Willems method showed an overestimation of the real age of boys, with a median residual error of -0.247 years and an underestimation of the real age of girls (median residual error=0.073 years). Lastly, the Demirjian method overestimated the real age of both boys and girls, with a median residual error of -0.750 years for girls and -0.611 years for boys. The Cameriere method yielded a mean prediction error of 0.407 years for girls and 0.380 years for boys. Although the accuracy of this method was better for boys than for girls, the difference between the two mean prediction errors was not statistically significant (p=0.19). The Demirjian method was found to overestimate age for both boys and girls but the mean prediction error for girls was significantly greater than that for boys (p=0.024), and was significantly less accurate than the Cameriere method (p<0.001). The Willems method was better than that of Demirjian (p=0.0032), but was significantly less accurate than that of Cameriere (p<0.001).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2007.09.001DOI Listing
April 2008

Advanced dental maturation in New Zealand Maori and Pacific Island children.

Am J Hum Biol 2008 Jan-Feb;20(1):43-50

Department of Oral Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.

This study employs Demirjian's (1994: CD Rom. Norwood, MA: Silver Platter Education) method for assessing dental maturation to compare the rates of development in children of three ethnic populations living in New Zealand-Maori, Pacific Island, and European. We test the hypothesis that Maori and Pacific Island children will have significantly advanced dental maturation compared with New Zealand children of European extraction. The study population consists of orthopantomographs of 1,343 children (623 females and 660 males) between the ages of 2.5 and 14 years, and involves three ethnic groups-Maori, European, and Pacific Islander. Bland/Altman plots for the mean chronological age against the age difference suggest that dental age as determined by the Demirjian method is consistently lower than the chronological age of the children examined. A mixed model regression analysis shows that this difference between dental and chronological age is significantly greater in Maori than in European children (regression coefficient = 0.414; z = 7.01; P < 0.001) and also significantly greater in Pacific Island children than European children (regression coefficient = 0.574; z = 6.25; P < 0.001). Regression analysis shows that the 50th quantile maturity score of boys and girls differs by 1.49 (t = -6.18, P < 0.01) and the interaction of sex and age is also significantly different (t = -2.44, P < 0.01). Similarly, Maori girls show a difference in maturity score of 1.28 (t = -3.77, P < 0.01). However, the slopes for Maori boys and girls did not differ significantly (age/sex interaction, t = -1.25, P = 0.212). We conclude that Pacific Island children are advanced in dental maturity compared with Maori children who in turn are more advanced than New Zealand children of European origin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.20670DOI Listing
January 2008

Timing of Demirjian's tooth formation stages.

Ann Hum Biol 2006 Jul-Aug;33(4):454-70

Dental Institute, Bart's and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Dental Institute, London, UK.

Background: Global differences in Demirjian et al.'s method of assessing dental maturity are thought to be due to population differences.

Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the timing of individual tooth formation stages in children from eight countries.

Research Design: This was a meta-analysis of previously published data from retrospective cross-sectional studies of dental maturity.

Method: Data of mandibular permanent developing teeth from panoramic radiographs (Demirjian's stages) were combined from Australia, Belgium, Canada, England, Finland, France, South Korea and Sweden (n = 9002, ages 2-16.99 years). Age-of-attainment was calculated using logistic regression for each group by sex and meta-analysis of the total. Overlapping 95% confidence intervals of the means was interpreted as no significant difference.

Results: Mean ages for each group and total were significantly different in 65 out of 509 comparisons (p < 0.05). Some of these were of small sample size but there was no consistent pattern. Apex closure of the first molar was significantly later in children from Quebec and this might explain differences found in the dental maturity score.

Conclusions: These results suggest no major differences in the timing of tooth formation stages between these children. This fails to explain previous findings of differences using Demirjian's dental maturity method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03014460600802387DOI Listing
March 2007

Accuracy of age estimation of radiographic methods using developing teeth.

Forensic Sci Int 2006 May 14;159 Suppl 1:S68-73. Epub 2006 Mar 14.

Dental Institute, Bart's and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Turner Street, London E1 2AD, UK.

Developing teeth are used to assess maturity and estimate age in a number of disciplines, however the accuracy of different methods has not been systematically investigated. The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of several methods. Tooth formation was assessed from radiographs of healthy children attending a dental teaching hospital. The sample was 946 children (491 boys, 455 girls, aged 3-16.99 years) with similar number of children from Bangladeshi and British Caucasian ethnic origin. Panoramic radiographs were examined and seven mandibular teeth staged according to Demirjian's dental maturity scale [A. Demirjian, Dental development, CD-ROM, Silver Platter Education, University of Montreal, Montreal, 1993-1994; A. Demirjian, H. Goldstein, J.M. Tanner, A new system of dental age assessment, Hum. Biol. 45 (1973) 211-227; A. Demirjian, H. Goldstein, New systems for dental maturity based on seven and four teeth, Ann. Hum. Biol. 3 (1976) 411-421], Nolla [C.M. Nolla, The development of the permanent teeth, J. Dent. Child. 27 (1960) 254-266] and Haavikko [K. Haavikko, The formation and the alveolar and clinical eruption of the permanent teeth. An orthopantomographic study. Proc. Finn. Dent. Soc. 66 (1970) 103-170]. Dental age was calculated for each method, including an adaptation of Demirjian's method with updated scoring [G. Willems, A. Van Olmen, B. Spiessens, C. Carels, Dental age estimation in Belgian children: Demirjian's technique revisited, J. Forensic Sci. 46 (2001) 893-895]. The mean difference (+/-S.D. in years) between dental and real age was calculated for each method and in the case of Haavikko, each tooth type; and tested using t-test. Mean difference was also calculated for the age group 3-13.99 years for Haavikko (mean and individual teeth). Results show that the most accurate method was by Willems [G. Willems, A. Van Olmen, B. Spiessens, C. Carels, Dental age estimation in Belgian children: Demirjian's technique revisited, J. Forensic Sci. 46 (2001) 893-895] (boys -0.05+/-0.81, girls -0.20+/-0.89, both -0.12 y+/-0.85), Demirjian [A. Demirjian, Dental development, CD-ROM, Silver Platter Education, University of Montreal, Montreal, 1993-1994] overestimated age (boys 0.25+/-0.84, girls 0.23+/-0.84, both 0.24 y+/-0.86), while Nolla [C.M. Nolla, The development of the permanent teeth, J. Dent. Child. 27 (1960) 254-266] and Haavikko's [K. Haavikko, The formation and the alveolar and clinical eruption of the permanent teeth. An orthopantomographic study, Proc. Finn. Dent. Soc. 66 (1970) 103-170] methods under-estimated age (boys -0.87+/-0.87, girls -1.18+/-0.96, both -1.02 y+/-0.93; boys -0.56+/-0.91, girls -0.79+/-1.11, both -0.67 y+/-1.01, respectively). For individual teeth using Haavikko's method, first premolar and second molar were most accurate; and more accurate than the mean value of all developing teeth. The 95% confidence interval of the mean was least for mean of all developing teeth using Haavikko (age 3-13.99 years), followed by identical values for Demirjian and Willems (sexes combined).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2006.02.019DOI Listing
May 2006

Reproducibility of radiographic stage assessment of third molars.

Forensic Sci Int 2006 May 10;159 Suppl 1:S74-7. Epub 2006 Mar 10.

Paediatric Dentistry, Dental Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Turner Street, London E1 2AD, United Kingdom.

Unlabelled: The aim of this study was to determine intra- and inter-observer variability of the developing third molar from panoramic radiographs. Formation of third molars was assessed according to stages described by modified Demirjian et al.'s methods: Moorrees et al. [C.F.A. Moorrees, E.A. Fanning, E.E. Hunt, Age variation of formation stages for ten permanent teeth, J. Dent. Res. 42 (1963) 1490-1502] and Solari and Abramovitch [A.C. Solari, K. Abramovitch, The accuracy and precision of third molar development as an indicator of chronological age in Hispanics, J. Forensic Sci. 47 (2002) 531-535]; in addition, data were also analysed unmodified, i.e. Haavikko [K. Haavikko, The formation and alveolar and clinical eruption of the permanent teeth, an orthopantomograph study, Proc. Finn. Dent. Soc. 66 (1970) 104-170] and Demirjian et al. [A. Demirjian, H. Goldstein, J.M. Tanner, A new system of dental age assessment, Hum. Biol. 45 (1973) 211-227]. The sample was a random selection of 73 panoramic radiographs from patients aged 8-24 years. After training, the left maxillary and mandibular third molars were scored on two separate occasions without knowledge of previous scores. Cohen's Kappa and percentage agreement were calculated for each method, for maxillary, for mandibular third molars and combined. Percentage agreement for stages was also calculated. Intra-observer agreement was greater for mandibular third molars compared to maxillary third molars, and better for methods with fewer stages. Kappa values indicated good agreement for most methods; the best was Demirjian et al.'s method for mandibular third molar with very good agreement (K = 0.80) for the first author, good agreement for the second author (K = 0.75) and good agreement between observers (K = 0.75). The stages with best agreement were Demirjian's stage E [A. Demirjian, H. Goldstein, J.M. Tanner, A new system of dental age assessment, Hum. Biol. 45 (1973) 211-227] and Moorrees et al.'s stage Cc and R1/4 [C.F.A. Moorrees, E.A. Fanning, E.E. Hunt, Age variation of formation stages for ten permanent teeth, J. Dent. Res. 42 (1963) 1490-1502].

Conclusions: Having clearly defined stages and fewer stages allowed better reproducibility of third molar formation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2006.02.020DOI Listing
May 2006

Epidermolysis bullosa and dental developmental age.

Int J Paediatr Dent 2005 Sep;15(5):335-41

Paediatric Dentistry, Queen Mary, University of London, UK.

Objectives: The dental development of permanent mandibular teeth in a small group of children with dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (DEB) was assessed from radiographs and compared to a healthy, age-and-sex-matched control group.

Methods: This was a retrospective radiographic cross-sectional study. The sample consisted of a group of 44 children aged between 4 and 15 years with DEB and healthy, age-and-sex-matched controls. Two quantitative methods of assessing tooth formation were used: (1) a combination of information about tooth length and apex width; and (2) the use of tooth length to predict age. Panoramic radiographs were digitized in order to determine tooth length and apex width. Dental age was calculated, and the difference with real age was tested with Student's t-test.

Results: The dentition of both the DEB and control groups was slightly delayed. Using the first method, the delay was 0.34 +/- 0.87 years for the DEB group and 0.29 +/- 0.97 years for the control group. Using the second method, the delay was 0.49 +/- 1.18 years for the DEB group and 0.23 +/- 0.62 years for the control group. This delay was not statistically significant for either method.

Conclusions: The dental formation of permanent mandibular teeth in the group of children with DEB was not significantly different to that found in the control group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-263X.2005.00649.xDOI Listing
September 2005

A radiographic study of tooth development in hypodontia.

Arch Oral Biol 2006 Feb 10;51(2):129-33. Epub 2005 Aug 10.

Dental Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Turner Street, Whitechapel, London E1 2AD, UK.

Objective: To investigate the radiographic development of permanent teeth in a group of children (66 females and 69 males, aged 3.08-15.02 years) with agenesis of one or more permanent teeth compared to a matched group.

Design: Tooth formation of all developing permanent teeth was assessed using Haavikko's method (1970) from dental panoramic tomographs. The difference between dental and chronological age was tested using a paired t-test. The correlation between the difference of dental and chronological age and severity of hypodontia was investigated using Spearman correlation test. In addition, radiographs of all children with only one single missing tooth in one quadrant and no more than two agenesis in total (N=59), were analyzed using the non-parametric Wilcoxon sign test, in order to investigate if the development of the teeth adjacent to the site of the agenesis was effected.

Results: Tooth formation in children with hypodontia was significantly delayed compared to the matched group (p<0.001). The mean difference was 1.51 years (S.D. 1.37 years). The severity of the hypodontia effected the magnitude of the delay (p<0.01). The teeth adjacent to the site of the agenesis were significantly delayed compared to the corresponding teeth in the matched group (p<0.01).

Conclusion: These results confirm that the development of permanent teeth in children with hypodontia is different when compared with a matched group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.archoralbio.2005.06.004DOI Listing
February 2006

Temporary arrest of root development in a premolar of a child with hypodontia and extensive caries.

Int J Paediatr Dent 2004 Nov;14(6):455-60

Oral Health and Development, University Dental School and Hospital, Wilton, Ireland.

The arrested development of a permanent tooth as a sequela to a periradicular infection in a primary predecessor is a rare occurrence. A case is presented where temporary arrest of root development occurred in a premolar of a child with hypodontia and extensive caries. The aetiology, management and outcome are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-263X.2004.00582.xDOI Listing
November 2004

Variation in crown and root formation and eruption of human deciduous teeth.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2004 Feb;123(2):172-80

Department of Paediatric Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 2AD, UK.

The aim of this study was to document variation of deciduous tooth formation and eruption. The material comprises 121 individuals of known or estimated age (using tooth length) from Spitalfields in London, and radiographs of 61 healthy living children aged 2-5 years. Other skeletal material from two medieval Scottish archaeological sites (Whithorn, N=74; Newark Bay, N=59) was also examined. Stages of crown and root formation as well as eruption (alveolar, midway, and occlusal levels) were assessed for each developing maxillary and mandibular tooth from radiographs or direct vision. Age of attainment for individual stages was calculated by probit analysis, and these data were also adapted for use in estimating age. The timing of crown completion was similar to previously reported studies, but apex completion times were later. Analysis of data relative to the first and second molars at the two stages D (crown complete) and F (root length > or =crown height) allowed comparison with the Scottish material. No significant differences were observed between population groups for tooth formation or eruption. These data fill several gaps in the literature, and will be useful in assessing maturity and predicting age during early childhood.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.10318DOI Listing
February 2004

The accuracy of three methods of age estimation using radiographic measurements of developing teeth.

Forensic Sci Int 2003 Jan;131(1):22-9

Department of Paediatric Dentistry, St. Bartholomew's and the Royal London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary, University of London, Turner Street, Whitechapel, London E1 2AD, UK.

The accuracy of age estimation using three quantitative methods of developing permanent teeth was investigated. These were Mörnstad et al. [Scand. J. Dent. Res. 102 (1994) 137], Liversidge and Molleson [J. For. Sci. 44 (1999) 917] and Carels et al. [J. Biol. Bucc. 19 (1991) 297]. The sample consisted of 145 white Caucasian children (75 girls, 70 boys) aged between 8 and 13 years. Tooth length and apex width of mandibular canine, premolars and first and second molars were measured from orthopantomographs using a digitiser. These data were substituted into equations from the three methods and estimated age was calculated and compared to chronological age. Age was under-estimated in boys and girls using all the three methods; the mean difference between chronological and estimated ages for method I was -0.83 (standard deviation +/-0.96) years for boys and -0.67 (+/-0.76) years for girls; method II -0.79 (+/-0.93) and -0.63 (+/-0.92); method III -1.03 (+/-1.48) and -1.35 (+/-1.11) for boys and girls, respectively. Further analysis of age cohorts, found the most accurate method to be method I for the age group 8.00-8.99 years where age could be predicted to 0.14+/-0.44 years (boys) and 0.10+/-0.32 years (girls). Accuracy was greater for younger children compared to older children and this decreased with age.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0379-0738(02)00373-0DOI Listing
January 2003

Growth of permanent mandibular teeth of British children aged 4 to 9 years.

Ann Hum Biol 2001 May-Jun;28(3):256-62

Department of Paediatric Dentistry, St Bartholomew's and the Royal London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary and Westfield College, University of London, UK.

Primary Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate ethnic differences and describe tooth formation of mandibular permanent teeth in a group of London children.

Research Design: The design was cross-sectional retrospective study.

Sample And Method: The sample was a non-random group of healthy British children (n = 521) attending a dental hospital. The children aged between 4 and 9 years were of Bangladeshi or white Caucasian origin. Developing permanent mandibular teeth were staged from radiographs according to criteria described by Demirjian, Goldstein and Tanner (1973, Human Biology, 45, 211-227). Data were grouped in 6-month intervals and analysed using probit analysis. Formation was also expressed relative to stages of the first permanent molar (M1) and the distribution of stages tested between the groups and sexes using Mann Whitney U-test.

Results: Tooth formation was not significantly different between the two ethnic groups. Girls attained almost all stages of tooth formation earlier than boys; in addition, the canine showed significant advancement relative to M1 formation in girls (p < 0.05).

Conclusions: These findings failed to demonstrate an ethnic difference in tooth formation in these children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/030144601300119070DOI Listing
November 2001

Crown formation times of human permanent anterior teeth.

Authors:
H M Liversidge

Arch Oral Biol 2000 Sep;45(9):713-21

Department of Paediatric Dentistry, St Bartholomew's and the Royal London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary and Westfield College, University of London, Turner Street, London E1 2AD, UK.

One gap in knowledge of human dental-growth standards is the age at which crown fractions of anterior permanent teeth are attained. The aim of this study was to document stages of crown formation for permanent incisors and canines from a small skeletal collection of known age. The source was C18th and C19th coffin-buried skeletal material from Spitalfields in London; developing teeth from 50 individuals with recorded age-at-death (range 0-5.40 years) and 56 unaged individuals were assessed. Teeth were dissected and crown height measured directly. Each developing crown was assigned to the nearest average fraction (C14, C12, C34, Cc). These fractions were calculated from the total crown height of unworn completed teeth from this sample. Median age for C12 of the permanent upper central incisor was 1.34 years (n=16) and for the canine was 2.52 years (n=16). Data on crown formation are also presented in relation to permanent lower first molar stages C12, C34 and Cc. When M(1) was at stage C34 the modal stage for I(1) was C34 and for other incisors and canines was C12. Although the sample is small, these results fill an important gap in tooth chronology and add to knowledge of growth variation in early childhood.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0003-9969(00)00055-8DOI Listing
September 2000

Dental maturation in British children: are Demirjian's standards applicable?

Int J Paediatr Dent 1999 Dec;9(4):263-9

Department of Paediatric Dentistry, St Bartholomews and the Royal London School of Medicine and Dentistry, UK.

Objective: The objective of this study was to determine if the standards of dental maturation of Demirjian et al. (1973, 1976) are applicable to British children.

Design: The design was cross-sectional, retrospective.

Sample And Method: The sample comprised 521 London children of Bangladeshi and white Caucasian (English, Welsh and Scottish) origin aged between 4 and 9 years. Dental age was assessed by crown and root stages of seven mandibular teeth from rotational pantomographs. Dental age was compared to chronological age using a t-test.

Results: Differences in dental maturation between the two ethnic groups were not significant. British children as a group were dentally advanced compared to the Canadian standards. The mean (+/- standard deviation) advancement in girls was 0.51 +/- 0.79 years and in boys was 0.73 +/- 0.73 years.

Conclusions: The standards of dental maturation described by Demirjian et al. (1973, 1976) may not be suitable for British children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-263x.1999.00144.xDOI Listing
December 1999

Dental maturation of 18th and 19th century British children using Demirjian's method.

Authors:
H M Liversidge

Int J Paediatr Dent 1999 Jun;9(2):111-5

Department of Paediatric Dentistry, St Bartholomew's and the Royal London School of Medicine and Dentistry, UK.

Aim: To compare dental age with chronological age in a group of children born approximately 200 years ago and a group of modern children.

Methods: Dental maturation of 15 skeletal remains (range 3.0-15.1 years) of London children of known age-at-death was compared to an age and sex matched control group of contemporary children (n = 30). The method of Demirjian, Goldstein and Tanner (1973, 1976, 1978) was used to assess maturity.

Results: The difference between dental age (DA) and chronological age (CA) for both groups was not significant, suggesting similar maturation over 200 years, however, many of the younger children from Spitalfields were dentally delayed. Several of the younger individuals from both groups had a dental age less than the lowest limit of this scale (2.5 years), highlighting one pitfall of this method.

Conclusion: These results suggest that this method is not entirely suitable for younger children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-263x.1999.00113.xDOI Listing
June 1999

Developing permanent tooth length as an estimate of age.

J Forensic Sci 1999 Sep;44(5):917-20

Department of Paediatric Dentistry, St. Bartholomew's and The Royal London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Whitechapel.

Developing teeth are widely used to predict age in archaeology and forensic science. Regression equations of tooth length for age is a direct method, however, data for permanent teeth is incomplete. The aims of this study were: (a) to calculate regression equations predicting age from tooth length of all permanent teeth from birth to maturity, and (b) to evaluate the difference between radiographic and actual tooth length. The sample studied (N = 76, age range 0 to 19 years) was the Spitalfields juveniles of recorded age-at-death. Tooth length was measured from incisal tip to developing edge of crown or root of 354 dissected teeth. Data for upper and lower teeth were combined except for the lateral incisor. The least squares regression method was used to analyze the data for each tooth type; age being regressed against tooth length for prediction. For most tooth types, growth followed an S-shaped (polynomial) curve with initial fast growth and a further growth spurt around the time of mid root formation. No difference was found between radiographic and true tooth length. These regression equations provide an easy method of predicting age from any developing permanent tooth by measuring tooth length from isolated teeth or from unmagnified, undistorted radiographs.
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September 1999

Deciduous tooth size and morphogenetic fields in children from Christ Church, Spitalfields.

Arch Oral Biol 1999 Jan;44(1):7-13

Department of Paediatric Dentistry, St Bartholomew's and The Royal London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Whitechapel, UK.

Deciduous tooth dimensions of a recent archaeological sample of 37 boys, 18 girls and 88 children of unknown sex from London were measured. Mesiodistal (maximum breadth at the contact point) and buccolingual measurements were recorded. A gradient of size variation was apparent with anterior teeth showing the highest variation and second molars the least. In general, the teeth of the children of Spitalfields were smaller than those of other groups from various archaeological and contemporary populations. Fluctuating asymmetry between left- and right-hand sides was greatest for the lateral incisor. Asymmetry of the mesiodistal dimension of the upper central incisor differed significantly from the buccolingual dimension (p < 0.01). Tooth size in both dimensions was generally larger in boys than in girls. The maxillary lateral incisor displayed significant dimorphism in the mesiodistal dimension (p < 0.05). The second molars (both upper and lower) were less variable and less asymmetrical than the first molars, suggesting that the second molar may be the key tooth of the deciduous molar field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0003-9969(98)00098-3DOI Listing
January 1999

Increasing human tooth length between birth and 5.4 years.

Am J Phys Anthropol 1993 Mar;90(3):307-13

Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, University College, London, United Kingdom.

Most previous studies of tooth development have used fractional stages of tooth formation to construct growth standards suitable for aging juvenile skeletal material. A simple alternative for determining dental age is to measure tooth length throughout development. In this study, data on tooth length development are presented from 63 individuals of known age at death, between birth and 5.4 years, from an archeological population recovered from the crypt of Christ Church, Spitalfields, London. Isolated developing teeth (304 deciduous, 269 permanent) were measured in millimeters and plotted against individual age. Regression equations to estimate age from a given tooth length, are presented for each deciduous maxillary and mandibular tooth type and for permanent maxillary and mandibular incisors, canines, and first permanent molars. Data on the earliest age of root completion of deciduous teeth and initial mineralization and crown completion of some permanent teeth in this sample are given, as well as the average crown height and total tooth length from a small number of unworn teeth. This method provides an easy, quantitative and objective measure of dental formation appropriate for use by archeologists and anthropologists.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.1330900305DOI Listing
March 1993