Publications by authors named "Liu Li"

5,973 Publications

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[Culture and application of thymic organoids: a review].

Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao 2021 Nov;37(11):3945-3960

Shanghai Biomass Pharmaceutical Product Evaluation Professional Public Service Platform, Center for Pharmacological Evaluation and Research, China State Institute of Pharmaceutical Industry, Shanghai 200437, China.

The thymus is a pivotal immune organ of the human body, and it is the place where T cells differentiate and mature. The damage of thymus would easily induce autoimmune diseases and even malignant tumors. For years, researchers have been exploring the process of T cell development and revealing the mechanism of thymic injury and regeneration generally through the monolayer culture system of T cells in vitro. However, the classic monolayer culture system could neither reproduce the unique three-dimensional epithelial reticular structure of the thymus, nor provide the cytokines and growth factors required for the directed differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells into T cells. Thymic organoid technology utilizes cells with stem cell potential to simulate the anatomical structure of the thymus and the signaling pathway mediated by thymic epithelial cells in vitro through three-dimensional culture, which is particularly close to the microenvironment of the thymus in vivo. Thymic organoids show great potential in the study of T cell differentiation and development, thymus-related diseases, reconstruction of immune function, and cell therapy. This paper summarizes the methods for culturing thymic organoids, followed by comparing the advantages and disadvantages of the scaffolds used for culturing. The applications of thymic organoids in the disease model, tumor-targeting therapy, regenerative medicine, and organ transplantation were also discussed, with possible future research directions prospected.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13345/j.cjb.210071DOI Listing
November 2021

[Effect of Cisatracurium to Intensify Diaphragmatic Atrophy in Mechanically Ventilated Rats].

Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2021 Nov;52(6):975-980

Departmentof Anesthesia, Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University, Luzhou 646000, China.

Objective: To investigate the role of cisatracurium in diaphragm atrophy in mechanically ventilated (MV) rats and its possible mechanism.

Methods: 30 adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly assigned to 5 groups: Rats in the control (CON) group ( =6) were fasted for 30 h without any other intervention; rats in the MV group ( =6) were fasted for 6 h, and then mechanically ventilated for 24 h while receiving continuous infusion of sodium pentobarbital and 0.9% NaCl; rats in the MV+cisatracurium (MVC) group ( =6) were fasted for 6 h, and then mechanically ventilated for 24 h while receiving continuous infusion of sodium pentobarbital and cisatracurium; rats in the MV+chloroquine (QMV) group ( =6) and rats in the MV+cisatracurium+chloroquine (QMVC) group ( =6) received intraperitoneal injection of chloroquine (30 mg/kg), an autophagy inhibitor, at 24 h and 30 min prior to MV in addition to the treatments given to the MV group and the MVC group, respectively. The rats in each group were sacrificed 30 hours later, and costal diaphragm muscle specimens were collected. The cross-sectional area (CSA) of the diaphragm fibers was observed through HE staining, and the colocalizations of TOM20 and LC3 were assessed by immunofluorescence staining. The expression levels of PINK1, Parkin, P62 and LC3, the mitophagy-related proteins, and the expression levels of MAFbx and MURF-1, muscular-atrophy-related proteins, were evaluated by Western blot.

Results: Respective comparisons of the MV group with the CON group and the MVC group with the MV group showed that the CSA decreased ( <0.05), the expression of MURF-1, MAFbx, PINK1, Parkin and LC3Ⅱ/Ⅰproteins increased ( <0.05), the number of co-expressed mitochondria of TOM20 and LC3 and the expression of LC3 increased and the expression of P62 protein decreased ( <0.05) in the MV and MVC groups. Respective comparisons of the QMV group with the MV group and the QMVC group with the MVC group showed that the CSA increased ( <0.05), the expression of MURF-1, MAFbx, PINK1, Parkin and LC3Ⅱ/Ⅰ proteins increased ( <0.05), the number of co-expressed mitochondria of TOM20 and LC3 and the expression of LC3 decreased and the expression of P62 protein decreased ( <0.05) in the QMV and QMVC group.

Conclusion: Mechanical ventilation for 24 h caused diaphragm atrophy in SD rats. Cisatracurium may aggravate diaphragm atrophy in mechanically ventilated rats through the autophagy-lysosome (AL) pathway, a process that may be related to the PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy, and chloroquine may reduce diaphragmatic atrophy induced by cisatracurium by blocking the AL pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12182/20210660102DOI Listing
November 2021

Efficacy and Safety of Dahuang Zhechong Pill in Silicosis: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 18;2021:4354054. Epub 2021 Nov 18.

Panzhihua Second People's Hospital, Panzhihua City, Sichuan Province, China.

Background: There is no effective therapy for silicosis, and Dahuang Zhechong pill (DHZCP), an ancient Chinese medicine prescription, may have a therapeutic effect on silicosis. This study aims to verify the efficacy and safety of DHZCP in silicosis.

Methods: This is a randomized controlled clinical trial done at Panzhihua Second People's Hospital (Panzhihua City, Sichuan Province, China). Participants diagnosed with silicosis were recruited and randomized to the conventional treatment group (CG) or DHZCP combined with the conventional treatment group (DG). Forced vital capacity % predicted (FVC%), diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide % predicted (DLCO%), six-minute walk distance (6MWD), peripheral oxygen (SpO), King's Brief Interstitial Lung Disease Questionnaire (K-BILD), and safety outcomes were measured at baseline and 9 weeks.

Results: Fifty-six participants (28 in each group) completed the study, and 53 of them (26 in DG and 27 in CG) completed pulmonary function. At 9 weeks, compared with no DHZCP, DHZCP treatment was associated with significant improvements in FVC% (mean ± SD, 95%CI) (8.2 ± 3.9, 0.3 to 16.0), DLCO% (8.6 ± 3.5, 1.5 to 15.7), SpO (3.8 ± 0.7, 2.3 to 5.2), and K-BILD total score (6.0 ± 2.3, 1.4 to 10.7). And, there were no statistical differences of safety outcomes between the two groups. Eight patients accepting DHZCP developed mild diarrhea during the first week, which subsequently resolved on its own.

Conclusion: DHZCP could improve the pulmonary function, the quality of life, and the exercise capacity of silicosis patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/4354054DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8616670PMC
November 2021

Algal biomass valorisation to high-value chemicals and bioproducts: recent advances, opportunities and challenges.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Nov 24:126371. Epub 2021 Nov 24.

Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064, PR China. Electronic address:

Algae are considered promising biomass resources for biofuel production. However, some arguments doubt the economical and energetical feasibility of algal cultivation, harvesting, and conversion processes. Beyond biofuel, value-added bioproducts can be generated via algae conversion, which would enhance the economic feasibility of algal biorefineries. This review primarily focuses on valuable chemical and bioproduct production from algae. The methods for effective recovery of valuable algae components, and their applications are summarized. The potential routes for the conversion of lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins to valuable chemicals and bioproducts are assessed from recent studies. In addition, this review proposes the following challenges for future algal biorefineries: (1) utilization of naturally grown algae instead of cultivated algae; (2) fractionation of algae to individual components towards high-selectivity products; (3) avoidance of humin formation from algal carbohydrate conversion; (4) development of strategies for algal protein utilisation; and (5) development of efficient processes for commercialization and industrialization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2021.126371DOI Listing
November 2021

Heterologous Expression of a Thermostable Chitinase from and Its Application for High Yield Production of Glucosamine from Shrimp Shell.

Foods 2021 Nov 15;10(11). Epub 2021 Nov 15.

School of Marine and Bioengineering, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Yancheng 224051, China.

Glucosamine (GlcN) is a widely used food supplement. Hence, enormous attention has been concerned with enzymatic production of GlcN owing to its advantage over a chemical approach. In this study, a previously unstudied chitinase gene (MxChi) in the genome of was cloned, expressed in recombinant soluble form and purified to homogeneity. TLC-, UPLC-, and microplate-reader- based activity tests confirmed MxChi hydrolyzes colloidal chitin to chitobiose as sole product. The optimal catalytic pH and temperature of MxChi was identified as 7.0 and 55 °C, respectively. MxChi exhibited 80% activity after 72 h incubation at 37 °C. The site-directed mutagenesis revealed that the amino acids D323A, D325A, and E327A of MxChi were in the DXDXE catalytic motif of GH18. When coupled with β-N-acetylhexosaminidase (SnHex) and deacetylase (CmCBDA), the enzyme allowed one-pot extraction of GlcN from colloidal chitin and shrimp shell. The optimal condition was 37 °C, pH 8.0, and 1/3/16.5 (MxChi/SnHex/CmCBDA), conducted by orthogonal design for the enzymatic cascades. Under this condition, the yield of GlcN was 26.33 mg from 400 mg shrimp shell. Facile recombinant in , robust thermostability and pure product herein makes newly discovered chitinase a valuable candidate for the green recycling of chitin rich waste.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10112808DOI Listing
November 2021

Effect of Heat Stress on Bovine Mammary Cellular Metabolites and Gene Transcription Related to Amino Acid Metabolism, Amino Acid Transportation and Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) Signaling.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Nov 4;11(11). Epub 2021 Nov 4.

Chongqing Academy of Animal Sciences, Chongqing 402460, China.

Heat stress (HS) is one of the most serious factors to negatively affect the lactation performance of dairy cows. Bovine mammary epithelial cells are important for lactation. It was demonstrated that HS decreases the lactation performance of dairy cows, partly through altering gene expression within bovine mammary epithelial tissue. However, the cellular metabolism mechanisms under HS remains largely unknown. The objective of this study was to determine whether HS induced changes in intracellular metabolites and gene transcription related to amino acid metabolism, amino acid transportation and the mTOR signaling pathway. Immortalized bovine mammary epithelial cell lines (MAC-T cells, = 5 replicates/treatment) were incubated for 12 h at 37 °C (Control group) and 42 °C (HS group). Relative to the control group, HS led to a greater mRNA expression of heat shock protein genes and . Compared with the control group, metabolomics using liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry identified 417 differential metabolites with < 0.05 and a variable importance in projection (VIP) score >1.0 in the HS group. HS resulted in significant changes to the intracellular amino acid metabolism of glutathione, phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, valine, leucine, isoleucine, arginine, proline, cysteine, methionine, alanine, aspartate and glutamate. HS led to a greater mRNA expression of the amino acid transporter genes , , , and but a lower mRNA expression of and . Additionally, HS influenced the expression of genes associated with the mTOR signaling pathway and significantly upregulated the mRNA expression of mTOR, , , and but decreased the mRNA expression of and relative to the control group. Compared with the control group, HS also led to greater mRNA expression of the gene. Overall, our study indicates that bovine mammary epithelial cells may have the ability to resist HS damage and continue milk protein synthesis partly through enhanced intracellular amino acid absorption and metabolism and by activating the mTOR signaling pathway during HS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani11113153DOI Listing
November 2021

Longitudinal renal changes in chronic hepatitis B patients treated with entecavir versus TDF: a REAL-B study.

Hepatol Int 2021 Nov 25. Epub 2021 Nov 25.

Department of Medicine, the University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China.

Background And Aims: We aimed to compare the longitudinal changes in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients treated with entecavir (ETV) vs. tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF).

Methods: This is a retrospective study of 6189 adult treatment-naïve CHB patients initiated therapy with TDF (n = 2482) or ETV (n = 3707) at 25 international centers using multivariable generalized linear modeling (GLM) to determine mean eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m) and Kaplan-Meier method to estimate incidence of renal impairment (≥ 1 chronic kidney disease [CKD] stage worsening). We also examined above renal changes in matched ETV and TDF patients (via propensity score matching [PSM] on age, sex, diabetes mellitus [DM], hypertension [HTN], cirrhosis, baseline eGFR, and follow-up duration).

Results: In the overall cohort (mean age 49.7 years, 66.2% male), the baseline eGFR was higher for TDF vs. ETV group (75.9 vs. 74.0, p = 0.009). PSM yielded 1871 pairs of ETV or TDF patients with baseline eGFR ≥ 60 and 520 pairs for the eGFR < 60 group. GLM analysis of the overall (unmatched) cohort and PSM cohorts revealed lower adjusted mean eGFRs in TDF (vs. ETV) patients (all p < 0.01) during 10 years of follow-up. Among PSM eGFR ≥ 60 patients, the 5-year cumulative incidences of renal impairment were 42.64% for ETV and 48.03% for TDF (p = 0.0023). In multivariable Cox regression, TDF vs. ETV (adjusted HR 1.26, 95% CI 1.11-1.43) was associated with higher risk of worsening renal function.

Conclusion: Over the 10-year study follow-up, compared to ETV, TDF was associated with a lower mean eGFR and higher incidence of renal impairment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12072-021-10271-xDOI Listing
November 2021

A flexible MnTi(PO)/C nanofiber film with superior cycling stability for potassium-ion batteries.

Nanoscale 2021 Nov 25. Epub 2021 Nov 25.

College of Electromechanical Engineering, Shandong Engineering Laboratory for Preparation and Application of High-performance Carbon-Materials, Qingdao University of Science & Technology, Qingdao, Shandong 266061, China.

First-principles calculations indicate that MnTi(PO) is more suited to potassium-ion storage because of its lower energy gap than that of KTi(PO). A flexible MnTi(PO)/C nanofiber film (F-MTP/C NFF) has been first synthesized electrospinning and applied to potassium-ion batteries as a self-standing anode. An integral carbon conductive network, unique one-dimensional nanostructure, and exceptional mechanical flexibility give F-MTP/C NFF outstanding potassium-ion storage performance. Impressively, the self-standing F-MTP/C NFF electrode delivers a high specific capacity of 218 mA h g at 0.02 A g and shows ultra-long cycling stability of 2000 cycles at 1 A g. This work may give a new insight into developing NASICON-type Ti-based materials as flexible electrodes for potassium-ion batteries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1nr04735cDOI Listing
November 2021

[Effects of miR-155-3p on the degradation rate of EAF1 mRNA and malignant proliferation in HANK1 cells].

Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi 2021 Nov;37(6):601-605

Weifang NO. 2 People's Hospital, Weifang 261041, China.

To investigate the effects and mechanisms of miR-155-3p on the malignant behavior of human NK/T cell lymphoma cell line HANK1. Targetscan database was used to predict the target gene of miR-155-3p. HANK1 cells in logarithmic growth period were cultured, and the cells were divided into blank group, over-expressed group, control group and interference group, which were transfected with pENTER-puro vector, pENTER-miR-155-3p vector, GV248 control vector and GV248-miR-155-3p siRNA interference vector, respectively. Meanwhile, actinomycin D (ActD) was used to treat each group of cells, and the expressions of miR-155-3p, EAf1, β-catenin and c-Myc in each group were detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (=5). The degradation rate of EAF1 mRNA, the expressions of EAF1, β-catenin and c-Myc protein were detected by Western blot (=3), and the malignant proliferation abilities of cells were detected by CCK-8 (=5). Compared with the blank group, the expression levels of miR-155-3p, β-catenin and c-Myc in the over-expressed group were significantly higher, the expression level of EAF1 was lower, the half-life of EAF1 mRNA was shortened, and the malignant proliferation ability of the cells was strengthened (<0.05). Compared with the control group, the expression levels of miR-155-3p, β-catenin and c-Myc in the interference group were significantly lower, and the expression level of EAF1 was increased, the half-life of mRNA was prolonged and the ability of cell proliferation was decreased (<0.05). miR-155-3p can promote EAF1 mRNA degradation and proliferation in HANK1 cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12047/j.cjap.6159.2021.095DOI Listing
November 2021

Dose tapering to withdrawal stage and long-term efficacy and safety of hetrombopag for the treatment of immune thrombocytopenia: results from an open-label extension study.

J Thromb Haemost 2021 Nov 25. Epub 2021 Nov 25.

Department of Hematology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

Background: The efficacy of hetrombopag in Chinese patients with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) has been demonstrated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter, phase III trial (NCT03222843).

Objective: This study aimed to report comprehensive data on a ≤6-week dose tapering to withdrawal (Stage 3) and an additional 24-week long-term extension period (Stage 4) in this phase III trial.

Patients/methods: Patients who fulfilled the screening criteria were eligible to enter Stage 3 or 4. During Stage 3, hetrombopag was gradually tapered to withdrawal. During Stage 4, hetrombopag treatment was initiated at 2.5, 3.75, 5, or 7.5 mg once daily. The efficacy endpoints during Stage 3 or 4 and the safety profile during the entire treatment period were reported.

Results: Among 194 patients who entered Stage 3, 171 (88.1%) relapsed. The median time to the first relapse since the start of Stage 3 was 15.0 days (95% CI, 14.0-16.0). In Stage 4, 144 (42.5%) patients responded at ≥75% of their assessments and 254 (74.9%) patients achieved platelet count ≥30×10 /L at least once, which was at least twice their baseline platelet count in the hetrombopag group (n=339). The most common adverse events were upper respiratory tract infection (53.1%), thrombocytopenia (27.1%), and urinary tract infection (21.2%) in the hetrombopag group.

Conclusion: The majority of patients who experienced dose tapering to withdrawal experienced a relapse. Long-term treatment with hetrombopag was effective in increasing and maintaining platelet count within the desired range in Chinese adults with ITP. Hetrombopag was well tolerated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jth.15602DOI Listing
November 2021

A randomized group antenatal care pilot showed increased partner communication and partner HIV testing during pregnancy in Malawi and Tanzania.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2021 Nov 24;21(1):790. Epub 2021 Nov 24.

College of Nursing, University of Illinois Chicago, Chicago, USA.

Background: HIV testing at antenatal care (ANC) is critical to achieving zero new infections in sub-Saharan Africa. Although most women are tested at ANC, they remain at risk for HIV exposure and transmission to their infant when their partners are not tested. This study evaluates how an HIV-enhanced and Centering-based group ANC model-Group ANC+ that uses interactive learning to practice partner communication is associated with improvements in partner HIV testing during pregnancy.

Methods: A randomized pilot study conducted in Malawi and Tanzania found multiple positive outcomes for pregnant women (n = 218) assigned to Group ANC+ versus individual ANC. This analysis adds previously unpublished results for two late pregnancy outcomes: communication with partner about three reproductive health topics (safer sex, HIV testing, and family planning) and partner HIV testing since the first antenatal care visit. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to assess the effect of type of ANC on partner communication and partner testing. We also conducted a mediation analysis to assess whether partner communication mediated the effect of type of care on partner HIV testing.

Results: Nearly 70% of women in Group ANC+ reported communicating about reproductive health with their partner, compared to 45% of women in individual ANC. After controlling for significant covariates, women in group ANC were twice as likely as those in individual ANC to report that their partner got an HIV test (OR 1.99; 95% CI: 1.08, 3.66). The positive effect of the Group ANC + model on partner HIV testing was fully mediated by increased partner communication.

Conclusions: HIV prevention was included in group ANC health promotion without compromising services and coverage of standard ANC topics, demonstrating that local high-priority health promotion needs can be integrated into ANC using a Group ANC+. These findings provide evidence that greater partner communication can promote healthy reproductive behaviors, including HIV prevention. Additional research is needed to understand the processes by which group ANC allowed women to discuss sensitive topics with partners and how these communications led to partner HIV testing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12884-021-04267-6DOI Listing
November 2021

Prevalence of Salmonella in Chinese Food Commodities: A meta-analysis.

J Food Prot 2021 Nov 24. Epub 2021 Nov 24.

Shandong Medical College Shizhong District CHINA Jinan 250002.

The objective of the present study was to analyze the prevalence of Salmonella in multiple food commodities in China by performing a meta-analysis. Accordingly, we screened studies that examined the prevalence of Salmonella in PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases. Methodological quality assessment and heterogeneity analyses were performed for included studies. The prevalence rate with the 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was selected as the effect size. Subgroup analyses for each food type were conducted and then stratified by regions, food-chain processing points, and seasons. In total, 49 studies were included in the meta-analysis, among them, 8 (16.3%) studies were deemed "High risk", 13 (26.5%) studies were "Unclear risk", and 28 (57.2%) studies were "Low risk". The overall prevalence rate of Salmonella was 20.0 (95%CI: 15.9-24.4)%. The prevalence rate of Salmonella in raw meat products was 23.6 (95%CI: 19.8-27.6)%, which was higher than that in aquatic products (13.7 [95%CI: 3.1-29.9]%), milk products (0.9 [95%CI: 0.0-3.9]%), frozen convenience foods (6.5 [95%CI: 4.4-8.9]%), ready-to-eat foods (2.0 [95%CI: 1.1-3.2]%), vegetables and fruits (0.9 [95%CI: 0.0-5.2]%), and shell eggs (4.2 [95%CI: 3.0-5.7]%). Subgroup analyses revealed that prevalence rates of Salmonella in raw meat products from abattoirs (26.3 [95%CI: 17.4-36.3]%) and retail stores (30.0 [95%CI: 24.6-35.8]%) were higher than those determined from farms (10.2 [95%CI: 7.0-13.9)%; P < 0.05); however, no significant difference was observed in the prevalence of Salmonella stratified by different geographical regions or seasons (P > 0.05). Based on these findings, high levels of Salmonella contamination could be detected in raw meat products in China, and the prevalence rate of Salmonella in raw meat products from abattoirs and retail stores was high.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4315/JFP-21-304DOI Listing
November 2021

Exosomes derived from miR-129-5p modified bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells represses ventricular remolding of mice with myocardial infarction.

J Tissue Eng Regen Med 2021 Nov 23. Epub 2021 Nov 23.

Department of cardiology, Shijiazhuang People's Hospital, 5 Fangbei Road, Shijiazhuang, Hebei, 050011, China.

Background: Myocardial infraction (MI) is a severe disease with great mortality. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)-derived exosomes display protection against MI. MicroRNA-129-5p was reported to exert anti-inflammation activity by targeting high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1). In the present study, the effects of MSCs-derived exosomes overexpressing miR-129-5p on MI were evaluated.

Methods: Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) were transfected with miR-129-5p for exosomes isolation. MI mice model was established and administrated exosomes overexpressing miR-129-5p. The cardiac function, expression of HMGB1,inflammatory cytokines, apoptosis and fibrosis in heart tissues were measured.

Resutls: MiR-129-5p inhibited HMGB1 expression in BMSCs. MI mice treated with exosomes overexpressing miR-129-5p had enhanced cardiac function and decreased expression of HMGB1 and production of inflammatory cytokines. Exosomes overexpressing miR-129-5p further prevented apoptosis and fibrosis.

Conclusion: Exosome-mediated transfer of miR-129-5p suppressed inflammation in MI mice by targeting HMGB1. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/term.3268DOI Listing
November 2021

Improvement of a floating 3D light field display based on a telecentric retroreflector and an optimized 3D image source.

Opt Express 2021 Nov;29(24):40125-40145

For a floating three-dimensional (3D) display system using a prism type retroreflector, non-retroreflected light and a blurred 3D image source are two key causes of the deterioration in image quality. In the present study, ray tracing is used to analyze the light distribution of a retroreflector at different incident angles. Based on this analysis, a telecentric retroreflector (TCRR) is proposed to suppress non-retroreflected light without sacrificing the viewing angle. A contrast transfer function (CTF) is used to evaluate the optical performance of the TCRR. To improve the 3D image source, the relationship between the root mean square (RMS) of the voxels and the 3D image quality is discussed, and an aspheric lens array is designed to reduce aberrations. Computational simulation results reveal that the structural similarity (SSIM) of the 3D image source increased to 0.9415. An experimental prototype system combining the TCRR and optimized 3D image source is then built. Experimental analysis demonstrates that the proposed method suppresses non-retroreflected light and improves the 3D image source. In particular, a clear floating 3D image with a floating distance of 70 mm and a viewing angle of 50° can be achieved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.444141DOI Listing
November 2021

3D light-field display with an increased viewing angle and optimized viewpoint distribution based on a ladder compound lenticular lens unit.

Opt Express 2021 Oct;29(21):34035-34050

Three-dimensional (3D) light-field displays (LFDs) suffer from a narrow viewing angle, limited depth range, and low spatial information capacity, which limit their diversified application. Because the number of pixels used to construct 3D spatial information is limited, increasing the viewing angle reduces the viewpoint density, which degrades the 3D performance. A solution based on a holographic functional screen (HFS) and a ladder-compound lenticular lens unit (LC-LLU) is proposed to increase the viewing angle while optimizing the viewpoint utilization. The LC-LLU and HFS are used to create 160 non-uniformly distributed viewpoints with low crosstalk, which increases the viewpoint density in the middle viewing zone and provides clear monocular depth cues. The corresponding coding method is presented as well. The optimized compound lenticular lens array can balance between suppressing aberration and improving displayed quality. The simulations and experiments show that the proposed 3D LFD can present natural 3D images with the right perception and occlusion relationship within a 65° viewing angle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.439805DOI Listing
October 2021

The cholinergic system, intelligence, and dental fluorosis in school-aged children with low-to-moderate fluoride exposure.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Nov 20;228:112959. Epub 2021 Nov 20.

Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Ministry of Education Key Lab of Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, PR China; Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, Ministry of Education and Ministry of Environmental Protection, State Key Laboratory of Environmental Health (incubating), School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, PR China. Electronic address:

Disruption of cholinergic neurotransmission can affect cognition, but little is known about whether low-to-moderate fluoride exposure affects cholinergic system and its effect on the prevalence of dental fluorosis (DF) and intelligence quotient (IQ). A cross-sectional study was conducted to explore the associations of moderate fluoride exposure and cholinergic system in relation to children's DF and IQ. We recruited 709 resident children in Tianjin, China. Ion selective electrode method was used to detect fluoride concentrations in water and urine. Cholinergic system was assessed by the detection of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and acetylcholine (ACh) levels in serum. Compared with children in the first quartile, those in fourth quartile the risk of either developing DF or IQ < 120 increased by 19% and 20% for water and urinary fluoride. The risk of having both increased by 58% and 62% in third and fourth quartile for water fluoride, 52% and 65% for urinary fluoride. Water fluoride concentrations were positively associated with AChE and negatively associated with ChAT and ACh, trends were same for urinary fluoride except for ACh. The risk of either developing DF or having non-high intelligence rose by 22% (95%CI: 1.07%, 1.38%) for the fourth quartile than those in the first quartile of AChE, for having the both, the risk was 1.27 (95%CI: 1.07, 1.50), 1.37 (95%CI: 1.17, 1.62) and 1.44 (95%CI: 1.23, 1.68) in second, third and fourth quartiles. The mediation proportion by AChE between water fluoride and either developing DF or IQ < 120 was 15.7%. For both to exist, the proportion was 6.7% and 7.2% for water and urinary fluoride. Our findings suggest low-to-moderate fluoride exposure was associated with dysfunction of cholinergic system for children. AChE may partly mediate the prevalence of DF and lower probability of having superior and above intelligence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.112959DOI Listing
November 2021

Establishment of Tumor Treating Fields Combined With Mild Hyperthermia as Novel Supporting Therapy for Pancreatic Cancer.

Front Oncol 2021 3;11:738801. Epub 2021 Nov 3.

Molecular OncoSurgery, Section Surgical Research, Department of General, Visceral and Transplantation Surgery, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a highly malignant tumor with poor prognosis and limited therapeutic options. Alternating electrical fields with low intensity called "Tumor Treating Fields" (TTFields) are a new, non-invasive approach with almost no side effects and phase 3 trials are ongoing in advanced PDAC. We evaluated TTFields in combination with mild hyperthermia. Three established human PDAC cell lines and an immortalized pancreatic duct cell line were treated with TTFields and hyperthermia at 38.5°C, followed by microscopy, assays for MTT, migration, colony and sphere formation, RT-qPCR, FACS, Western blot, microarray and bioinformatics, and analysis using the online databases , Cytoscape-String, and Kaplan-Meier Plotter. Whereas TTFields and hyperthermia alone had weak effects, their combination strongly inhibited the viability of malignant, but not those of nonmalignant cells. Progression features and the cell cycle were impaired, and autophagy was induced. The identified target genes were key players in autophagy, the cell cycle and DNA repair. The expression profiles of part of these target genes were significantly involved in the survival of PDAC patients. In conclusion, the combination of TTFields with mild hyperthermia results in greater efficacy without increased toxicity and could be easily clinically approved as supporting therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.738801DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8597267PMC
November 2021

Intelligent colorimetric pH sensoring packaging films based on sugarcane wax/agar integrated with butterfly pea flower extract for optical tracking of shrimp freshness.

Food Chem 2021 Nov 1:131514. Epub 2021 Nov 1.

School of Food and Biological Engineering, Jiangsu University, 301 Xuefu Rd., 212013 Zhenjiang, Jiangsu, China. Electronic address:

A novel pH colorimetric film was prepared from various sugarcane wax (SW) concentrations (1, 1.5 and 2% w/v) on agar matrix (Agr) combined with butterfly pea flower (BF) extract for monitoring the shrimp freshness. A combination of BF anthocyanins with SW as lipid (hydrophobic) showed different changes in color under acidic conditions (pH 2-6) with slight changes under alkalinity (pH 7-12), which matched the visual color changes of two different ammonia vapors (50 and 100 mmol/l). FTIR, XRD spectra, and SEM micrographs revealed that SW was effectively fixed into the Agr-BF network during the film-forming process. The different homogenized SW films enhanced the physical and mechanical properties without significant differences in elongation and water vapor permeability. Remarkably, SW films displayed complete protection against UV-vis light (0%) and valuable reduction in visible light. This study presents SW colorimetric films as promising natural derivatives for smart packaging in tracking food freshness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.131514DOI Listing
November 2021

Global, regional, and national causes of under-5 mortality in 2000-19: an updated systematic analysis with implications for the Sustainable Development Goals.

Lancet Child Adolesc Health 2021 Nov 17. Epub 2021 Nov 17.

Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA; Department of Population, Family, and Reproductive Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Causes of mortality are a crucial input for health systems for identifying appropriate interventions for child survival. We present an updated series of cause-specific mortality for neonates and children younger than 5 years from 2000 to 2019.

Methods: We updated cause-specific mortality estimates for neonates and children aged 1-59 months, stratified by level (low, moderate, or high) of mortality. We made a substantial change in the statistical methods used for previous estimates, transitioning to a Bayesian framework that includes a structure to account for unreported causes in verbal autopsy studies. We also used systematic covariate selection in the multinomial framework, gave more weight to nationally representative verbal autopsy studies using a random effects model, and included mortality due to tuberculosis.

Findings: In 2019, there were 5·30 million deaths (95% uncertainty range 4·92-5·68) among children younger than 5 years, primarily due to preterm birth complications (17·7%, 16·1-19·5), lower respiratory infections (13·9%, 12·0-15·1), intrapartum-related events (11·6%, 10·6-12·5), and diarrhoea (9·1%, 7·9-9·9), with 49·2% (47·3-51·9) due to infectious causes. Vaccine-preventable deaths, such as for lower respiratory infections, meningitis, and measles, constituted 21·7% (20·4-25·6) of under-5 deaths, and many other causes, such as diarrhoea, were preventable with low-cost interventions. Under-5 mortality has declined substantially since 2000, primarily because of a decrease in mortality due to lower respiratory infections, diarrhoea, preterm birth complications, intrapartum-related events, malaria, and measles. There is considerable variation in the extent and trends in cause-specific mortality across regions and for different strata of all-cause under-5 mortality.

Interpretation: Progress is needed to improve child health and end preventable deaths among children younger than 5 years. Countries should strategize how to reduce mortality among this age group using interventions that are relevant to their specific causes of death.

Funding: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation; WHO.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-4642(21)00311-4DOI Listing
November 2021

Identification of a novel FUT1 allele in a Chinese individual with para-Bombay phenotype.

Transfusion 2021 Nov 19. Epub 2021 Nov 19.

Institute of Transfusion Medicine, Qingdao Blood Center, Qingdao, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/trf.16750DOI Listing
November 2021

Identification of the regulatory role of lncRNA HCG18 in myasthenia gravis by integrated bioinformatics and experimental analyses.

J Transl Med 2021 Nov 18;19(1):468. Epub 2021 Nov 18.

Department of Neurology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, 150081, Heilongjiang, China.

Background: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), functioning as competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs), have been reported to play important roles in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. However, little is known about the regulatory roles of lncRNAs underlying the mechanism of myasthenia gravis (MG). The aim of the present study was to explore the roles of lncRNAs as ceRNAs associated with the progression of MG.

Methods: MG risk genes and miRNAs were obtained from public databases. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis and module analysis were performed. A lncRNA-mediated module-associated ceRNA (LMMAC) network, which integrated risk genes in modules, risk miRNAs and predicted lncRNAs, was constructed to systematically explore the regulatory roles of lncRNAs in MG. Through performing random walk with restart on the network, HCG18/miR-145-5p/CD28 ceRNA axis was found to play important roles in MG, potentially. The expression of HCG18 in MG patients was detected using RT-PCR. The effects of HCG18 knockdown on cell proliferation and apoptosis were determined by CCK-8 assay and flow cytometry. The interactions among HCG18, miR-145-5p and CD28 were explored by luciferase assay, RT-PCR and western blot assay.

Results: Based on PPI network, we identified 9 modules. Functional enrichment analyses revealed these modules were enriched in immune-related signaling pathways. We then constructed LMMAC network, containing 25 genes, 50 miRNAs, and 64 lncRNAs. Through bioinformatics algorithm, we found lncRNA HCG18 as a ceRNA, might play important roles in MG. Further experiments indicated that HCG18 was overexpressed in MG patients and was a target of miR-145-5p. Functional assays illustrated that HCG18 suppressed Jurkat cell apoptosis and promoted cell proliferation. Mechanistically, knockdown of HCG18 inhibited the CD28 mRNA and protein expression levels in Jurkat cells, while miR-145-5p inhibitor blocked the reduction of CD28 expression induced by HCG18 suppression.

Conclusion: We have reported a novel HCG18/miR-145-5p/CD28 ceRNA axis in MG. Our findings will contribute to a deeper understanding of the molecular mechanism of and provide a novel potential therapeutic target for MG.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12967-021-03138-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8600732PMC
November 2021

Downregulation of HSPA12A underlies myotoxicity of local anesthetic agent bupivacaine through inhibiting PGC1α-mediated mitochondrial integrity.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2021 Nov 15;434:115798. Epub 2021 Nov 15.

Department of Anesthesiology, First Affiliated Hospital with Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029, China. Electronic address:

Local anesthetics (LAs) are widely used for intraoperative anesthesia and postoperative analgesia. However, LAs (e.g. Bupivacaine) can evoke myotoxicity that closely associated to mitochondrial damage. PGC1a is a mast co-factor for mitochondrial quality control. We have recently demonstrated that PGC1a can be activated by HSPA12A in hepatocytes, suggesting a possibility that HSPA12A protects from LAs myotoxicity through activating PGC1α-mediated mitochondrial integrity. Here, we reported that HSPA12A was downregulated during Bupivacaine-induced myotoxicity in skeletal muscles of mice in vivo and C2c12 myoblast cultures in vitro. Intriguingly, overexpression of HSPA12A attenuated the Bupivacaine-induced C2c12 cell death. We also noticed that the Bupivacaine-induced decrease of glucose consumption and ATP production was improved by HSPA12A overexpression. Moreover, overexpression of HSPA12A in C2c12 cells attenuated the Bupivacaine-induced decrease of mitochondrial contents and increase of mitochondrial fragmentation. The Bupivacaine-induced reduction of PGC1α expression and nuclear localization was markedly attenuated by HSPA12A overexpression. Importantly, pretreatment with a selective PGC1α inhibitor (SR-18292) abolished the protection of HSPA12A from Bupivacaine-induced death and mitochondrial loss in C2c12 cells. Altogether, the findings indicate that downregulation of HSPA12A underlies myotoxicity of Local anesthetic agent Bupivacaine through inhibiting PGC1α-mediated Mitochondrial Integrity. Thus, HSPA12A might represent a viable strategy for preventing myotoxicity of LAs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2021.115798DOI Listing
November 2021

Capecitabine-induced leukoencephalopathy in a patient with triple-negative breast cancer: A case report and review of the literature.

J Oncol Pharm Pract 2021 Nov 18:10781552211056856. Epub 2021 Nov 18.

Hematology/Oncology Department, 23532Houston Methodist Hospital, Houston, TX, USA.

Introduction: Capecitabine is an orally administered prodrug that converts preferentially to 5-fluorouracil within tumors, resulting in enhanced concentrations of 5-fluorouracil in tumor tissue. The use of capecitabine has shown efficacy in the metastatic setting for breast cancer, and more recently, efficacy as adjuvant therapy for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Capecitabine has been shown to be well tolerated with minimal side effects, but the incidence of leukoencephalopathy is rare with a risk of less than one percent.

Case Report: We report on a 34-year-old female patient with left TNBC, moderately differentiated, stage IIB that experienced symptoms of neurotoxicity following initiation of adjuvant chemotherapy with capecitabine.

Management And Outcome: Naranjo Algorithm Assessment score of nine indicated patient had drug-induced leukoencephalopathy leading to discontinuation of capecitabine and resolution of the neurotoxicity symptoms.

Discussion: Early detection of capecitabine-induced neurotoxicity by magnetic resonance imaging is crucial as symptoms may be reversible to the condition that capecitabine is immediately discontinued.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/10781552211056856DOI Listing
November 2021

Ultra-processed food intake is associated with grip strength decline in middle-aged and older adults: a prospective analysis of the TCLSIH study.

Eur J Nutr 2021 Nov 17. Epub 2021 Nov 17.

Nutrition and Radiation Epidemiology Research Center, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Tianjin, China.

Purpose: Ultra-processed foods make up more than 50% of daily energy consumed in Western countries and are rapidly increasing in China. However, little is known about the association between ultra-processed food intake and muscle strength, a predictor for physical disability in senior years. We aimed to investigate the association of ultra-processed food intake with longitudinal changes in grip strength among middle-aged and older Chinese adults.

Methods: This prospective cohort study included a total of 5409 adults aged 40 years and over (61.3% men). Ultra-processed food intake was obtained by means of a validated food frequency questionnaire and classified according to the NOVA classification system. Grip strength was measured annually using a handheld digital dynamometer. Multivariable linear regression models were used to examine the association between ultra-processed food intake and annualized change in grip strength and weight-adjusted grip strength.

Results: In the fully adjusted models, annualized changes in grip strength and weight-adjusted grip strength per 10% increment in the proportion of ultra-processed foods in the diet were - 0.3708 kg (95% confidence interval - 0.5687, - 0.1730; P < 0.001) and - 0.0057 kg/kg (95% confidence interval - 0.0086, - 0.0029; P < 0.0001), respectively. In analyses stratified by age, sex, body mass index, physical activity, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, and healthy diet score, such associations were largely consistent in most subgroups (all P for interaction > 0.05).

Conclusions: Our data indicate that higher ultra-processed food intake was associated with faster grip strength decline in middle-aged and older Chinese adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-021-02737-3DOI Listing
November 2021

Anesthetics mediated the immunomodulatory effects via regulation of TLR signaling.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Nov 13:108357. Epub 2021 Nov 13.

Department of Anesthesiology, China-Japan Union Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, 130033, China. Electronic address:

Anesthetics have been widely used in surgery and found to suppress inflammatory injury and affect the outcomes of the surgery and diseases. In contrast, anesthetics are also found to induce neuronal injury and inflammation. However, the immune-modulation mechanism of anesthetics is still not clear. Recent studies have shown that the immune-modulation of anesthetics is associated with the regulation of toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated signaling. Moreover, the regulation of anesthetics in TLR signaling is related to modulations of non-coding RNAs (nc RNAs). Consistently, nc RNAs are mainly divided into micro RNAs (miRs) and long non-coding RNAs (lnc RNAs), which have been found to exert regulatory effects on the immune system. In this review, we summarize the immunomodulatory functions of the widely used anesthetic agents, which are associated with regulation of TLR signaling. In addition, we also focus on the roles of nc RNAs induced by anesthetics in regulations of TLR signaling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2021.108357DOI Listing
November 2021

Older cancer survivors living with financial hardship in China: A qualitative study of family perspectives.

Psychooncology 2021 Nov 16. Epub 2021 Nov 16.

Centre for Health Management and Policy Research, School of Public Health, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, China.

Objective: Financial hardship among older cancer survivors has not been well-studied, despite its debilitating effects on their health and well-being. The purpose of this study was to describe the lived experiences of Chinese older cancer survivors who have experienced financial hardship following a cancer diagnosis.

Methods: A qualitative study was conducted. Data was collected using in-depth interviews with 21 older cancer survivors (aged ≥ 60) with financial hardship and 20 family caregivers in Shandong Province, China between August 2020 and January 2021. Data were analyzed using Colaizzi's phenomenological method.

Results: Four main themes emerged: (1) older survivors have insufficient ability to address cancer-related costs; (2) financial transfers from adult children to older parents became prevalent after a cancer diagnosis; (3) cancer-related financial worries and stress extended into children's families; (4) coping and adjustment strategies were used by the extended family. Traditional Confucian culture and the Chinese health care system considerably impacted the interpretation of financial hardship.

Conclusion: Both older cancer survivors and their adult children experienced financial distress impacted by filial piety in China. Strategies adapted to Confucian family values and the health care system are needed to address cancer-related financial hardships.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pon.5854DOI Listing
November 2021

Gut microbiota is associated with bone mineral density : an observational and genome-wide environmental interaction analysis in the UK Biobank cohort.

Bone Joint Res 2021 Nov;10(11):734-741

Key Laboratory of Trace Elements and Endemic Diseases, Collaborative Innovation Center of Endemic Disease and Health Promotion for Silk Road Region, School of Public Health, Health Science Center, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.

Aims: Despite the interest in the association of gut microbiota with bone health, limited population-based studies of gut microbiota and bone mineral density (BMD) have been made. Our aim is to explore the possible association between gut microbiota and BMD.

Methods: A total of 3,321 independent loci of gut microbiota were used to calculate the individual polygenic risk score (PRS) for 114 gut microbiota-related traits. The individual genotype data were obtained from UK Biobank cohort. Linear regressions were then conducted to evaluate the possible association of gut microbiota with L1-L4 BMD (n = 4,070), total BMD (n = 4,056), and femur total BMD (n = 4,054), respectively. PLINK 2.0 was used to detect the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) × gut microbiota interaction effect on the risks of L1-L4 BMD, total BMD, and femur total BMD, respectively.

Results: We detected five, three, and seven candidate gut microbiota-related traits for L1-L4 BMD, total BMD, and femur BMD, respectively, such as (p = 0.004) for L1-L4 BMD, and (p = 0.046) for total BMD. We also detected two common gut microbiota-related traits shared by L1-L4 BMD, total BMD, and femur total BMD, including and . Interaction analysis of BMD detected several genes that interacted with gut microbiota, such as phospholipase D1 () and endomucin () interacting with in total BMD, and and Discs Large MAGUK Scaffold Protein 2 () interacting with in femur BMD.

Conclusion: Our results suggest associations between gut microbiota and BMD, which will be helpful to further explore the regulation mechanism and intervention gut microbiota of BMD. Cite this article:  2021;10(11):734-741.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1302/2046-3758.1011.BJR-2021-0181.R1DOI Listing
November 2021

A Rare Subtype of Non-small Cell Lung Cancer: Report of 159 Resected Pathological Stage I-IIIA Pulmonary Lymphoepithelioma-Like Carcinoma Cases.

Front Surg 2021 27;8:757085. Epub 2021 Oct 27.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, China.

The current study analyzed resected stage I-IIIA pulmonary lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma (LELC) cases to define the clinical characteristics, prognosis and long-term outcomes of resected LELC, with the purpose of guiding clinical management for this rare tumor. Resected stage I-IIIA LELC, adenocarcinoma (ADC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cases from our center were enrolled. Propensity score matching (PSM) was applied to minimize the selection bias. Overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were compared between groups. Multivariate analyses were performed to identify the prognostic factors, and a nomogram was developed. A total of 159 LELCs, 2,757 ADCs, and 1,331 SCCs were included. LELC, dominated among younger patients and non-smokers. LELC was a poorly differentiated disease that lacked driver gene mutations and was positive for immunohistochemistry indicators of squamous cell lineage. Survival analyses revealed that OS was significantly better for LELC than for other common non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) both before PSM (all < 0.001) and after PSM (all < 0.05). Further analyses revealed that early pathological node stage and preoperative albumin level ≥35 were identified as independent prognostic factors favoring OS and DFS. LELC, dominated among younger and non-smoking populations, lacked driver gene mutations and was positive for immunohistochemistry indicators of squamous cell lineage. The survival outcome of LELC was better than other common NSCLCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fsurg.2021.757085DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8580194PMC
October 2021

Longitudinal Associations Between Hand Grip Strength and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Adults: A Prospective Cohort Study.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 29;8:752999. Epub 2021 Oct 29.

Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

This study aimed to determine the longitudinal association between hand grip strength (HGS) and the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in adults. A cohort study. This study was conducted in a general Chinese population ( = 14,154) from 2013-2018. NAFLD was diagnosed by liver ultrasonography during evaluating alcohol consumption. The associations between the HGS and NAFLD were assessed using a multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model. During the study period with a mean follow-up duration of 3.20 years, 2,452 participants developed NAFLD. The risk of NAFLD decreased progressively with increasing HGS in both men and women ( for trend <0.0001). The multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (95% ) for NAFLD incidence across the quartiles of HGS were 1 (reference), 0.90 (0.79, 1.02), 0.69 (0.60, 0.79), and 0.44 (0.37, 0.52) for men and 1 (reference), 0.82 (0.69, 0.96), 0.54 (0.45, 0.66), and 0.41 (0.33, 0.52) for women, respectively. The interaction terms for body mass index (BMI)-HGS and waist-HGS were significant in men and women (all < 0.0001). The participants with normal BMIs and waist circumferences had the lowest hazard ratios on the subgroup analyses. The sensitivity analysis that defined NAFLD using the hepatic steatosis and fatty liver indices revealed results that were similar to the main analyses. The present study indicates that the HGS is inversely associated with the incidence of NAFLD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2021.752999DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8585737PMC
October 2021

PDGF-BB induces PRMT1 expression through ERK1/2 dependent STAT1 activation and regulates remodeling in primary human lung fibroblasts.

Cell Signal 2022 Jan 11;89:110114. Epub 2021 Nov 11.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Xi'an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710061, PR China; Pneumology and Pulmonary Cell Research, Department of Biomedicine, University and University Hospital Basel, Basel 4031, Switzerland; Dept of Respiratory Diseases, University of Naples, Federico II, Naples, Italy. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cellsig.2021.110114DOI Listing
January 2022
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