Publications by authors named "Liu Liu"

764 Publications

Hepatotoxicity of cantharidin is associated with the altered bile acid metabolism.

J Appl Toxicol 2021 Dec 5. Epub 2021 Dec 5.

School of Pharmacy, Zunyi Medical University, Zunyi, China.

Cantharidin (CTD) is an effective antitumor agent. However, it exhibits significant hepatotoxicity, the mechanism of which remains unclear. In this study, biochemical and histopathological analyses complemented with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS)-based targeted metabolomic analysis of bile acids (BAs) were employed to investigate CTD-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Sixteen male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups: control and CTD (1.0 mg/kg) groups. Serum and liver samples were collected after 28 days of intervention. Biochemical, histopathological, and BA metabolomic analyses were performed for all samples. Further, the key biomarkers of CTD-induced hepatotoxicity were identified via multivariate and metabolic pathway analyses. In addition, metabolite-gene-enzyme network and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analyses were used to identify the signaling pathways related to CTD-induced hepatotoxicity. The results revealed significantly increased levels of biochemical indices (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and total bile acid). Histopathological analysis revealed that the hepatocytes were damaged. Further, 20 endogenous BAs were quantitated via UHPLC-MS/MS, and multivariate and metabolic pathway analyses of BAs revealed that hyocholic acid, cholic acid, and chenodeoxycholic acid were the key biomarkers of CTD-induced hepatotoxicity. Meanwhile, primary and secondary BA biosynthesis and taurine and hypotaurine metabolism were found to be associated with the mechanism by which CTD induced hepatotoxicity in rats. This study provides useful insights for research on the mechanism of CTD-induced hepatotoxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jat.4267DOI Listing
December 2021

Intraoperative Hypotension and Acute Kidney Injury after Noncardiac Surgery in Infants and Children: A Retrospective Cohort Analysis.

Anesthesiology 2021 Nov 29. Epub 2021 Nov 29.

Background: Age- and sex-specific reference nomograms for intraoperative blood pressure have been published, but they do not identify harm thresholds. The authors therefore assessed the relationship between various absolute and relative characterizations of hypotension and acute kidney injury in children having noncardiac surgery.

Methods: The authors conducted a retrospective cohort study using electronic data from two tertiary care centers. They included inpatients 18 yr or younger who had noncardiac surgery with general anesthesia. Postoperative renal injury was defined using the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes definitions, based on serum creatinine concentrations. The authors evaluated potential renal harm thresholds for absolute lowest intraoperative mean arterial pressure (MAP) or largest MAP reduction from baseline maintained for a cumulative period of 5 min. Separate analyses were performed in children aged 2 yr or younger, 2 to 6 yr, 6 to 12 yr, and 12 to 18 yr.

Results: Among 64,412 children who had noncardiac surgery, 4,506 had creatinine assessed preoperatively and postoperatively. The incidence of acute kidney injury in this population was 11% (499 of 4,506): 17% in children under 6 yr old, 11% in children 6 to 12 yr old, and 6% in adolescents, which is similar to the incidence reported in adults. There was no association between lowest cumulative MAP sustained for 5 min and postoperative kidney injury. Similarly, there was no association between largest cumulative percentage MAP reduction and postoperative kidney injury. The adjusted estimated odds for kidney injury was 0.99 (95% CI, 0.94 to 1.05) for each 5-mmHg decrease in lowest MAP and 1.00 (95% CI, 0.97 to 1.03) for each 5% decrease in largest MAP reduction from baseline.

Conclusions: In distinct contrast to adults, the authors did not find any association between intraoperative hypotension and postoperative renal injury. Avoiding short periods of hypotension should not be the clinician's primary concern when trying to prevent intraoperative renal injury in pediatric patients.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0000000000004057DOI Listing
November 2021

Non-volatile compounds of Hyssopus cuspidatus Boriss and their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

Food Chem 2021 Nov 19:131638. Epub 2021 Nov 19.

State Key Laboratory Basis of Xinjiang Indigenous Medicinal Plants Resource Utilization and Key Laboratory of Plants Resources and Chemistry of Arid Zone, Xinjiang Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, South Beijing Road 40-1, Urumqi 830011, Xinjiang, PR China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039, PR China. Electronic address:

Hyssopus cuspidatus is a famous spice and an aromatic vegetable. Few information could be available concerning its non-volatile chemical composition and bioactivities. Preliminary bioactive evaluations on the crude ethanol extract and its four fractions disclosed that the ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) exhibited antioxidant and antimicrobial bioactivities. LC-MS/MS analysis of EAF helped to identify sixty-four compounds, and phenolic compounds were the dominant components. Systematic separation and purification of EAF led to the isolation of thirty-four compounds. Six compounds were identified to be new and eighteen compounds were discovered from H. cuspidatus for the first time. Rosmarinic acid, methyl rosmarinate, butyl rosmarinate and salvigenin were the major components of EAF and their contents were determined. Most of isolated compounds exhibited significant or moderate antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. This research supported the edible application of H. cuspidatus and disclosed the potency of it as a natural antioxidant and antimicrobial food additive.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.131638DOI Listing
November 2021

Impacts of chitosan nanoemulsions with thymol or thyme essential oil on volatile compounds and microbial diversity of refrigerated pork meat.

Meat Sci 2021 Nov 9;185:108706. Epub 2021 Nov 9.

College of Food Engineering and Nutrition Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710119, China.

This study aimed to investigate the effects of antibacterial substances embedded in nanoemulsions on the volatile compounds and the bacterial community composition of refrigerated pork stored at 4 °C for 12 days, and to evaluate the relationship between volatile components and bacterial diversity of refrigerated pork. As compared to the control (CK) group, the treatment groups (thyme essential oil chitosan nanoemulsions (TEO-CS), thymol chitosan nanoemulsions (T-CS) and chitosan nanoemulsions (CS)) showed lower TVB-N values, pH values, TBARs values and better protective against color degradation. The E-nose and GC-MS evaluation indicated that compounds causing unpleasant odors could be inhibited in the T-CS and TEO-CS groups. In addition, high-throughput sequencing showed that Pseudomonas (18.3%), Lactococcus (27.0%) and Acinetobacter (38.8%) were predominant genera of refrigerated pork in the early storage period. At day 12, Pseudomonas (84.3%) increased rapidly in the CK group and became the main microbiota. By contrast, both coatings changed the microbial composition, reduced the proportion of spoilage organisms and retained bacterial diversity. Therefore, chitosan nanoemulsions with antibacterial substance could be considered as an effective supplementary and method to improve the preservation effect of fresh pork, which provides a solution to against conventional packaging and extend the shelf-life of meat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2021.108706DOI Listing
November 2021

Bacitracin-Ag Nanoclusters as a Novel Antibacterial Agent Combats by Disrupting Cell Membrane and Inhibiting Biofilm Formation.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Nov 1;11(11). Epub 2021 Nov 1.

College of Food Engineering and Nutritional Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an 710119, Shaanxi, China.

A novel nanomaterial Bacitracin-Ag Nanoclusters (Bacitracin-AgNCs) was formed to achieve a better antibacterial effect on which poses a serious threat to human health. In the current study, X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) were used to characterize the properties of composited Bacitracin-AgNCs. Furthermore, the inhibitory effects of Bacitracin-AgNCs against were explored, and the inhibition mechanism was discussed in terms of its aspects of cell membrane ravage, ATPase activity decline and biofilm inhibition. The results reveal that the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of Bacitracin-AgNCs against were 0.03 mg/mL and 4 mg/mL. Bacitracin-AgNCs may cause irreversible impairment to cells and greatly change the cell morphology. The cell membrane integrity of was destroyed with changes in the characteristics of membrane permeability and intracellular substances leakage. Moreover, our study further proved that Bacitracin-AgNCs significantly inhibited the formation of biofilms and reduced the number of viable bacteria in biofilm. These findings provide a potential method for the exploitation of organic composite nanomaterials as a novel antimicrobial agent and its application in the food industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano11112928DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8619489PMC
November 2021

Gene polymorphisms in and are associated with the risk of microscopic polyangiitis in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in China.

PeerJ 2021 9;9:e12377. Epub 2021 Nov 9.

The Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Department of Nephrology, Nanning, Guangxi, China.

Background: Microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by inflammation of small- and medium-sized blood vessels. Autophagy-related protein polymorphisms are involved in autoimmune disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the and genes on the risk of MPA.

Method: A total of 208 patients with MPA and 211 controls in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region were recruited and analyzed. The SNPs selected were detected by polymerase chain reaction and high-throughput sequencing. The differences in allele and genotype frequency, various genetic models, and stratification analyses were evaluated, haplotype evaluation was performed after linkage disequilibrium analysis, and the interaction between gene alleles was analyzed.

Results: A statistically significant difference was detected in the genotypic distribution of two SNPs between the two groups: rs4964879 ( = 0.019) and rs1607237 ( = 0.002). The results of the genetic models revealed that rs4964879 and rs9481 were statistically significantly associated with an increased risk of MPA, whereas rs1607237 was associated with a reduced risk. The association between SNPs and MPA risk was affected by age, sex, and ethnicity. The haplotype (G-T-A-C-G-A) and haplotype (T-G) were associated with a reduced risk of MPA, while the haplotype (C-G) was associated with an increased risk.

Conclusion: In this study, polymorphisms in the autophagy-related genes and and their association with MPA were examined. The results showed that the polymorphisms in (rs4964879 and rs9481) and (rs1607237) were significantly associated with MPA risk in the Guangxi population. However, the molecular mechanisms are still unclear; basic science research and studies with larger samples are needed to confirm our conclusions and explore the underlying mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.12377DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8588863PMC
November 2021

Factors related to turnover intention among staff of elderly caring social organizations in Anhui Province, China: a cross-sectional study.

BMC Health Serv Res 2021 Nov 23;21(1):1265. Epub 2021 Nov 23.

School of Health Services Management, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 230032, China.

Objective: Turnover intention of employees in elderly caring social organizations has a significant impact on elderly care service delivery. This study investigated the associated factors of turnover intention among employees of elderly caring social organizations in Anhui Province, China.

Methods: A total of 605 participants were selected using a multi-stage stratified random sampling method. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on socio-demographic, social support, and turnover intention from the participants. The data was analyzed through descriptive statistical analysis, one-way variance analysis, Spearman correlation analysis, and multiple linear regression were used to analyze the factors related to turnover intention.

Results: Results of our study showed that the total score of turnover intention, turnover intention I (possibility of quitting a current job),turnover intention II (motivation to find other jobs) and turnover intention III (obtaining the external possibility of work) were 8.84, 2.32, 2.38, and 4.14, respectively. Social support negatively correlated with turnover intention I and turnover intention II. However, it showed positive correlation with turnover intention III and total turnover intention scores; turnover intentionI (coefficient: - 0.082), turnover intention II (coefficient: - 0.071), turnover intention III (coefficient: 0.19), Total score of turnover intention (coefficient: 0.093). Ethnic group, age, education level, and job satisfaction were associated with turnover intention.

Conclusion: Improvement of social support play an important role in reducing the turnover intention of employees in elderly caring social organizations. It is important to increase organizational commitment and strengthen psychological empowerment, combined with decreasing job burnout for stability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12913-021-07284-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8609866PMC
November 2021

Physicochemical Evaluation and Pharmacodynamics of Itraconazole-loaded Liquid Crystal Precursor for Vaginal Delivery.

Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2021 Nov 14:1-19. Epub 2021 Nov 14.

Department of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Anhui University of Chinese Medicine, Hefei 230012, China.

Purpose: To develop liquid crystal (LC) precursor that can be used as a novel vaginal delivery system for Itraconazole (ITZ) and evaluate its pharmacodynamics. The LC precursor was prepared by using phytantriol (PYT) as lipid matrix and N, N-dimethylformamide (DMAC) as solvent. Swelling studies were performed to assess the phase conversion ability. The formulations were characterized by crossed polarized light microscopy (CPLM), small-angle X-ray scatterin (SAXS). Moreover, the rheological and in vitro drug release behavior were investigated. Then the vaginal retention time of ITZ in the optimal prescription was evaluated. Finally, the pharmacodynamics studies of the ITZ-loaded LC precursor were performed in a mouse model of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). The LC precursor could transform to LC gels after administration into the vagina. Based on PLM and SAXS, the LC gels, formed after phase-conversion, were cubic LC. The LC precursor was Non-Newtonian, while the LC gels exhibited a pseudo-plastic fluid behavior. In vitro release results revealed that F2 (68.0 %) had a higher cumulative drug release than that of F1 (59.17 %) at 72 h. Most of the LC gels could be retained in the vagina of mice for 24 - 36 h. Pharmacodynamics studies showed that there was only mild inflammation or no inflammatory stimulation in the control group. The ITZ-loaded LC precursor significantly improved the symptoms of vaginitis in mice and had a better therapeutic effect than that of positive control group. The ITZ-loaded LC precursor would be a promising formulation for vaginal drug delivery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03639045.2021.1988096DOI Listing
November 2021

Altered protein profile of plasma extracellular vesicles in oral squamous cell carcinoma development.

J Proteomics 2022 Jan 12;251:104422. Epub 2021 Nov 12.

Department of Oral Medicine, Nanjing Stomatological Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing 210008, China. Electronic address:

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are involved in a wide range of pathological processes and recognized as potential and novel biomarkers for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Here, we describe the plasma EV proteome of rats with 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO)-induced OSCC or moderate dysplasia (MD), which can progress to OSCC, by tandem mass tag (TMT)-labeled mass spectrometry. The proteomic profiles suggest the differential expression of various proteins in MD and OSCC, some well-recognized pathological changes (e.g., translation, ATP metabolism, and mesenchymal transition), and some novel pathological changes (e.g., podosome, focal adhesion, and S100 binding). We re-examined the presence of traditional exosomal markers and the reported novel pan-EV markers. In summary, these results suggest potential EV biomarkers and underlying pathological changes in early OSCC as well as the presence of oral-derived EVs in plasma and the need for pan-EV markers. SIGNIFICANCE: This research suggests potential EV biomarkers and underlying pathological changes in early OSCC as well as the presence of oral-derived EVs in plasma and the need for pan-EV markers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jprot.2021.104422DOI Listing
January 2022

GSS-RiskAsser: A Multi-Modal Deep-Learning Framework for Urban Gas Supply System Risk Assessment on Business Users.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Oct 22;21(21). Epub 2021 Oct 22.

Hefei Institute of Intelligent Machines, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031, China.

Gas supply system risk assessment is a serious and important problem in cities. Existing methods tend to manually build mathematical models to predict risk value from single-modal information, i.e., pipeline parameters. In this paper, we attempt to consider this problem from a deep-learning perspective and define a novel task, Urban Gas Supply System Risk Assessment (GSS-RA). To drive deep-learning techniques into this task, we collect and build a domain-specific dataset GSS-20K containing multi-modal data. Accompanying the dataset, we design a new deep-learning framework named GSS-RiskAsser to learn risk prediction. In our method, we design a parallel-transformers Vision Embedding Transformer (VET) and Score Matrix Transformer (SMT) to process multi-modal information, and then propose a Multi-Modal Fusion (MMF) module to fuse the features with a cross-attention mechanism. Experiments show that GSS-RiskAsser could work well on GSS-RA task and facilitate practical applications. Our data and code will be made publicly available.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21217010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8588040PMC
October 2021

α-cell Gq signaling is critical for maintaining euglycemia.

JCI Insight 2021 Nov 9. Epub 2021 Nov 9.

Laboratory of Bioorganic Chemistry, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Bethesda, United States of America.

Glucagon, a hormone released from pancreatic α-cells, plays a key role in maintaining euglycemia. New insights into the signaling pathways that control glucagon secretion may stimulate the development of novel therapeutic agents. In this study, we investigated the potential regulation of α-cell function by G proteins of the Gq family. The use of a chemogenetic strategy allowed us to selectively activate Gq signaling in mouse α-cells in vitro and in vivo. Acute stimulation of α-cell Gq signaling led to elevated plasma glucagon levels, accompanied by increased insulin release and improved glucose tolerance. Moreover, chronic activation of this pathway greatly improved glucose tolerance in obese mice. We also identified an endogenous Gq-coupled receptor (vasopressin 1b receptor; V1bR) that is enriched in mouse and human α-cells. Agonist-induced activation of the V1bR strongly stimulated glucagon release in a Gq-dependent fashion. In vivo studies indicated that V1bR-mediated glucagon release plays a key role in the counter-regulatory hyperglucagonemia under hypoglycemic and glucopenic conditions. These data indicate that α-cell Gq signaling represents an important regulator of glucagon secretion, resulting in multiple beneficial metabolic effects. Thus, drugs that target α-cell enriched Gq-coupled receptors may prove useful to restore euglycemia in various pathophysiological conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.152852DOI Listing
November 2021

Implementation and prospective clinical validation of AI-based planning and shimming techniques in cardiac MRI.

Med Phys 2021 Nov 8. Epub 2021 Nov 8.

Cardiology Division, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.

Purpose: Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is a vital diagnostic tool in the management of cardiovascular diseases. The advent of advanced CMR technologies combined with artificial intelligence (AI) has the potential to simplify imaging, reduce image acquisition time without compromising image quality (IQ), and improve magnetic field uniformity. Here, we aim to implement two AI-based deep learning techniques for automatic slice alignment and cardiac shimming and evaluate their performance in clinical cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Methods: Two deep neural networks were developed, trained, and validated on pre-acquired cardiac MRI datasets (>500 subjects) to achieve automatic slice planning and shimming (implemented in the scanner) for CMR. To examine the performance of our automated cardiac planning (EasyScan) and AI-based shim (AI shim), two prospective studies were performed subsequently. For the EasyScan validation, 10 healthy subjects underwent two identical CMR protocols: with manual cardiac planning and with AI-based EasyScan to assess protocol scan time difference and accuracy of cardiac plane prescriptions on a 1.5 T clinical MRI scanner. For the AI shim validation, a total of 20 subjects were recruited: 10 healthy and 10 cardio-oncology patients with referrals for a CMR examination. Cine images were obtained with standard cardiac volume shim and with AI shim to assess signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), overall IQ (sharpness and MR image degradation), ejection fraction (EF), and absolute wall thickening. A hybrid statistical method using of nonparametric (Wilcoxon) and parametric (t-test) assessments was employed for statistical analyses.

Results: CMR protocol with AI-based plane prescriptions, EasyScan, minimized operator dependence and reduced overall scanning time by over 2 min (∼13 % faster, p < 0.001) compared to the protocol with manual cardiac planning. EasyScan plane prescriptions also demonstrated more accurate (less plane angulation errors from planes manually prescribed by a certified cardiac MRI technologist) cardiac planes than previously reported strategies. Additionally, AI shim resulted in improved B0 field homogeneity. Cine images obtained with AI shim revealed a significantly higher SNR (12.49%; p = 0.002) than those obtained with volume shim (volume shim: 32.90 ± 7.42 vs. AI shim: 37.01 ± 8.87) for the left ventricle (LV) myocardium. LV myocardium CNR was 12.48% higher for cine imaging with AI shim (149.02 ± 39.15) than volume shim (132.49 ± 33.94). Images obtained with AI shim resulted in sharper images than those obtained with volume shim (p = 0.012). The LVEF and absolute wall thickening also showed that differences exist between the two shimming methods. The LVEF by AI shim was shown to be slightly larger than LVEF by volume shim in two groups: 2.87% higher with AI shim for the healthy group and 1.70% higher with AI shim for the patient group. The LV absolute wall thickening (in mm) also showed that differences exist between shimming methods for each group with larger changes observed in the patient group (healthy: 3.31%, p = 0.234 and patient group: 7.29%, p = 0.059).

Conclusions: CMR exams using EasyScan for cardiac planning demonstrated accelerated cardiac exam compared to the CMR protocol with manual cardiac planning. Improved and more uniform B0 magnetic field homogeneity also achieved using AI shim technique compared to volume shimming.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mp.15327DOI Listing
November 2021

Development and Validation of a Five-RNA-Based Signature and Identification of Candidate Drugs for Neuroblastoma.

Front Genet 2021 20;12:685646. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Department of Pediatrics, The Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

Neuroblastoma (NBL) originating from the sympathetic nervous system is the most prevalent solid tumor in infancy. Although there is sufficient variability in prognosis among different age pyramids, age-related gene expression profiles and biomarkers remain poorly explored. The present study aimed to construct a signature based on differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between two age groups in NBL. Univariate Cox regression, multivariate Cox regression, and LASSO analyses were used to identify the optimal prognostic factors. The prediction ability of the model was assessed using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and C-index. Functional enrichment analysis was performed using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes and gene ontology databases. A total of 1,160 DEGs were identified between the two groups, and 204 DEGs impacted the survival of NBL. Functional enrichment analysis revealed that the DEGs were involved in retinol metabolism, cholesterol metabolism, and glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathways. Five RNAs, namely F8A3, PDF, ANKRD24, FAXDC2, and TMEM160 were recruited into the signature. They were correlated with COG risk classification, INSS stage, and histology. MYCN amplification was linked to FAXDC2, TMEM160, PDF, and F8A3. The expression levels of ANKRD24, PDF, and TMEM160 were lower in the hyperdiploid groups. Only FAXDC2 levels were different in the different MKI grades. The ROC curve showed that the five-RNA-based signatures effectively predicted the OS of NBL (3-years AUC = 0.791, 5-years AUC = 0.816) in the TARGET cohort. The predictive capability was also validated by the GSE49711 cohort (3-years AUC = 0.851, 5-years AUC = 0.848). The C-index in the TARGET and GSE49711 cohorts was 0.749 and 0.809, respectively. The potential mechanisms of the five RNAs were also explored gene set enrichment analysis, and candidate drugs targeting the five genes, including dabrafenib, vemurafenib, and bafetinib, were screened. In conclusion, we constructed a five-RNA-based signature to predict the survival of NBL and screened candidate agents against NBL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2021.685646DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8564070PMC
October 2021

Ferritinophagy is Involved in Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage-Induced Neuronal Ferroptosis.

Neurochem Res 2021 Nov 6. Epub 2021 Nov 6.

Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Ferroptosis is a novel form of regulated cell death involved in the pathophysiological process of experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), but how neuronal ferroptosis occurs remains unknown. In this study, we report that SAH-induced ferroptosis is macroautophagy/autophagy dependent because the inhibition of autophagy by knocking out autophagy-related gene 5 (ATG5) apparently mitigated SAH-induced ferroptosis. We created an experimental SAH model in Sprague-Dawley rats to determine the possible mechanism. We found that SAH can trigger neuronal ferroptosis, as evidenced by the disruption of iron homeostasis, elevation of intracellular lipid peroxidation (LPO) and decreased expression of ferroptosis-protective proteins. Then, we inhibited autophagy by ATG5 gene knockout, showing that autophagy inhibition can reduce the intracellular iron level and LPO, improve the expression of ferroptosis-protective proteins, and subsequently alleviate SAH-induced cell death. Additionally, autophagy inhibition also attenuated SAH prognostic indicators, such as brain edema, blood-brain barrier permeability, and neurological deficits. These findings not only present an opinion that SAH triggers neuronal ferroptosis via activation of ferritinophagy but also indicate that regulating ferritinophagy and maintaining iron homeostasis could provide clues for the prevention of early brain injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-021-03477-wDOI Listing
November 2021

Memorize, Associate and Match: Embedding Enhancement via Fine-Grained Alignment for Image-Text Retrieval.

IEEE Trans Image Process 2021 10;30:9193-9207. Epub 2021 Nov 10.

Image-text retrieval aims to capture the semantic correlation between images and texts. Existing image-text retrieval methods can be roughly categorized into embedding learning paradigm and pair-wise learning paradigm. The former paradigm fails to capture the fine-grained correspondence between images and texts. The latter paradigm achieves fine-grained alignment between regions and words, but the high cost of pair-wise computation leads to slow retrieval speed. In this paper, we propose a novel method named MEMBER by using Memory-based EMBedding Enhancement for image-text Retrieval (MEMBER), which introduces global memory banks to enable fine-grained alignment and fusion in embedding learning paradigm. Specifically, we enrich image (resp., text) features with relevant text (resp., image) features stored in the text (resp., image) memory bank. In this way, our model not only accomplishes mutual embedding enhancement across two modalities, but also maintains the retrieval efficiency. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our MEMBER remarkably outperforms state-of-the-art approaches on two large-scale benchmark datasets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TIP.2021.3123553DOI Listing
November 2021

Serine/Threonine-Protein Kinase 3 Facilitates Myocardial Repair After Cardiac Injury Possibly Through the Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β/β-Catenin Pathway.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 Nov 2;10(22):e022802. Epub 2021 Nov 2.

Department of Cardiology The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University Nanjing China.

Background The neonatal heart maintains its entire regeneration capacity within days after birth. Using quantitative phosphoproteomics technology, we identified that SGK3 (serine/threonine-protein kinase 3) in the neonatal heart is highly expressed and activated after myocardial infarction. This study aimed to uncover the function and related mechanisms of SGK3 on cardiomyocyte proliferation and cardiac repair after apical resection or ischemia/reperfusion injury. Methods and Results The effect of SGK3 on proliferation and oxygen glucose deprivation/reoxygenation- induced apoptosis in isolated cardiomyocytes was evaluated using cardiomyocyte-specific SGK3 overexpression or knockdown adenovirus5 vector. In vivo, gain- and loss-of-function experiments using cardiomyocyte-specific adeno-associated virus 9 were performed to determine the effect of SGK3 in cardiomyocyte proliferation and cardiac repair after apical resection or ischemia/reperfusion injury. In vitro, overexpression of SGK3 enhanced, whereas knockdown of SGK3 decreased, the cardiomyocyte proliferation ratio. In vivo, inhibiting the expression of SGK3 shortened the time window of cardiac regeneration after apical resection in neonatal mice, and overexpression of SGK3 significantly promoted myocardial repair and cardiac function recovery after ischemia/reperfusion injury in adult mice. Mechanistically, SGK3 promoted cardiomyocyte regeneration and myocardial repair after cardiac injury by inhibiting GSK-3β (glycogen synthase kinase-3β) activity and upregulating β-catenin expression. SGK3 also upregulated the expression of cell cycle promoting genes G1/S-specific cyclin-D1, c-myc (cellular-myelocytomatosis viral oncogene), and cdc20 (cell division cycle 20), but downregulated the expression of cell cycle negative regulators cyclin kinase inhibitor P 21 and cyclin kinase inhibitor P 27. Conclusions Our study reveals a key role of SGK3 on cardiac repair after apical resection or ischemia/reperfusion injury, which may reopen a novel therapeutic option for myocardial infarction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.121.022802DOI Listing
November 2021

Spatial and temporal variability of dissolved methane concentrations and diffusive emissions in the Three Gorges Reservoir.

Water Res 2021 Oct 21;207:117788. Epub 2021 Oct 21.

Hubei Field Observation and Scientific Research Stations for Water Ecosystem in Three Gorges Reservoir, China Three Gorges University, Yichang, China; Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Koblenz-Landau, Landau, Germany.

Methane (CH) emissions from freshwater aquatic systems such as rivers and reservoirs are an important component of the global methane budget. However, the estimation can be largely affected by the spatial and temporal resolutions of measurements. Especially, the lack of high-resolution studies in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR), one of the largest reservoirs in the world, has led to a longstanding debate on its CH emissions. In this study, the spatial distribution and seasonal variations of dissolved CH concentrations were measured using a fast-response automated gas equilibrator in the TGR. We observed large spatiotemporal variations of dissolved CH (mean ± SD: 0.26 ± 0.19 μM in summer and 0.24 ± 0.17 μM in winter). Higher concentrations with stronger variations were found in the upstream than in the section close to the Three Gorges Dam. The dissolved CH concentration in the TGR was mainly influenced by sewage discharge, sedimentation, topographical conditions, tributaries, and spatial and seasonal variations in hydrodynamics. Regression analyses suggest that the concentration can be characterized by sewage discharge, water depth, and electrical conductivity to a certain extent. Mean diffusive CH fluxes from the TGR in summer and winter were 16.2 mg m d and 3.1 mg m d, respectively. Downsampling simulations show that scaling dissolved CH in the TGR from one site likely involves large errors, and at least ∼38 sites and ∼52-58 sites are needed to achieve an accurate estimate in summer and winter, respectively. Due to the large spatial and temporal heterogeneity, high-resolution measurements are key to improving the reliability of CH estimates and assessing the contribution of the TGR to regional and global CH budgets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2021.117788DOI Listing
October 2021

Accurate Localization of Linear Probe Electrode Arrays across Multiple Brains.

eNeuro 2021 Nov-Dec;8(6). Epub 2021 Nov 12.

Janelia Research Campus, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Ashburn, VA 20147

Recently developed probes for extracellular electrophysiological recordings have large numbers of electrodes on long linear shanks. Linear electrode arrays, such as Neuropixels probes, have hundreds of recording electrodes distributed over linear shanks that span several millimeters. Because of the length of the probes, linear probe recordings in rodents usually cover multiple brain areas. Typical studies collate recordings across several recording sessions and animals. Neurons recorded in different sessions and animals thus have to be aligned to each other and to a standardized brain coordinate system. Here, we evaluate two typical workflows for localization of individual electrodes in standardized coordinates. These workflows rely on imaging brains with fluorescent probe tracks and warping 3D image stacks to standardized brain atlases. One workflow is based on tissue clearing and selective plane illumination microscopy (SPIM), whereas the other workflow is based on serial block-face two-photon (SBF2P) microscopy. In both cases electrophysiological features are then used to anchor particular electrodes along the reconstructed tracks to specific locations in the brain atlas and therefore to specific brain structures. We performed groundtruth experiments, in which motor cortex outputs are labeled with ChR2 and a fluorescence protein. Light-evoked electrical activity and fluorescence can be independently localized. Recordings from brain regions targeted by the motor cortex reveal better than 0.1-mm accuracy for electrode localization, independent of workflow used.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/ENEURO.0241-21.2021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8597948PMC
November 2021

Targeting LSD1 suppresses stem cell-like properties and sensitizes head and neck squamous cell carcinoma to PD-1 blockade.

Cell Death Dis 2021 10 23;12(11):993. Epub 2021 Oct 23.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial-Head and Neck Oncology, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, College of Stomatology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a highly aggressive tumor with poor clinical outcomes due to recurrence, metastasis, and treatment resistance. Cancer stem cells (CSCs), a small population among tumor cells, are proposed to be responsible for tumor initiation, progression, metastasis, drug resistance, and recurrence. Here we show that high LSD1 expression was a predictor of poor prognosis for HNSCC patients. We found that high expression of LSD1 is essential for the maintenance of the CSC properties by regulating Bmi-1 expression. Moreover, tumor LSD1 ablation suppresses CSC-like characteristics in vitro and inhibits tumorigenicity in vivo in immune-deficient xenografts. However, this deletion induces the upregulation of PDL1 levels, which compromises antitumor immunity and reduces antitumor efficacy in an immune-competent mouse model. Functionally, the combination of LSD1 inhibitor and anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody can overcome tumor immune evasion and greatly inhibit tumor growth, which was associated with reduced Ki-67 level and augmented CD8 T cell infiltration in immunocompetent tumor-bearing mouse models. In summary, these findings provide a novel and promising combined strategy for the treatment of HNSCC using a combination of LSD1 inhibition and PD-1 blockade.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-021-04297-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8542042PMC
October 2021

Uncovering a conserved vulnerability site in SARS-CoV-2 by a human antibody.

EMBO Mol Med 2021 Oct 20:e14544. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

University of CAS, Beijing, China.

An essential step for SARS-CoV-2 infection is the attachment to the host cell receptor by its Spike receptor-binding domain (RBD). Most of the existing RBD-targeting neutralizing antibodies block the receptor-binding motif (RBM), a mutable region with the potential to generate neutralization escape mutants. Here, we isolated and structurally characterized a non-RBM-targeting monoclonal antibody (FD20) from convalescent patients. FD20 engages the RBD at an epitope distal to the RBM with a K of 5.6 nM, neutralizes SARS-CoV-2 including the current Variants of Concern such as B.1.1.7, B.1.351, P.1, and B.1.617.2 (Delta), displays modest cross-reactivity against SARS-CoV, and reduces viral replication in hamsters. The epitope coincides with a predicted "ideal" vulnerability site with high functional and structural constraints. Mutation of the residues of the conserved epitope variably affects FD20-binding but confers little or no resistance to neutralization. Finally, in vitro mode-of-action characterization and negative-stain electron microscopy suggest a neutralization mechanism by which FD20 destructs the Spike. Our results reveal a conserved vulnerability site in the SARS-CoV-2 Spike for the development of potential antiviral drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15252/emmm.202114544DOI Listing
October 2021

Use of medical exome sequencing for identification of underlying genetic defects in NICU: Experience in a cohort of 2303 neonates in China.

Clin Genet 2021 Oct 20. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Clinical Genetic Center, Children's Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Emerging evidence demonstrates the clinical utility of genomic applications in newborn intensive care unit (NICU) patients with strong indications of Mendelian etiology. However, such applications' diagnostic yield and utility remain unclear for NICU cohorts with minimal phenotype selection. In this study, focused medical exome sequencing was used as a first-tier, singleton-focused diagnostic tool for 2303 unrelated sick neonates. Integrated analysis of single nucleotide variants (SNVs), small insertions and deletions (Indels), and large copy number variants (CNVs) was performed. The diagnostic rate in this NICU cohort is 12.3% (284/2303), with 190 probands with molecular diagnoses made from SNV/Indel analyses (66.9%), 93 patients with diagnostic aneuploidy/CNVs findings (32.8%), and 1 patient with both SNV and CNV (0.4%). In addition, 54 (2.3%) of patients had a reportable incidental finding. Multiple organ involvements, craniofacial abnormalities, and dermatologic abnormalities were the strongest positive predictors for a molecular diagnosis. Among the 190 cases with SNV/Indel defects, direct impacts on medical management were observed in 46.8% of patients after the results were reported. In this study, we demonstrate that focused medical exome sequencing is a powerful first-line diagnostic tool for NICU patients. Significant number of diagnosed NICU patients can benefit from more focused medical management and long-term care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cge.14075DOI Listing
October 2021

Synergistic killing effects of PD-L1-CAR T cells and colorectal cancer stem cell-dendritic cell vaccine-sensitized T cells in ALDH1-positive colorectal cancer stem cells.

J Cancer 2021 13;12(22):6629-6639. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

The First People's Hospital of Hefei/The Third Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230061, P.R. China.

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are characterized by self-renewal and unlimited proliferation, providing a basis for tumor occurrence, metastasis, and recurrence. Because CSCs are highly resistant to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy, various immunotherapies, particularly chimeric antigen receptor T cell (CAR-T) therapy and dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccine therapy, are currently being developed. Accordingly, in this study, we evaluated programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) expression in colorectal CSCs (CCSCs) and non-CCSCs and designed a combination immunotherapy synchronously utilizing PD-L1-CAR-T cells together with CCSC-DC vaccine-sensitized T cells for the treatment of colorectal cancer. PD-L1-CAR-T cells specifically recognized the PD-L1 molecule on CCSCs by binding to the extracellular domain of programmed cell death-1. The CCSC-DC vaccine was prepared using CCSC lysates. We found that aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1)-positive CCSCs were abundant in samples from patient tumor tissues and cancer cell lines. Moreover, PD-L1 was highly expressed in ALDH1-positive CCSCs compared with that in non-CCSCs. Monotherapy with PD-L1-CAR-T cells or CCSC-DC vaccine only elicited moderate tumor remission both and . However, combination therapy markedly killed cancer cells and relieved the tumor burden in mice. Our findings may provide a novel strategy for the clinical treatment of colorectal malignancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/jca.62123DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8517999PMC
September 2021

IGF-1 alleviates CCL4-induced hepatic cirrhosis and dysfunction of intestinal barrier through inhibition TLR4/NF-κB signaling mediated by down-regulation HMGB1.

Ann Hepatol 2021 Oct 13:100560. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Department of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116000, China.

Introduction And Objectives: Cirrhosis has gradually become a serious public health issue, especially the national prevalence of cirrhosis was 29.2% in northwest China. Recent evidence has revealed that intestinal barrier (IB) dysfunction results from and contributes to cirrhosis. Our previous results have indicated that insulin-like growth factors (IGF-1) improved the impaired IB function and downregulated high mobility group protein box-1 (HMGB-1). Nevertheless, the role of the IGF-1/HMGB1 axis in cirrhosis remains largely unknown.

Materials And Methods: Western blotting and qRT-PCR were used to detect protein and mRNA levels of related genes. The levels of AST, ALT, IL-1β, and TNF-α were examined using commercial kits. Immunofluorescence was used to evaluate the expression of HMGB1 in tissues.

Results: In carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-treated rat, the levels of AST (380.12 vs. 183.97), ALT (148.12 vs. 53.56), IL-1β (155.94 vs. 55.60), and TNF-α (155.00 vs. 48.90) were significantly increased compared with the control group, while IGF-1 treatment significantly alleviated CCL4-induced inflammatory response and IB dysfunction by downregulating HMGB1-mediated the TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathway. In vitro experiments, HMGB1 treatment promoted inflammatory cytokines secretion and reduced cell viability and tight junctions by activating the TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathway in Caco-2 cells, but IGF-1 alleviated these effects.

Conclusion: Our findings suggest that IGF-1 might serve as a potential therapeutic target for cirrhosis and IB dysfunction via inactivation of the TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB pathway through down-regulation HMGB1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aohep.2021.100560DOI Listing
October 2021

Magnesium demethylcantharidate inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma cell invasion and metastasis via activation transcription factor FOXO1.

Eur J Pharmacol 2021 Nov 8;911:174558. Epub 2021 Oct 8.

College of Basic Medicine, Zunyi Medical University, Zunyi, Guizhou, 563000, China; Guizhou Provincial College-based Key Lab for Tumor Prevention and Treatment with Distinctive Medicines, Zunyi Medical University, Zunyi, 563000, China; Life Sciences Institute, Zunyi Medical University, Zunyi, 563000, China. Electronic address:

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors in the world, develops rapidly and has a high mortality rate. Relapsed metastasis is the most important factor affecting prognosis and is also the main cause of death for patients with HCC. Cantharidin is a kind of folk medicine for malignant tumors in China. Because of its cytotoxicity, the application of cantharidin is very limited. Magnesium demethylcantharidate (MDC) is a derivative of cantharidin independently developed by our laboratory. Our results show that MDC has anticancer activity and exhibited lower toxicity than cantharidin. However, whether MDC affects the invasion and metastasis of HCC cells and the underlying molecular mechanisms remain obscure. Transwell and Matrigel assays showed that MDC could effectively inhibit the invasion and metastasis of the HCC cell lines SMMC-7721 and SK-Hep1 in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, MDC significantly inhibited the expression of invasion and metastasis related proteins MMP-2 and MMP-9. In addition, our study found that MDC inhibited the invasion and metastasis of HCC cell lines SMMC-7721 and SK-Hep1 by activating transcription factor FOXO1. Interestingly, the combination of MDC and sorafenib significantly inhibited the invasion and metastasis of HCC cell lines SMMC-7721 and SK-Hep1 compared with the single drug treatment via the activated transcription factor FOXO1. Our work revealed that MDC obviously inhibited the invasion and metastasis of HCC cells, and suggested that MDC could be a potential candidate molecule against the invasion and metastasis of HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2021.174558DOI Listing
November 2021

Engineered Aptamer-Organic Amphiphile Self-Assemblies for Biomedical Applications: Progress and Challenges.

Small 2021 Oct 7:e2104341. Epub 2021 Oct 7.

State Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics, School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, 210096, China.

Currently, nucleic acid aptamers are exploited as robust targeting ligands in the biomedical field, due to their specific molecular recognition, little immunogenicity, low cost, ect. Thanks to the facile chemical modification and high hydrophilicity, aptamers can be site-specifically linked with hydrophobic moieties to prepare aptamer-organic amphiphiles (AOAs), which spontaneously assemble into aptamer-organic amphiphile self-assemblies (AOASs). These polyvalent self-assemblies feature with enhanced target-binding ability, increased resistance to nuclease, and efficient cargo-loading, making them powerful platforms for bioapplications, including targeted drug delivery, cell-based cancer therapy, biosensing, and bioimaging. Besides, the morphology of AOASs can be elaborately manipulated for smarter biomedical functions, by regulating the hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity ratio of AOAs. Benefiting from the boom in DNA synthesis technology and nanotechnology, various types of AOASs, including aptamer-polymer amphiphile self-assemblies, aptamer-lipid amphiphile self-assemblies, aptamer-cell self-assemblies, ect, have been constructed with great biomedical potential. Particularly, stimuli-responsive AOASs with transformable structure can realize site-specific drug release, enhanced tumor penetration, and specific target molecule detection. Herein, the general synthesis methods of oligonucleotide-organic amphiphiles are firstly summarized. Then recent progress in different types of AOASs for bioapplications and strategies for morphology control are systematically reviewed. The present challenges and future perspectives of this field are also discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202104341DOI Listing
October 2021

HECATE2 acts with GLABROUS3 and Tu to boost cytokinin biosynthesis and regulate cucumber fruit wart formation.

Plant Physiol 2021 Nov;187(3):1619-1635

State Key Laboratories of Agrobiotechnology, Beijing Key Laboratory of Growth and Developmental Regulation for Protected Vegetable Crops, MOE Joint Laboratory for International Cooperation in Crop Molecular Breeding, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100193, China.

Warty fruit in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is an important quality trait that greatly affects fruit appearance and market value. The cucumber wart consists of fruit trichomes (spines) and underlying tubercules, in which the existence of spines is prerequisite for tubercule formation. Although several regulators have been reported to mediate spine or tubercule formation, the direct link between spine and tubercule development remains unknown. Here, we found that the basic Helix-Loop-Helix (bHLH) gene HECATE2 (CsHEC2) was highly expressed in cucumber fruit peels including spines and tubercules. Knockout of CsHEC2 by the CRISPR/Cas9 system resulted in reduced wart density and decreased cytokinin (CTK) accumulation in the fruit peel, whereas overexpression of CsHEC2 led to elevated wart density and CTK level. CsHEC2 is directly bound to the promoter of the CTK hydroxylase-like1 gene (CsCHL1) that catalyzes CTK biosynthesis, and activated CsCHL1 expression. Moreover, CsHEC2 physically interacted with GLABROUS3 (CsGL3, a key spine regulator) and Tuberculate fruit (CsTu, a core tubercule formation factor), and such interactions further enhanced CsHEC2-mediated CsCHL1 expression. These data suggested that CsHEC2 promotes wart formation by acting as an important cofactor for CsGL3 and CsTu to directly stimulate CTK biosynthesis in cucumber. Thus, CsHEC2 can serve as a valuable target for molecular breeding of cucumber varieties with different wart density requirements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/plphys/kiab377DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8566225PMC
November 2021

A Free Aluminylene with Diverse σ-Donating and Doubly σ/π-Accepting Ligand Features for Transition Metals*.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Oct 6. Epub 2021 Oct 6.

Department of Chemistry and Shenzhen Grubbs Institute, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen, 518055, China.

We report herein the synthesis, characterization, and coordination chemistry of a free N-aluminylene, namely a carbazolylaluminylene 2 b. This species is prepared via a reduction reaction of the corresponding carbazolyl aluminium diiodide. The coordination behavior of 2 b towards transition metal centers (W, Cr) is shown to afford a series of novel aluminylene complexes 3-6 with diverse coordination modes. We demonstrate that the tri-active ambiphilic Al center in 2 b can behave as: 1. a σ-donating and doubly π-accepting ligand; 2. a σ-donating, σ-accepting and π-accepting ligand; and 3. a σ-donating and doubly σ-accepting ligand. Additionally, we show ligand exchange at the aluminylene center providing access to the modulation of electronic properties of transition metals without changing the coordinated atoms. Investigations of 2 b with IDippCuCl (IDipp=1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene) show an unprecedented aluminylene-alumanyl transformation leading to a rare terminal Cu-alumanyl complex 8. The electronic structures of such complexes and the mechanism of the aluminylene-alumanyl transformation are investigated through density functional theory (DFT) calculations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202111975DOI Listing
October 2021

Photothermal microfluidic-assisted self-cleaning effect for a highly reusable SERS sensor.

Opt Lett 2021 Oct;46(19):4714-4717

The synergistic integration of optofluidic and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensing is a new analytical technique that provides a number of unique characteristics for enhancing the sensing performance and simplifying the design of microsystems. Here, we propose a reusable optofluidic SERS sensor by integrating Au nanoisland substrate (AuNIS)-coated fiber into a microfluidic chip. Through both systematic experimental and theoretical analysis, the sensor enables efficient self-cleaning based on its optical-to-heat-hydrodynamic energy conversion property. Besides, the sensor exhibits the instrument detection limit down to 10/ and enhancement factor of 10 for Rhodamine 6G. Our optofluidic SERS sensor with such a photothermal microfluidic-assisted self-cleaning method has the advantages of portability, simple operation, and high cleaning efficiency, which will provide a new, to the best of our knowledge, concept and approach for cost-effective and reusable sensors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.434468DOI Listing
October 2021

Molecular Cage-Mediated Radial Gradient Porous Sponge Nanofiber for Selective Adsorption of a Mustard Gas Simulant.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Oct 24;13(40):47835-47844. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Innovation Center for Textile Science and Technology, College of Textiles, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620, China.

Poisons and poisonous weapons in armed conflict, especially chemical warfare agents (CWAs), pose serious threats to global security. Porous materials have recently been regarded as promising candidates to defend personnel in a CWA-contaminated environment, but challenges remain for integrating these materials into protective garments without sacrificing the intrinsic flexibility of fibers. Here, we report a rigid-flexible coupling hypercross-linking methodology to create flexible sponge-like nanofibers featuring hierarchical radial gradient porous nanoarchitectures, in which the inner structure is a mesoporous multichambered network, and the outer structure is a dense domain with a microporous network structure. Experimental and computational evidence supports the contention that sponge nanofibers with distinctive pore topology and robust bendability can be designed by manipulating the flexibility of building blocks. The resulting heterogeneous nanofibers exhibit integrated properties of spatially selective superstructures, abundant micropores, interconnected mesopores, a high surface area (579 m g), remarkable flexibility, and exceptional CWA affinity, which are extraordinarily effective for adsorptive performance (498 mg g). The successful synthesis of these materials might inspire the development of chemical protective materials in an efficient, self-standing, and structurally adaptive form.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c09849DOI Listing
October 2021

Site-Fixed Hydroboration of Terminal and Internal Alkenes using BX / Pr NEt*.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Dec 5;60(50):26238-26245. Epub 2021 Nov 5.

State Key Laboratory for Oxo Synthesis and Selective Oxidation, Suzhou Research Institute of LICP, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics (LICP), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, 730000, China.

An unprecedented and general hydroboration of alkenes with BX (X=Br, Cl) as the boration reagent in the presence of Pr NEt is reported. The addition of Pr NEt not only suppresses alkene polymerization and haloboration side reactions but also provides an "H" source for hydroboration. More importantly, the site-fixed installation of a boryl group at the original position of the internal double bond is readily achieved in contrast to conventional transition-metal-catalyzed hydroboration processes. Further application to the synthesis of 1,n-diborylalkanes (n=3-10) is also demonstrated. Preliminary mechanistic studies reveal a major reaction pathway that involves radical species and operates through a frustrated Lewis pair type single-electron-transfer mechanism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202111978DOI Listing
December 2021
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