Publications by authors named "Liu Xin"

4,424 Publications

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Insights into the Influence of Membrane Permeability and Structure on Osmotically-Driven Membrane Processes.

Membranes (Basel) 2021 Feb 22;11(2). Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Singapore Membrane Technology Centre, Nanyang Technological University, 1 Cleantech Loop, Singapore 637141, Singapore.

The success of osmotically-driven membrane (OM) technology relies critically on high-performance membranes. Yet trade-off of membrane properties, often further complicated by the strongly non-linear dependence of OM performance on them, imposes important constraint on membrane performance. This work systematically characterized four typical commercial osmotic membranes in terms of intrinsic separation parameters, structure and surface properties. The osmotic separation performance and membrane scaling behavior of these membranes were evaluated to elucidate the interrelationship of these properties. Experimental results revealed that membranes with smaller structural parameter () and higher water/solute selectivity underwent lower internal concentration polarization (ICP) and exhibited higher forward osmosis (FO) efficiency (i.e., higher ratio of experimental water flux over theoretical water flux). Under the condition with low ICP, membrane water permeability () had dominant effect on water flux. In this case, the investigated thin film composite membrane (TFC, = 2.56 L/(m h bar), = 1.14 mm) achieved a water flux up to 82% higher than that of the asymmetric cellulose triacetate membrane (CTA-W(P), = 1.06 L/(m h bar), = 0.73 mm). In contrast, water flux became less dependent on the value but was affected more by membrane structure under the condition with severe ICP, and the membrane exhibited lower FO efficiency. The ratio of water flux (/) decreased to 0.55 when 0.5 M NaCl feed solution and 2 M NaCl draw solution were used. A framework was proposed to evaluate the governing factors under different conditions and to provide insights into the membrane optimization for targeted OM applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/membranes11020153DOI Listing
February 2021

Multi-Channel Singular Spectrum Analysis on Geocenter Motion and Its Precise Prediction.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Feb 17;21(4). Epub 2021 Feb 17.

School of Geographic Sciences, Xinyang Normal University, Xinyang 464000, China.

Geocenter is the center of the mass of the Earth system including the solid Earth, ocean, and atmosphere. The time-varying characteristics of geocenter motion (GCM) reflect the redistribution of the Earth's mass and the interaction between solid Earth and mass loading. Multi-channel singular spectrum analysis (MSSA) was introduced to analyze the GCM products determined from satellite laser ranging data released by the Center for Space Research through January 1993 to February 2017 for extracting the periods and the long-term trend of GCM. The results show that the GCM has obvious seasonal characteristics of the annual, semiannual, quasi-0.6-year, and quasi-1.5-year in the X, Y, and Z directions, the annual characteristics make great domination, and its amplitudes are 1.7, 2.8, and 4.4 mm, respectively. It also shows long-period terms of 6.09 years as well as the non-linear trends of 0.05, 0.04, and -0.10 mm/yr in the three directions, respectively. To obtain real-time GCM parameters, the MSSA method combining a linear model (LM) and autoregressive moving average model (ARMA) was applied to predict GCM for 2 years into the future. The precision of predictions made using the proposed model was evaluated by the root mean squared error (RMSE). The results show that the proposed method can effectively predict GCM parameters, and the prediction precision in the three directions is 1.53, 1.08, and 3.46 mm, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21041403DOI Listing
February 2021

Targeting the epigenome in in-stent restenosis: from mechanisms to therapy.

Mol Ther Nucleic Acids 2021 Mar 26;23:1136-1160. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Department of Cardiology, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Road No. 59 Haier, Qingdao 266100, Shandong, People's Republic of China.

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is one of the most common causes of death worldwide. The introduction of percutaneous revascularization has revolutionized the therapy of patients with CAD. Despite the advent of drug-eluting stents, restenosis remains the main challenge in treating patients with CAD. In-stent restenosis (ISR) indicates the reduction in lumen diameter after percutaneous coronary intervention, in which the vessel's lumen re-narrowing is attributed to the aberrant proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and dysregulation of endothelial cells (ECs). Increasing evidence has demonstrated that epigenetics is involved in the occurrence and progression of ISR. In this review, we provide the latest and comprehensive analysis of three separate but related epigenetic mechanisms regulating ISR, namely, DNA methylation, histone modification, and non-coding RNAs. Initially, we discuss the mechanism of restenosis. Furthermore, we discuss the biological mechanism underlying the diverse epigenetic modifications modulating gene expression and functions of VSMCs, as well as ECs in ISR. Finally, we discuss potential therapeutic targets of the small molecule inhibitors of cardiovascular epigenetic factors. A more detailed understanding of epigenetic regulation is essential for elucidating this complex biological process, which will assist in developing and improving ISR therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.omtn.2021.01.024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7896131PMC
March 2021

Isolated copper-tin atomic interfaces tuning electrocatalytic CO conversion.

Nat Commun 2021 Mar 4;12(1):1449. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

School of Chemistry, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Direct experimental observations of the interface structure can provide vital insights into heterogeneous catalysis. Examples of interface design based on single atom and surface science are, however, extremely rare. Here, we report Cu-Sn single-atom surface alloys, where isolated Sn sites with high surface densities (up to 8%) are anchored on the Cu host, for efficient electrocatalytic CO reduction. The unique geometric and electronic structure of the Cu-Sn surface alloys (CuSn and CuSn) enables distinct catalytic selectivity from pure Cu and CuSn bulk alloy. The CuSn catalyst achieves a CO Faradaic efficiency of 98% at a tiny overpotential of 30 mV in an alkaline flow cell, where a high CO current density of 100 mA cm is obtained at an overpotential of 340 mV. Density functional theory simulation reveals that it is not only the elemental composition that dictates the electrocatalytic reactivity of Cu-Sn alloys; the local coordination environment of atomically dispersed, isolated Cu-Sn bonding plays the most critical role.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-21750-yDOI Listing
March 2021

The relationship among Girdin DNA methylation, its high expression, and immune infiltration in hepatocellular carcinoma: clues from in silico analysis.

Biosci Rep 2021 Mar 4. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

The Second Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University, Kunming, China.

Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the relationship among Girdin DNA methylation, its high expression, and immune infiltration in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

Materials And Methods: The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), and International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC) databases were used to compare Girdin mRNA expression between HCC tissues and normal tissues, and determine the relationship between Girdin expression and HCC prognosis. TCGA database was also used to analyze the expression of Girdin and its methylation status, as well as the relationship between Girdin DNA methylation and HCC prognosis. The Tumor IMmune Estimation Resource (TIMER) database was used to explore the correlation between Girdin expression and HCC immune infiltration.

Results: Girdin expression was elevated in HCC tissues compared with that in normal tissues. The degree of methylation at cg03188526, a CpG site in the Girdin gene body, was positively correlated with Girdin mRNA expression, while high Girdin expression and cg03188526 hypermethylation were both correlated with poor HCC prognosis. Additionally, HCC tissue with high Girdin expression exhibited abundant immune infiltration, and the high Girdin expression was associated with a worse prognosis in macrophage-enriched HCC specimens.

Conclusion: Our findings indicated that Girdin likely functions as an oncogene in HCC and that hypermethylation at cg03188526 in the Girdin gene body may explain the high Girdin expression levels in HCC tissue. Furthermore, we report for the first time that the adverse effects of high Girdin expression in HCC patients may be partially mediated by tumor macrophage infiltration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BSR20204006DOI Listing
March 2021

Reconstruction of functional uterine tissues through recellularizing the decellularized rat uterine scaffolds by MSCs in vivo and in vitro.

Biomed Mater 2021 Mar 3;16(3):035023. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Savaid Medical School, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, People's Republic of China.

Infertile people who suffered from loss of uterine structures and/or functions can be treated through gestational surrogacy or uterus transplantation, which remains challenging due to the ethical and social issues, the lack of donor organs as well as technical and safety risks. One promising solution is to regenerate and reconstruct a bioartificial uterus for transplantation through the engineering of uterine architecture and appropriate cellular constituents. Here, we developed a well-defined system to regenerate a functional rat uterine through recellularization of the decellularized uterine matrix (DUM) patches reseeded with human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Engraftment of the recellularized DUMs on the partially excised uteri yielded a functional rat uterus with a pregnancy rate and number of fetuses per uterine horn comparable to that of the control group with an intact uterus. Particularly, the recellularized DUMs enhanced the regeneration of traumatic uterine in vivo because of MSC regulation. The established system here will shed light on the treatment of uterine infertility with heterogeneous DUMs/cell resources through tissue engineering in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1748-605X/abd116DOI Listing
March 2021

Changes in clinical trials of endocrine disorder and metabolism and nutrition disorder drugs in mainland China over 2010-2019.

Pharmacol Res Perspect 2021 Apr;9(2):e00729

Clinical Trials Center, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong, China.

With the improvements in relevant policies, laws, and regulations regarding drug clinical trials in China, the quantity and quality of drug clinical trials have gradually improved, and the development prospects of drug clinical trials for endocrine disorders and metabolism and nutrition disorders are promising. Based on information from the clinical trials from the online drug clinical trial registration platform of the National Medical Products Administration, we aimed to review and evaluate the development of clinical trials of drugs for endocrine disorders and metabolism and nutrition disorders in mainland China from 2010 to 2019, as well as the trends over time. A total of 861 trials were carried out on 254 types of drugs for endocrine disorders and metabolism and nutrition disorders, among which 531 (61.67%) involved endocrine disorders, and 330 (38.33%) addressed metabolism and nutrition disorders. The annual number of clinical trials has been increasing gradually, with a significant increase in 2017. Among them, the proportion of clinical trials with Chinese epidemiological characteristics was relatively large (Wu, Annual Report on Development Health Management and Health Industry in China, 2018). The largest number of trials were for diabetes drugs (55.63%), followed by trials of drugs for hyperlipidemia (19.4%) and those for hyperuricemia (7.9%). It was found that the geographical area of the leading units also showed obvious unevenness according to the analysis of the test unit data. Based on the statistics and evaluation of the data, comprehensive information is provided to support the cooperation of global pharmaceutical R&D companies and research units in China and the development of international multicenter clinical trials in China. This work additionally provides clinical trial units with a self-evaluation of scientific research competitiveness and hospital development strategies. At the same time, it provides a reference with basic data for sponsors and stakeholders in these trials to determine their development strategy goals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/prp2.729DOI Listing
April 2021

Dual Functional Eudragit S100/L30D-55 and PLGA Colon-Targeted Nanoparticles of Iridoid Glycoside for Improved Treatment of Induced Ulcerative Colitis.

Int J Nanomedicine 2021 24;16:1405-1422. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Food Science College, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, People's Republic of China.

Aim: Iridoid glycosides (IG) as the major active fraction of Lindl. has a proven anti-inflammatory effect for ulcerative colitis (UC). However, its current commercial formulations are hampered by low bioavailability and unable to reach inflamed colon. To overcome the limitation, dual functional IG-loaded nanoparticles (DFNPs) were prepared to increase the residence time of IG in colon. The protective mechanism of DFNPs on DSS-induced colonic injury was evaluated in rats.

Materials And Methods: We prepared DFNPs using the oil-in-water emulsion method. PLGA was selected as sustained-release polymer, and ES100 and EL30D-55 as pH-responsive polymers. The morphology and size distribution of NPs were measured by SEM and DLS technique. To evaluate colon targeting of DFNPs, DiR, was encapsulated as a fluorescent probe into NPs. Fluorescent distribution of NPs were investigated. The therapeutic potential and in vivo transportation of NPs in gastrointestinal tract were evaluated in a colitis model.

Results: SEM images and zeta data indicated the successful preparation of DFNPs. This formulation exhibited high loading capacity. Drug release results suggested DFNPs released less than 20% at the first 6 h in simulated gastric fluid (pH1.2) and simulated small intestine fluid (pH6.8). A high amount of 84.7% sustained release from NPs in simulated colonic fluid (pH7.4) was beyond 24 h. DiR-loaded NPs demonstrated a much higher colon accumulation, suggesting effective targeting due to functionalization with pH and time-dependent polymers. DFNPs could significantly ameliorate the colonic damage by reducing DAI, macroscopic score, histological damage and cell apoptosis. Our results also proved that the potent anti-inflammatory effect of DFNPs is contributed by decrease of NADPH, gene expression of and and the production of TNF-α, IL-17, IL-23 and PGE2.

Conclusion: We confirm that DFNPs exert protective effects through inhibiting the inflammatory response, which could be developed as a potential colon-targeted system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S291090DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7917316PMC
February 2021

Unveiling the strong dependence of the -relaxation dispersion on mixing thermodynamics in binary glass-forming liquids.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 Mar 3. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

State Key Lab of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, and School of Materials Science and Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao, Hebei 066004, China.

Structural α-relaxation dispersion in binary molecular glass forming mixtures with distinct mixing enthalpy ΔHmix was investigated using enthalpic and dielectric relaxation measurements across the entire composition range. This study focused on the dependence of the relaxation dispersion on the mixing thermodynamics by determining the non-exponential exponent β, and its composition dependence. The β values determined by the enthalpic and dielectric relaxations agree well. Remarkably, it is found that the systems with positive enthalpy of mixing (exothermic, ΔHmix >0) have positive deviations in the composition dependence of β from the linear averaging of the two β values of the pure components, while negative deviations are observed for the systems with negative enthalpy of mixing (endothermic, ΔHmix <0). Furthermore, the relation between the non-exponential behaviors and entropy of mixing is discussed, revealing that the positive or negative deviation of β in its composition dependence on mixing is accompanied by the same sign of the excess entropy of mixing relative to the ideal one.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cp06358dDOI Listing
March 2021

Discovery of NLO Semiorganic (CHON)(HPO): Dipole Moment Modulation and Superior Synergy in Solar-Blind UV Region.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 Mar 1. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Key Laboratory of Theoretical and Computational Photochemistry of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, The People's Republic of China.

We herein report a novel semiorganic NLO material, (CHON)(HPO), 4HPP, showing promising excellent properties in the important solar-blind UV region where LAP and its deuterated form DLAP are the only commercialized semiorganic materials. For the first time, the 4-hydroxypyridine (4HP, (CHON)) cation is identified as NLO active and how to eliminate the dipole-dipole interaction to avoid the unwanted center-symmetry-trap caused by the polar-induced susceptibility is well demonstrated. Remarkably, 4HPP exhibits competitive and even better properties compared with LAP that include better thermal stability (decomposition at 166 vs 112 °C of LAP); wider transparency range (0.26-1.50 μm); very strong SHG response (3 × KDP); a suitable large birefringence (Δ = 0.25 vs 0.075 of LAP); and a high laser-induced damage threshold (2.2 × KDP). First-principles calculations show that the π-conjugated organic (4HP) cation governs the optical anisotropy, whereas the synergy of the organic and inorganic moieties dominates the SHG process. Our discovery points out a new path for the rational design of high performance semiorganic materials that require an acentric structure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.1c00959DOI Listing
March 2021

Heterochronic triple primary malignancies with Epstein-Barr virus infection and tumor protein 53 gene mutation: A case report and review of literature.

World J Clin Cases 2021 Feb;9(5):1184-1195

Department of Medical Oncology, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai 200032, China.

Background: The diagnosis and etiology of multiple primary malignant neoplasms (MPMNs) are difficult to establish. Here, we report a case of heterochronic triple primary malignancies with gastric cancer, nasopharyngeal squamous cell cancer, and then rectal cancer.

Case Summary: The patient was first diagnosed with gastric cancer at the age of 33 in 2014 and underwent distal gastrectomy and gastrojejunostomy and six cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy. Three years later, he was diagnosed with nasopharyngeal cancer and treated with radical chemoradiotherapy in 2017. Recently, a mass in the middle of the rectum was resected and reported as ulcerative, moderately to poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. Research on the etiology of MPMNs showed that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection may be the cause of gastric cancer and nasopharyngeal squamous cell cancer since these two primary lesions were positive for transcripts of EBV-encoded ribonucleic acid using an hybridization EBV-encoded ribonucleic acid probe in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue. The cause of rectal cancer may be due to a somatic mutation of tumor protein 53 gene in exon 8 (c.844C>T, p.Arg282Trp) through high-throughput sequencing for the rectal cancer. Appropriate standard therapy for each primary cancer was administered, and the patient has no evidence of cancer disease to date.

Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first report on heterochronic triple primary malignancies whose cause may be associated with EBV infection and tumor protein 53 genetic mutations. The etiological research may not only elucidate the cause of MPMN but also has implications in clinical management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12998/wjcc.v9.i5.1184DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7896647PMC
February 2021

Immediate Implant Placement With Buccal Bone Augmentation In The Anterior Maxilla With Thin Buccal Plate: A One-Year Follow-Up Case Series.

J Prosthodont 2021 Feb 27. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Hospital of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Purpose: To evaluate the buccal bone thickness of immediate implant placement with buccal bone augmentation in patients with a thin buccal plate in the esthetic zone.

Materials And Methods: Eighteen consecutive patients requiring a single tooth replacement in the anterior maxillary zone with a thin plate (< 1 mm) were included and received immediate implant placement with narrow-diameter implants. Patients received buccal bone augmentation (both internal and external socket bone grafting) with deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM) and an absorbable membrane. The final restoration was delivered after 8 months. Cone-beam CT scans were performed before surgery (CBCT0), immediately after surgery (CBCT1), at final restoration delivery (CBCT2), and at 1-year follow-up after the final restoration (CBCT3) to evaluate the buccal bone thickness and ridge width. A repeated measures ANOVA and Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons were applied for statistical analysis of changes within different time points (α = 0.05).

Results: Fifteen of the 18 enrolled patients were available for analysis at the 1-year follow-up after final restoration. The mean buccal bone thickness at 2mm apical to the implant-abutment junction (IAJ-2) were 3.59 mm (range: 3.04-4.58 mm), 2.79 mm (range: 2.25-3.78 mm), and 2.52 mm (range: 1.72-3.36 mm), respectively, at CBCT1, CBCT2, and CBCT3. A statistical significance was observed for buccal bone thickness change between CBCT1 and CBCT2 at IAJ-2 (F = 17.948, P = 0.001). The net gains of the ridge width from CBCT0 to CBCT1, CBCT1 to CBCT2, and CBCT2 to CBCT3 were 1.08 mm, -0.94 mm and -0.04 mm at 4 mm apical to the cementum-enamel junction, respectively. No statistical significance was observed for the change in ridge width from CBCT0 to CBCT3 (F = 10.518, P = 1.000).

Conclusions: Simultaneous buccal bone augmentation may maintain a predictable buccal bone thickness for immediate implant placement in the maxillary anterior sites with a thin buccal plate (< 1 mm) at 1-year follow-up after final restoration. KEY WORDS: esthetic; dental implants; cone-beam computed tomography; bone regeneration;buccal bone thickness This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jopr.13350DOI Listing
February 2021

Discovery, Bioactivity Evaluation, Biosynthetic Gene Cluster Identification, and Heterologous Expression of Novel Albofungin Derivatives.

Front Microbiol 2021 1;12:635268. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Hong Kong Branch of the Southern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong, Laboratory (Guangzhou), Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong, China.

The crude extract of exhibited strong and broad activities against most "ESKAPE pathogens." We conducted a comprehensive chemical investigation for secondary metabolites from the strain and identified two novel albofungin () derivatives, i.e., albofungins A (1) and B (2), along with two known compounds, i.e., albofungin (3) and chloroalbofungin (4). The chemical structures of the novel compounds were elucidated using HRMS, 1D and 2D NMR, and electronic circular dichroism spectroscopy. The draft genome of was sequenced, and a 72 kb albofungin () gene cluster with 72 open reading frames encoding type II polyketide synthases (PKSs), regulators, and transporters, and tailoring enzymes were identified using bioinformatics analysis. The gene cluster was confirmed using the heterologous expression in , which successfully produced the compounds 3 and 4. Furthermore, compounds 1-4 displayed remarkable activities against Gram-positive bacteria and antitumor activities toward various cancer cells. Notably, compounds 1 and 3 showed potent activities against Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (dUTP) nick-end labeling and flow cytometry analysis verified that compound 1 inhibited cancer cell proliferation by inducing cellular apoptosis. These results indicated that albofungins might be potential candidates for the development of antibiotics and antitumor drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.635268DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7902042PMC
February 2021

Role of Sphingosine Kinase in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2020 9;11:627076. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Fudan Institute for Metabolic Diseases, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Sphingolipids are a class of essential lipids, functioning as both cell membrane constituents and signaling messengers. In the sphingolipid metabolic network, ceramides serve as the central hub that is hydrolyzed to sphingosine, followed by phosphorylation to sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) by sphingosine kinase (SphK). SphK is regarded as a "switch" of the sphingolipid rheostat, as it catalyzes the conversion of ceramide/sphingosine to S1P, which often exhibit opposing biological roles in the cell. Besides, SphK is an important signaling enzyme that has been implicated in the regulation of a wide variety of biological functions. In recent years, an increasing body of evidence has suggested a critical role of SphK in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), although a certain level of controversy remains. Herein, we review recent findings related to SphK in the field of T2D research with a focus on peripheral insulin resistance and pancreatic β-cell failure. It is expected that a comprehensive understanding of the role of SphK and the associated sphingolipids in T2D will help to identify druggable targets for future anti-diabetes therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2020.627076DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7899982PMC
February 2021

A comparison of alternative mRNA splicing in the CD4 and CD8 T cell lineages.

Mol Immunol 2021 Feb 22;133:53-62. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

St Vincent's Institute of Medical Research, Fitzroy, Victoria, Australia; Department of Medicine (St Vincent's), The University of Melbourne, Fitzroy, Victoria, Australia. Electronic address:

T cells can be subdivided into a number of different subsets that are defined by their distinct functions. While the specialization of different T cell subsets is partly achieved by the expression of specific genes, the overall transcriptional profiles of all T cells appear very similar. Alternative mRNA splicing is a mechanism that facilitates greater transcript/protein diversity from a limited number of genes, which may contribute to the functional specialization of distinct T cell subsets. In this study we employ a combination of short-read and long-read sequencing technologies to compare alternative mRNA splicing between the CD4 and CD8 T cell lineages. While long-read technology was effective at assembling full-length alternatively spliced transcripts, the low sequencing depth did not facilitate accurate quantitation. On the other hand, short-read technology was ineffective at assembling full-length transcripts but was highly accurate for quantifying expression. We show that integrating long-read and short-read data together achieves a more complete view of transcriptomic diversity. We found that while the overall usage of transcript isoforms was very similar between the CD4 and CD8 lineages, there were numerous alternative spliced mRNA isoforms that were preferentially used by one lineage over the other. These alternative spliced isoforms included ones with different exon usage, exon exclusion or intron inclusion, all of which are expected to significantly alter the protein sequence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molimm.2021.02.009DOI Listing
February 2021

Epithelial Cells in 2D and 3D Cultures Exhibit Large Differences in Higher-order Genomic Interactions.

Genomics Proteomics Bioinformatics 2021 Feb 22. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

State Key Laboratory for Oncogenes and Bio-ID Center, School of Biomedical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China. Electronic address:

Recent studies have characterized the genomic structures of many eukaryotic cells, often with a focus on their relation to gene expression. So far, these studies have largely only investigated cells grown in 2D culture, although the transcriptomes of 3D cultured cells are generally closer to their in vivo phenotypes. To examine the effects of spatial constraints on chromosome conformation, we investigated the genomic architecture of mouse hepatocytes grown in 2D and 3D cultures using in situ Hi-C. Our results reveal significant differences in higher-order genomic interactions, notably in compartment identity and strength as well as in topologically associating domain (TAD)-TAD interactions, but only minor differences at the TAD level. RNA-seq analysis reveals an up-regulation in the 3D cultured cells of those genes involved in physiological hepatocyte functions. We find that these genes are associated with a subset of the structural changes, suggesting that the differences in genomic structure are indeed critically important for transcriptional regulation. However, there are also many structural differences that are not directly associated with changed expression, whose cause remains to be determined. Overall, our results indicate that growth in 3D significantly alters higher-order genomic interactions, which may be consequential for a subset of genes that are important for the physiological functioning of the cell.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gpb.2020.06.017DOI Listing
February 2021

A 2-year investigation of the impact of the computed tomography-derived fractional flow reserve calculated using a deep learning algorithm on routine decision-making for coronary artery disease management.

Eur Radiol 2021 Feb 25. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 30-32 Ngan Shing St., Sha Tin, Hong Kong, SAR, China.

Objective: This study aims to investigate the safety and feasibility of using a deep learning algorithm to calculate computed tomography angiography-based fractional flow reserve (DL-FFRCT) as an alternative to invasive coronary angiography (ICA) in the selection of patients for coronary intervention.

Materials And Methods: Patients (N = 296) with symptomatic coronary artery disease identified by coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) with stenosis over 50% were retrospectively enrolled from a single centre in this study. ICA-guided interventions were performed in patients at admission, and DL-FFRCT was conducted retrospectively. The influences on decision-making by using DL-FFRCT and the clinical outcome were compared to those of ICA-guided care for symptomatic CAD at the 2-year follow-up evaluation.

Result: Two hundred forty-three patients were evaluated. Up to 72% of diagnostic ICA studies could have been avoided by using a DL-FFRCT value > 0.8 as a cut-off for intervention. A similar major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE) rate was observed in patients who underwent revascularisation with a DL-FFRCT value ≤ 0.8 (2.9%) compared to that of ICA-guided interventions (3.3%) (stented lesions with ICA stenosis > 75%) (p = 0.838).

Conclusion: DL-FFRCT can reduce the need for diagnostic coronary angiography when identifying patients suitable for coronary intervention. A low MACE rate was found in a 2-year follow-up investigation.

Key Points: • Seventy-two percent of diagnostic ICA studies could have been avoided by using a DL-FFRCT value > 0.8 as a cut-off for intervention. • Coronary artery stenting based on the diagnosis by using a 320-detector row CT scanner and a positive DL-FFRCT value could potentially be associated with a lower occurrence rate of major adverse cardiovascular events (2.9%) within the first 2 years. • A low event rate was found when intervention was performed in tandem lesions with haemodynamic significance based on DL-FFRCT < 0.8 as a cut-off value.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-021-07771-7DOI Listing
February 2021

Chaetocin Promotes Osteogenic Differentiation via Modulating Wnt/Beta-Catenin Signaling in Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

Stem Cells Int 2021 6;2021:8888416. Epub 2021 Feb 6.

Department of Stomatology, The Seventh People's Hospital of Shenzhen, China.

Mesenchymal stemXin cells (MSCs) are a great cell source for bone regeneration. Although combining MSCs with growth factors and scaffolds provides a useful clinical strategy for bone tissue engineering, the efficiency of MSC osteogenic differentiation remains to be improved. Epigenetic modification is related to the differentiation ability of MSCs during osteogenic induction. In this study, we evaluate the effect of Chaetocin, an inhibitor of lysine-specific histone methyltransferases, on the differentiation of MSCs. We found that MSCs treated with Chaetocin demonstrated increased osteogenic ability and reduced adipogenic ability. The expression of osteogenic markers (Runx2 and OPN) was induced in MSCs by Chaetocin during osteogenic induction. Moveover, treatment of Chaetocin in MSCs improves Wnt/-catenin signaling pathways and its downstream targets. Finally, we showed increased bone formation of MSC and Wnt/-catenin signaling activity by treatment of Chaetocin using in vivo bone formation assays. Our data uncovered a critical role of Chaetocin in MSC osteogenic differentiation and provide new insights into bone tissue regeneration and repair.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/8888416DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7886529PMC
February 2021

A mechanosensitive peri-arteriolar niche for osteogenesis and lymphopoiesis.

Nature 2021 Feb 24. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Children's Research Institute and the Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA.

Stromal cells in adult bone marrow that express leptin receptor (LEPR) are a critical source of growth factors, including stem cell factor (SCF), for the maintenance of haematopoietic stem cells and early restricted progenitors. LEPR cells are heterogeneous, including skeletal stem cells and osteogenic and adipogenic progenitors, although few markers have been available to distinguish these subsets or to compare their functions. Here we show that expression of an osteogenic growth factor, osteolectin, distinguishes peri-arteriolar LEPR cells poised to undergo osteogenesis from peri-sinusoidal LEPR cells poised to undergo adipogenesis (but retaining osteogenic potential). Peri-arteriolar LEPRosteolectin cells are rapidly dividing, short-lived osteogenic progenitors that increase in number after fracture and are depleted during ageing. Deletion of Scf from adult osteolectin cells did not affect the maintenance of haematopoietic stem cells or most restricted progenitors but depleted common lymphoid progenitors, impairing lymphopoiesis, bacterial clearance, and survival after acute bacterial infection. Peri-arteriolar osteolectin cell maintenance required mechanical stimulation. Voluntary running increased, whereas hindlimb unloading decreased, the frequencies of peri-arteriolar osteolectin cells and common lymphoid progenitors. Deletion of the mechanosensitive ion channel PIEZO1 from osteolectin cells depleted osteolectin cells and common lymphoid progenitors. These results show that a peri-arteriolar niche for osteogenesis and lymphopoiesis in bone marrow is maintained by mechanical stimulation and depleted during ageing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03298-5DOI Listing
February 2021

Learning a Deep CNN Denoising Approach Using Anatomical Prior Information Implemented with an Attention Mechanism for Low-dose CT Imaging on Clinical Patient Data from Multiple Anatomical Sites.

IEEE J Biomed Health Inform 2021 Feb 24;PP. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Dose reduction in computed tomography (CT) has gained considerable attention in clinical applications because it decreases radiation risks. However, a lower dose generates noise in low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) images. Previous deep learning (DL)-based works have investigated ways to improve diagnostic performance to address this ill-posed problem. However, most of them disregard the anatomical differences among different human body sites in constructing the mapping function between LDCT images and their high-resolution normal-dose CT (NDCT) counterparts. In this paper, we propose a novel deep convolutional neural network (CNN) denoising approach by introducing information of the anatomical prior. Instead of designing multiple networks for each independent human body anatomical site, a unified network framework is employed to process anatomical information. The anatomical prior is represented as a pattern of weights of the features extracted from the corresponding LDCT image in an anatomical prior fusion module. To promote diversity in the contextual information, a spatial attention fusion mechanism is introduced to capture many local regions of interest in the attention fusion module. Although many network parameters are saved, the experimental results demonstrate that our method, which incorporates anatomical prior information, is effective in denoising LDCT images. Furthermore, the anatomical prior fusion module could be conveniently integrated into other DL-based methods and avails the performance improvement on multiple anatomical data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JBHI.2021.3061758DOI Listing
February 2021

Research Advances in Protective Effects of Ursolic Acid and Oleanolic Acid Against Gastrointestinal Diseases.

Am J Chin Med 2021 Feb 20:1-23. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

The First Clinical Medical College of Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, P. R. China.

The intestinal tract plays an essential role in protecting tissues from the invasion of external harmful substances due to impaired barrier function. Furthermore, it participates in immunomodulation by intestinal microorganisms, which is important in health. When the intestinal tract is destroyed, it can lose its protective function, resulting in multiple systemic complications. In severe cases, it may lead to systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). Thus far, there are no curative therapies for intestinal mucosal barrier injury, other than a few drugs that can relieve symptoms. Thus, the development of novel curative agents for gastrointestinal diseases remains a challenge. Ursolic acid (UA) and its isomer, Oleanolic acid (OA), are pentacyclic triterpene acid compounds. Both their aglycone and glycoside forms have anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer, antibacterial, antiviral, antihypertensive, anti-obesity, anticancer, antidiabetic, cardio protective, hepatoprotective, and anti-neurodegenerative properties in living organisms. In recent years, several studies have shown that UA and OA can reduce the risk of intestinal pathological injury, alleviate intestinal dysfunction, and restore intestinal barrier function. The present study evaluated the beneficial effects of UA and OA on intestinal damage and diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and colorectal cancer (CRC).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/S0192415X21500191DOI Listing
February 2021

MircoRNA-29a in Astrocyte-derived Extracellular Vesicles Suppresses Brain Ischemia Reperfusion Injury via TP53INP1 and the NF-κB/NLRP3 Axis.

Cell Mol Neurobiol 2021 Feb 23. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

The First Clinical Medical College of Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, 730000, China.

Brain ischemia reperfusion injury (BIRI) is defined as a series of brain injury accompanied by inflammation and oxidative stress. Astrocyte-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) are importantly participated in BIRI with involvement of microRNAs (miRs). Our study aimed to discuss the functions of miR-29a from astrocyte-derived EVs in BIRI treatment. Thus, astrocyte-derived EVs were extracted. Oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) cell models and BIR rat models were established. Then, cell and rat activities and pyroptosis-related protein levels in these two kinds of models were detected. Functional assays were performed to verify inflammation and oxidative stress. miR-29a expression in OGD cells and BIR rats was measured, and target relation between miR-29a and tumor protein 53-induced nuclear protein 1 (TP53INP1) was certified. Rat neural function was tested. Astrocyte-derived EVs improved miR-29a expression in N9 microglia and rat brains. Astrocyte-derived EVs inhibited OGD-induced injury and inflammation in vitro, reduced brain infarction, and improved BIR rat neural functions in vivo. miR-29a in EVs protected OGD-treated cells and targeted TP53INP1, whose overexpression suppressed the protective function of EVs on OGD-treated cells. miR-29a alleviated OGD and BIRI via downregulating TP53INP1 and the NF-κB/NLRP3 pathway. Briefly, our study demonstrated that miR-29a in astrocyte-derived EVs inhibits BIRI by downregulating TP53INP1 and the NF-κB/NLRP3 axis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10571-021-01040-3DOI Listing
February 2021

Different responses of nitrite- and nitrate-dependent anaerobic methanotrophs to increasing nitrogen loading in a freshwater reservoir.

Environ Pollut 2020 Aug 18;263(Pt A):114623. Epub 2020 Apr 18.

Wuxijiang National Wetland Park Service, Quzhou, 324000, China.

Nitrite (NO)- and nitrate (NO)-dependent anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) are two new additions in microbial methane cycle, which potentially act as important methane sinks in freshwater aquatic systems. Here, we investigated spatial variations of community composition, abundance and potential activity of NO- and NO-dependent anaerobic methanotrophs in the sediment of Jiulonghu Reservoir (Zhejiang Province, China), a freshwater reservoir having a gradient of increasing nitrogen loading from upstream to downstream regions. High-throughput sequencing of total bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes showed the cooccurrence of Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera (M. oxyfera)-like and Candidatus Methanoperedens nitroreducens (M. nitroreducens)-like anaerobic methanotrophs in the examined reservoir sediments. The community structures of these methanotrophs differed substantially between the sediments of upstream and downstream regions. Quantitative PCR suggested higher M. oxyfera-like bacterial abundance in the downstream (8.6 × 10 to 2.8 × 10 copies g dry sediment) than upstream sediments (2.4 × 10 to 3.5 × 10 copies g dry sediment), but there was no obvious difference in M. nitroreducens-like archaeal abundance between these sediments (3.7 × 10 to 4.8 × 10 copies g dry sediment). The CH tracer experiments suggested the occurrence of NO- and NO-dependent AOM activities, and their rates were 4.7-14.1 and 0.8-2.6 nmol CO g (dry sediment) d, respectively. Further, the rates of NO-dependent AOM in downstream sediment were significantly higher than those in upstream sediment. The NO concentration was the key factor affecting the spatial variations of abundance and activity of NO-dependent anaerobic methanotrophs. Overall, our results showed different responses of NO- and NO-dependent anaerobic methanotrophs to increasing nitrogen loading in a freshwater reservoir.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.114623DOI Listing
August 2020

Adversity Tries Friends: A Multilevel Analysis of Corporate Philanthropic Response to the Local Spread of COVID-19 in China.

J Bus Ethics 2021 Feb 17:1-28. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

UIBE Business School, University of International Business and Economics, No.10 Huixin Dongjie, Beijing, 100029 P.R. China.

We examine corporate philanthropic decisions in response to the local spread of COVID-19. From a strategic perspective, firms may proactively undertake philanthropic efforts to limit the spread of the pandemic and avoid a degraded business environment. From the perspective of non-trivial costs, increased economic uncertainty can raise concerns about business survival and lead to conservative philanthropic strategies. Following the proverb "prosperity makes friends, adversity tries them," at the provincial level, our results support the second perspective. Specifically, when the spread of the pandemic worsens in a province, local firms are less likely to make COVID-19-related donations in terms of likelihood and amount. Investors also react negatively, not only to the local spread of COVID-19 but also to COVID-19-related philanthropic donations. At the organizational level, our evidence indicates that there is at least some level of cost-benefit analysis underlying corporate philanthropic decisions. Specifically, corporate philanthropic donations, especially those made to the local business environment, are significantly affected by organizational-level factors, such as pre-existing resource availability and motives to acquire political and reputational resources. Overall, our multilevel study presents a comprehensive picture of corporate philanthropic decisions amid the COVID-19 crisis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10551-021-04745-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7887540PMC
February 2021

5‑Nitro‑2‑(3‑phenylpropylamino) benzoic acid induces apoptosis of human lens epithelial cells via reactive oxygen species and endoplasmic reticulum stress through the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway.

Int J Mol Med 2021 Apr 19;47(4):1-9. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Eye Center, The Second Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130000, P.R. China.

Cataracts have a high incidence and prevalence rate worldwide, and they are the leading cause of blindness. Lens epithelial cell (LEC) apoptosis is often analysed in cataract research since it is the pathological basis of cataracts, except for congenital cataract. Chloride channels are present in ocular tissues, such as in trabecular cells, LECs and other cells. They serve an important role in apoptosis and participate in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and oxidative stress. However, their role in the apoptosis of LECs has not been discussed. The present study examined the effects of the chloride channel blocker 5‑nitro‑2‑(3‑phenylpropylamino) benzoic acid (NPPB) in human LECs (HLECs) to elucidate the role of NPPB in HLECs and investigate the role and mechanism of chloride channels in cataract formation. HLECs were exposed to NPPB. Cell survival rate was evaluated using Cell Counting Kit‑8 assays. Oxidative stress was detected as reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells by using a ROS assay kit. Apoptosis was examined by assessing mitochondrial membrane potential and using a JC‑1 assay kit, and western blot analysis was performed to measure the expression levels of mitochondrial‑dependent apoptosis pathway‑associated proteins. ER stress was evaluated by determining the intracellular calcium ion fluorescence intensity, and western blot analysis was performed to measure ER stress‑associated protein expression. The results revealed that NPPB treatment decreased the viability of HLECs and increased apoptosis. Additionally, NPPB increased intracellular ROS levels, as well as the number of JC‑1 monomers and the protein expression levels of B‑cell lymphoma‑2 (Bcl‑2)‑associated X and cleaved caspase‑3, and decreased Bcl‑2 protein expression. NPPB increased intracellular calcium ions, the protein expression levels of activating transcription factor 6, JNK, C/EBP homologous protein and caspase‑12, and the phosphorylation of protein kinase R‑like endoplasmic reticulum kinase. N‑acetylcysteine and 4‑phenylbutyric acid inhibited NPPB‑induced oxidative stress, ER stress and apoptosis. Therefore, NPPB treatment decreased cell viability and promoted apoptosis of HLECs via the promotion of oxidative and ER stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.2021.4892DOI Listing
April 2021

A synergistic interplay between dopant ALD cycles and film thickness on the improvement of the ferroelectricity of uncapped Al:HfOnanofilms.

Nanotechnology 2021 Feb 18. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, CHINA.

The Al:HfOferroelectric nanofilms with different total thicknesses and distributions of Al-rich strips are prepared using atomic layer deposition (ALD) in an uncapped configuration. The synergistic interplay between the number of Al-rich layers and the thickness of total film offers the additional flexibility to boost the ferroelectricity of the resulting Al:HfOnanofilms. By carefully optimizing both the ALD cycles for dopant layer and the total film thickness in the preparation, the HfOnanofilms in post-deposition annealing (PDA) can exhibit excellent ferroelectricity. The highest remanent polarization (2P) of 51.8 μC/cmis obtained in a 19.4 nm thick Al:HfOnanofilm at the dopant concentration of 11.1 mol% with a three ALD cycles for Al-rich strips. Remarkable remanent polarization value observed in the uncapped electrode clamping film paves a new way to explore the origin of ferroelectricity in hafnium oxide nanofilms. The observed ferroelectricity of the nanofilm is affected neither by the presence of an interface between the upper electrode and the film nor the choices of the materials of upper electrode in the measurement, ensuring a high flexibility in the designing and fabrication of the relevant devices in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/abe785DOI Listing
February 2021

Revealing the changes of IgG subclass-specific N-glycosylation in colorectal cancer progression by high-throughput assay.

Proteomics Clin Appl 2021 Feb 17:e2000022. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

The Key Laboratory for Biomedical Photonics of MOE at Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics-Hubei Bioinformatics & Molecular Imaging Key Laboratory, Systems Biology Theme, Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430074, China.

Purpose: The changes of glycosylation of different IgG subclass in colorectal cancer (CRC) were rarely investigated. The authors aimed to use a simple and high-throughput analytical method to explore the changes of subclass-specific IgG glycosylation in CRC, and to find the specific glyco-biomarkers for early detection of this disease.

Experimental Design: Serum samples from 71 cancer patients and 22 benign patients with 50 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were collected from two independent cohorts. Subclass-specific IgG glycosylation was profiled by MALDI-MS followed by the structural identification through MALDI-MS/MS. The exported MS data was automatically and rapidly processed by the self-developed MATLAB code.

Results: Statistical analysis suggested the significantly decreased galactosylation and remarkably increased agalactosylation of IgG1 or IgG2 in the malignant transformation of CRC, which enables the differentiation between cancer patients and healthy controls. The changes of glycan features were elucidated by the exploration of individual glycopeptides, showing the biantennary fucosylated glycan without galactose (H3N4F1) or with two galactose (H5N4F1) of IgG1 and IgG2 could distinguish cancer group from both benign and control groups.

Conclusions And Clinical Relevance: Through the simple and high-throughput procedures, this study revealed the important role of IgG glycopeptides in the premature pathology of CRC. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/prca.202000022DOI Listing
February 2021

High-sensitive cardiac troponin for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction in different chronic kidney disease stages.

BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2021 Feb 17;21(1):100. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Department of Nephrology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, No. 1, Minde Road, Donghu District, Nanchang, 330006, People's Republic of China.

Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) are associated with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). High-sensitive cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) has been evidenced to enhance the early diagnostic accuracy of AMI, but hs-cTn levels are often chronically elevated in CKD patients, which reduces their diagnostic utility. The aim of this study was to derive optimal cutoff-values of hs-cTn levels in patients with CKD and suspected AMI.

Methods: In this retrospective paper, a total of 3295 patients with chest pain (2758 in AMI group and 537 in Non-AMI group) were recruited, of whom 23.1% were had an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of < 60 mL min (1.73 m). Hs-cTnI values were measured at presentation.

Results: AMI was diagnosed in 83.7% of all patients. The optimal value of hs-TnI in diagnosing AMI was 1.15 ng mL, which were higher in males than females comparing different cutoff-values of subgroups divided by age, gender and renal function, and which increased monotonically with decreasing of eGFR because in patients with CKD without AMI, the correlation between hs-cTnI and renal function is low but significant (r = 0.067, P < 0.001).

Conclusions: Different optimal cutoff-values of hs-cTnI in the diagnosis of AMI in patients with CKD were helpful to the clinical diagnosis of AMI in various populations and were higher in males than females, but which was needed to be validated by multicenter randomized controlled clinical studies in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12872-020-01746-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7888109PMC
February 2021

Strictosamide alleviates the inflammation in an acute ulcerative colitis (UC) model.

J Physiol Biochem 2021 Feb 17. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Hebei Key Laboratory of Specialty Animal Germplasm Resources Exploration and Innovation (Under Planning), College of Animal Science and Technology, Hebei Normal University of Science & Technology, Qinhuangdao, 066004, China.

The ulcerative colitis (UC) is a typical inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) causing great damages, while strictosamide (STR) is a natural alkaloid that possesses strong anti-inflammatory property in infection and inflammation-related diseases. Our study is aimed at evaluating the anti-inflammatory activity of STR in the course of UC. Briefly, male Balb/c mice were treated with 3.5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) for 6 consecutive days to establish an acute model of UC, and the administration of gradient concentrations of STR was subsequently performed. Accordingly, colonic pathological alterations including the reduced ratio of colon weight/length, decreased disease activity index (DAI), and attenuated H&E damage were found in UC mice after STR treatment. Based on the analyses of real-time PCR and western blot, downregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) was also determined in the colonic tissue of UC mice after the treatment of STR. ELISA and immunohistochemical staining further suggest the relief of inflammation in UC mice with decreased expressions of MPO and iNOS after STR treatment. In addition, STR was also validated to significantly inhibit NF-κB signaling in UC mice by western blot and Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay (EMSA). Meanwhile, restricted inflammation was also determined in STR-treated IEC6 and HT-29 cells. The utilization of PDTC, an inhibitor of NF-κB, further demonstrated that STR ameliorated the inflammation by inhibiting the NF-κB signaling in vitro. In summary, our study suggests that STR could be a potential candidate for IBD therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13105-021-00796-yDOI Listing
February 2021

Purification of dye-contaminated ethanol-water mixture using magnetic cellulose powders derived from agricultural waste biomass.

Carbohydr Polym 2021 Apr 22;258:117690. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

State Key Laboratory of New Textile Materials and Advanced Processing Technologies, Wuhan Textile University, Wuhan, 430200, China.

Eco-friendly ethanol (EtOH)-water (HO) mixture has demonstrated huge potential in the textile industry. However, the uncontrolled discharge of dye-contaminated EtOH-HO mixture to the ecosystem has numerous adverse effects. Herein, a sustainable approach utilizing the agricultural waste biomass-Juncus effusus (JE) to synthesize magnetic cellulose JE powders (M-JEPs) has been proposed for purification of dye-contaminated EtOH-HO mixture. Batch experiments and physical-chemical analyses were performed to explore the adsorption performance and mechanism. The as-prepared cellulose M-JEPs exhibited ultrafast adsorption performance, which can reach the adsorption equilibrium within 10 min. The adsorption isotherms and kinetics demonstrated that the adsorption fitted well with the Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second-order kinetic models, exhibiting the maximum adsorption capacity towards C.I. Reactive Red 195 and C.I. Reactive Blue 222 of 58.21 mg/g and 86.06 mg/g at the temperature of 303K. These findings indicate the feasibility of using cellulose M-JEPs for rapid purification of the dye-contaminated EtOH-HO mixture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2021.117690DOI Listing
April 2021