Publications by authors named "Liu Hong"

4,723 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Albendazole induces immunotherapy response by facilitating ubiquitin-mediated PD-L1 degradation.

J Immunother Cancer 2022 05;10(5)

Molecular Biology Research Center, Center for Medical Genetics, Hunan Province Key Laboratory of Basic and Applied Hematology, School of Life Sciences, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China

Background: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have been increasingly used in patients with various cancers and have shown efficient therapeutic outcomes. However, fewer than 40% of cases across multiple cancer types show a response to ICIs. Therefore, developing more efficient combinational approaches with ICIs and revealing the underlying mechanisms are important goals for achieving rapid clinical transformation and application.

Methods: The effects on antitumor immunity activity of albendazole (ABZ) and the synergistic effects of ABZ with CD73 blockade were investigated in the melanoma B16F10 and the Lewis lung cancer tumor-bearing immune-competent mice models. The mechanism of ABZ reducing PD-L1 protein level through suppressing UBQLN4 was identified and validated through immunoprecipitation-mass spectrometry and molecular methods. Bioinformatics and anti-PD-1 therapy melanoma patients samples analysis were used to assess the level of UBQLN4/PD-L1 in the therapeutic efficacy of anti-PD-1 therapy.

Results: ABZ induces CD8 T cell activity and subsequent immunotherapy response associated with suppression of PD-L1 protein level. Mechanistically, we revealed that ABZ promotes ubiquitin-mediated degradation of PD-L1 via suppressing UBQLN4, which was bound to PD-L1 and stabilized PD-L1 protein. Preclinically, genetic deletion or target inhibition of CD73 showed synergistic effects with ABZ treatment in the immune-competent mice models. Significantly, UBQLN4 and PD-L1 levels were higher in the tumor region of responders versus non-responders and correlated with better progression-free survival and overall survival in anti-PD-1 therapy melanoma patients.

Conclusions: Our findings revealed a previously unappreciated role of ABZ in antitumor immunity by inducing ubiquitin-mediated PD-L1 protein degradation, identified predictors for assessing the therapeutic efficacy of anti-PD-1 therapy, and provided novel therapeutic possibility by combination treatment of ABZ and CD73 blockade in cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jitc-2021-003819DOI Listing
May 2022

Low-Dose Esketamine as an Adjuvant to Propofol Sedation for Same-Visit Bidirectional Endoscopy: Protocol for a Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial.

Int J Gen Med 2022 6;15:4733-4740. Epub 2022 May 6.

Department of Anesthesiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu, People's Republic of China.

Background: Same-visit bidirectional endoscopy (esophagogastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy) is widely performed under sedation. At present, the optimal sedation regimen remains unclear. This study aims to test the hypothesis that a low-dose esketamine added to propofol sedation reduces hemodynamic and respiratory adverse events in these procedures.

Methods: In this multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 660 adult patients scheduled for same-visit bidirectional endoscopy under sedation from 3 teaching hospitals in China will be recruited. Patients will be randomly allocated, in a 1:1 ratio, to an esketamine group or a normal saline group (n = 330 in each group), stratified by study center. All patients will receive intravenous propofol 0.5 mg/kg and sufentanil 0.1 μg/mL for induction of sedation, followed by intravenous esketamine 0.15 mg/kg or the same volume of normal saline. Propofol will be titrated to the target sedation levels during the procedures. The primary endpoint is a composite of desaturation (peripheral oxygen saturation < 90%) and hypotension (systolic blood pressure <80 mmHg or decrease >30% of baseline). Secondary endpoints include desaturation, hypotension, total dose of propofol, pain scores and fatigue scores on the 0-10 numerical rating scale, dizziness or headache, hallucination or nightmare, nausea or vomiting, endoscopist satisfaction, and patient satisfaction. All analyses will be intention-to-treat.

Discussion: We expect that a low-dose esketamine adjunct to propofol-based sedation will improve cardiorespiratory stability in patients undergoing same-visit bidirectional endoscopy, providing reference for clinical sedation practice during these procedures.

Trial Registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (Identifier: ChiCTR-ChiCTR2200055938).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S365068DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9091685PMC
May 2022

N,N-dimethylformamide-induced acute liver damage is driven by the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in liver macrophages of mice.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2022 Jun 10;238:113609. Epub 2022 May 10.

Institute of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250012, China. Electronic address:

N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) is a non-negligible volatile hazardous material in indoor and outdoor environments. Although the hepatotoxicity of DMF has been well recognized, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear and prophylactic medicine is still lacking. Herein, we established a DMF-induced acute liver injury mouse model and investigated the underlying mechanisms focusing on oxidative stress and the nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat receptor (NLR) family pyrin domain (PYD)-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome. DMF was found to induce oxidative stress, evidenced by the elevation of hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) adducts levels, and the decline of reduced glutathione (GSH) levels. However, neither N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) nor sulforaphane (SF) ameliorated the hepatoxicity induced by DMF in mice. Interestingly, DMF exposure led to focal necrosis of hepatocytes and NLRP3 inflammasome activation before the onset of obvious liver damage. In addition, DMF exposure induced infiltration and proinflammatory/M1 polarization of macrophages in mice livers. Furthermore, the inactivation of hepatic macrophages by GdCl significantly suppressed DMF-induced elevation of serum aminotransferase activities, neutrophile infiltration, and activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in mice liver. Collectively, these results suggest that DMF-induced acute hepatotoxicity may be attributed to the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in liver macrophages, but not oxidative stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2022.113609DOI Listing
June 2022

Engineering of donor-acceptor-donor curcumin analogues as near-infrared fluorescent probes for imaging of amyloid-β species.

Theranostics 2022 4;12(7):3178-3195. Epub 2022 Apr 4.

Key Laboratory of Structure-Based Drug Design and Discovery, Ministry of Education, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang, 110016, China.

Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent imaging of both soluble and insoluble Aβ species in the brain of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is crucial for the early diagnosis and intervention of AD. To date, a variety of NIR fluorescent probes have been reported for the detection of Aβ species. Among these probes, CRANAD-58 was reported to have the capability to detect both soluble and insoluble Aβ species, which is vital to monitor the changes of Aβ species during the pathological course of the disease. Though CRANAD-58 has shown promise to noninvasively detect Aβ species in transgenic AD mice, the emission wavelength (~670 nm) is still too short for further applications. Therefore, new probes with longer emission wavelength and improved physiological properties are in highly demand. Herein, we report the design and engineering of nine donor-acceptor-donor molecules as "off-on" near-infrared fluorescent probes for imaging of both soluble and insoluble Aβ species in living AD mice owing to its improved properties and performance. We report a two-round strategy to develop nine "off-on" NIR fluorescence probes via structural modification of a curcumin analogue-based donor-acceptor-donor architecture. In round one, probes and were synthesized, and probe was identified to be an optimum probe as it showed distinct "off-on" NIR fluorescence at > 690 nm upon binding to Aβ monomers, oligomers and aggregates. To further improve the performance, further structural modification of probe into probes - was then conducted. The fluorescence response with Aβ species and histological staining and imaging of Aβ species in APP/PS1 transgenic AD mice and age-matched wild-type mice were performed. We demonstrate that, compared to probe , probe with improved physiological properties hold the fastest kinetics (~10 min) to produce not only higher brain fluorescence intensity in 10-month-old APP/PS1 transgenic AD mice, but also afford a higher discrepancy in brain fluorescence to discriminate AD mice from wild-type (WT) mice. Probe also hold the ability to detect soluble Aβ species in 6-month-old APP/PS1 transgenic mice. Probe was further applied for dynamic visualization of Aβ plaques in a skull-thinning 14-month-old APP/PS1 mouse, which revealed its immediate penetration into brain parenchyma and selective labeling of both parenchymal and angiopathic Aβ plaques. In addition, probe possessed significantly high attenuation effect on the aggregation of Aβ monomers. Our results demonstrate the good potential of probe for longitudinal NIR fluorescence imaging of soluble and insoluble Aβ species in APP/PS1 transgenic AD mice, which may act as a useful tool for early diagnosis and intervention of AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/thno.68679DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9065200PMC
May 2022

EEG Oscillatory Networks in Peri-Ictal Period of Absence Epilepsy.

Front Neurol 2022 25;13:825225. Epub 2022 Apr 25.

Department of Neurology, The Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University, Luzhou, China.

Objective: To investigate the dynamical brain network changes before and after an absence seizure episode in absence epilepsy (AE).

Methods: 21 AE patients with a current high frequency of seizures and 21 sex- and age-matched health control (HC) who reported no history of neurological or psychiatric disorders and visited the hospital for routine physical examinations were included. Each included subject underwent a 2-h and 19-channel video EEG examination. For AE patients, five epochs of 10-s EEG data in inter-ictal, pre-ictal, and post-ictal states were collected. For the HC group, five 10-s resting-state EEG epochs were extracted. Functional independent components analysis (ICA) was carried out using the LORETA KEY tool.

Results: Compared with the resting-state EEG data of the HC group, the EEG data from AE patients during inter-ictal periods showed decreased alpha oscillations in regions involving the superior frontal gyrus (SFG) (BA11). From inter-ictal to pre-ictal, SFG (BA10) showed maximum decreased delta oscillations. Additionally, from pre-ictal to post-ictal, superior temporal gyrus (STG) (BA 22) presented maximum increased neural activity in the alpha band. Moreover, compared with inter-ictal EEG, post-ictal EEG showed significantly decreased theta activity in SFG (BA8).

Conclusion: The changes in SFG alpha oscillations are the key brain network differences between inter-ictal EEG of AE patients and resting-state EEG of HCs. The brain networks of EEG oscillatory during peri-ictal episodes are mainly involving SFG and STG. Our study suggests that altered EEG brain networks dynamics exist between inter-ictal EEG of AE patients and resting-state EEG of HCs and between pre- and post-ictal EEG in AE patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2022.825225DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9081722PMC
April 2022

Lanthanum hydroxide inhibits vascular calcification by regulating the HIF-1 pathway.

Cell Biol Int 2022 May 11. Epub 2022 May 11.

Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Inner Mongolian Medical University, Hohhot, P.R. China.

The main reason for the high incidence of cardiovascular disease in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients with vascular calcification (VC) is also the main cause of death in CKD patients. Lanthanum hydroxide (LH) has an inhibitory effect on VC in chronic renal failure; however, the mechanism of its inhibition is poorly defined. Here, we used network pharmacology analysis and found that hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is related to VC. In a CKD rat model induced by adenine combined with high phosphorus (1.2%), LH improved the survival rate and inhibited the occurrence and development of VC. In an in vitro study, we found that lanthanum chloride inhibited the occurrence of VC induced by high phosphorus and reduced the production of reactive oxygen species. This study thus revealed that LH can inhibit the occurrence and development of VC by inhibiting the activation of HIF-1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbin.11811DOI Listing
May 2022

Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists Clinical Practice Update for Management of Acute Kidney Injury Associated With Cardiac Surgery.

Anesth Analg 2022 May 12. Epub 2022 May 12.

From the Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, University of California Davis Health, Sacramento, California.

Cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CS-AKI) is common and is associated with increased risk for postoperative morbidity and mortality. Our recent survey of the Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists (SCA) membership showed 6 potentially renoprotective strategies for which clinicians would most value an evidence-based review (ie, intraoperative target blood pressure, choice of specific vasopressor agent, erythrocyte transfusion threshold, use of alpha-2 agonists, goal-directed oxygen delivery on cardiopulmonary bypass [CPB], and the "Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes [KDIGO] bundle of care"). Thus, the SCA's Continuing Practice Improvement Acute Kidney Injury Working Group aimed to provide a practice update for each of these strategies in cardiac surgical patients based on the evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs). PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane library databases were comprehensively searched for eligible studies from inception through February 2021, with search results updated in August 2021. A total of 15 RCTs investigating the effects of the above-mentioned strategies on CS-AKI were included for meta-analysis. For each strategy, the level of evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology. Across the 6 potentially renoprotective strategies evaluated, current evidence for their use was rated as "moderate," "low," or "very low." Based on eligible RCTs, our analysis suggested using goal-directed oxygen delivery on CPB and the "KDIGO bundle of care" in high-risk patients to prevent CS-AKI (moderate level of GRADE evidence). Our results suggested considering the use of vasopressin in vasoplegic shock patients to reduce CS-AKI (low level of GRADE evidence). The decision to use a restrictive versus liberal strategy for perioperative red cell transfusion should not be based on concerns for renal protection (a moderate level of GRADE evidence). In addition, targeting a higher mean arterial pressure during CPB, perioperative use of dopamine, and use of dexmedetomidine did not reduce CS-AKI (a low or very low level of GRADE evidence). This review will help clinicians provide evidence-based care, targeting improved renal outcomes in adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1213/ANE.0000000000006068DOI Listing
May 2022

Benign and malignant diagnosis of spinal tumors based on deep learning and weighted fusion framework on MRI.

Insights Imaging 2022 May 10;13(1):87. Epub 2022 May 10.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Mobile Computing and Pervasive Device, Institute of Computing Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 6 Kexueyuan South Road, Haidian District, Beijing, 100190, China.

Background: The application of deep learning has allowed significant progress in medical imaging. However, few studies have focused on the diagnosis of benign and malignant spinal tumors using medical imaging and age information at the patient level. This study proposes a multi-model weighted fusion framework (WFF) for benign and malignant diagnosis of spinal tumors based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images and age information.

Methods: The proposed WFF included a tumor detection model, sequence classification model, and age information statistic module based on sagittal MRI sequences obtained from 585 patients with spinal tumors (270 benign, 315 malignant) between January 2006 and December 2019 from the cooperative hospital. The experimental results of the WFF were compared with those of one radiologist (D1) and two spine surgeons (D2 and D3).

Results: In the case of reference age information, the accuracy (ACC) (0.821) of WFF was higher than three doctors' ACC (D1: 0.686; D2: 0.736; D3: 0.636). Without age information, the ACC (0.800) of the WFF was also higher than that of the three doctors (D1: 0.750; D2: 0.664; D3:0.614).

Conclusions: The proposed WFF is effective in the diagnosis of benign and malignant spinal tumors with complex histological types on MRI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13244-022-01227-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9091071PMC
May 2022

High-Order Photonic Cavity Modes Enabled 3D Structural Colors.

ACS Nano 2022 May 9. Epub 2022 May 9.

Institute of Materials Research and Engineering (IMRE), Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), 2 Fusionopolis Way, Innovis, #08-03, Singapore, 138634, Singapore.

It remains a challenge to directly print arbitrary three-dimensional shapes that exhibit structural colors at the micrometer scale. Woodpile photonic crystals (WPCs) fabricated two-photon lithography (TPL) are elementary building blocks to produce 3D geometries that generate structural colors due to their ability to exhibit either omnidirectional or anisotropic photonic stop bands. However, existing approaches produce structural colors on WPCs when illuminating from the top, requiring print resolutions beyond the limit of commercial TPL, which necessitates postprocessing techniques. Here, we devised a strategy to support high-order photonic cavity modes upon side illumination on WPCs that surprisingly generate prominent reflectance peaks in the visible spectrum. Based on that, we demonstrate one-step printing of 3D photonic structural colors without requiring postprocessing or subwavelength features. Vivid colors with reflectance peaks exhibiting a full width at half-maximum of ∼25 nm, a maximum reflectance of 50%, a gamut of ∼85% of sRGB, and large viewing angles were achieved. In addition, we also demonstrated voxel-level manipulation and control of colors in arbitrary-shaped 3D objects constituted with WPCs as unit cells, which has potential for applications in dynamic color displays, colorimetric sensing, anti-counterfeiting, and light-matter interaction platforms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.2c01999DOI Listing
May 2022

Pyroptosis impacts the prognosis and treatment response in gastric cancer via immune system modulation.

Am J Cancer Res 2022 15;12(4):1511-1534. Epub 2022 Apr 15.

State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology and National Clinical Research Center for Digestive Diseases, Xijing Hospital of Digestive Diseases, Fourth Military Medical University Xi'an, Shaanxi, China.

Pyroptosis plays a vital role in the development of cancers; however, its role in regulating immune cell infiltration in tumor microenvironment (TME) and pyroptosis-related molecular subtypes remain unclear. Herein, we comprehensively analyzed the molecular subtypes mediated by the pyroptosis-related genes (PRGs) in gastric cancer (GC). Three pyroptosis patterns were determined with distinct TME cell-infiltrating characteristics and prognosis. Principal component analysis was performed to establish the pyroptosis score. The high pyroptosis score group was featured by increased activated CD4+ T cell infiltration, better prognosis, elevated tumor mutation burden, higher immune and stromal scores, and enhanced response to immunotherapy. However, the low pyroptosis score group was characterized by poorer survival, decreased immune infiltration, and glycerolipid and histidine metabolism pathways. Additionally, high pyroptosis score was confirmed as an independent favorable prognostic factor for overall survival. Three cohorts designed to analyze the response to immunotherapy verified that patients with higher pyroptosis score showed treatment benefit. In summary, our study demonstrated that pyroptosis regulates the complex TME. Assessing the pyroptosis patterns will advance our understanding on TME features and tumor immunology and provide the rationale for designing personalized immunotherapy strategies.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9077078PMC
April 2022

Case Report: Hemodynamic Instability Caused by Splenic Rupture During Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Lobectomy.

Front Surg 2022 22;9:900396. Epub 2022 Apr 22.

Department of Anesthesiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu, China.

Background: Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) has been widely performed for patients with lung cancer. Splenic rupture after VATS lung procedures is a very rare and serious event.

Case Presentation: We reported a case with hemodynamic instability after left lower VATS lobectomy. There was no evidence of diaphragmatic injury during the surgery. Computed tomography (CT) showed spleen injury and large amount of fluid in the abdominal cavity. Emergent laparotomy was performed, and splenic rupture was diagnosed. The patient underwent splenectomy, with two lacerations at the diaphragmatic surface of the spleen. The patient did well postoperatively and was discharged from the hospital on postoperative day 5.

Conclusion: There are few similar cases reported in the literature. Persistent hemodynamic instability due to the rupture of spleen is life-threatening. In the situation of unexplained hypotension during VATS procedures (especially left-sided approaches), the possibility of splenic injury and rupture should be considered. Abdominal ultrasonography and/or CT examinations should be carried out for prompt diagnosis and treatment of such rare complication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fsurg.2022.900396DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9073001PMC
April 2022

Diallyl disulfide ameliorates ethanol-induced liver steatosis and inflammation by maintaining the fatty acid catabolism and regulating the gut-liver axis.

Food Chem Toxicol 2022 May 5:113108. Epub 2022 May 5.

Institute of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, 250012, China. Electronic address:

Diallyl disulfide (DADS) has been suggested to possess hepatoprotection against alcoholic liver disease (ALD) by a couple of pilot studies, while the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. This study aimed to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of DADS against ethanol-induced liver steatosis and early inflammation by using the chronic-plus-binge mice model and cultured J774A.1 macrophages and AML12 hepatocytes. We found that DADS significantly attenuated ethanol-induced elevation of serum aminotransferase activities, accumulation of liver triglyceride, hepatocytes apoptosis, oxidative stress, infiltration of macrophages and neutrophils, and proinflammatory polarization of macrophages in mice livers. In addition, chronic-plus-binge drinking induced apparent intestinal mucosa damage and disturbance of gut microbiota, endotoxemia, and activation of hepatic NF-κB signaling and NLRP3 inflammasome, which was inhibited by DADS. In vitro studies using cocultured AML12/J774A.1 cells showed that DADS suppressed ethanol/LPS-induced cell injury and inflammatory activation of macrophages. Furthermore, DADS ameliorated ethanol-induced decline of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1), and phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) protein levels in mice livers and AML12 cells. These results demonstrate that DADS could prevent ethanol-induced liver steatosis and early inflammation by regulating the gut-liver axis and maintaining fatty acid catabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2022.113108DOI Listing
May 2022

Reprogramming thermodynamic-limiting oxidation cycle in NiFe-based oxygen evolution electrocatalyst through Mo doping induced surface reconstruction.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2022 Apr 29;622:443-451. Epub 2022 Apr 29.

Institute for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022, China. Electronic address:

Engineering of robust nonprecious electrocatalysts toward anodic oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is of great significance for lowering the cost and energy consumption for renewable fuel production. Herein, we report NiFeMoO nanosheets as high-performance OER electrocatalyst through promoting the thermodynamic-limiting oxidation cycle process in NiFe oxyhydroxide via high-valence Mo doping. The NiFeMoO nanosheets are prepared by an elaborate in-situ solvothermal etching-depositing process with NiFe alloy framework as substrate and metal precursors. The resultant nanosheets exhibit outstanding alkaline OER activity, requires only 235/282/327 mV overpotentials to achieve current density of 10/100/300 mA cm, respectively, with a good long-term stability at 20 mA cm for 72 h. Besides, the Tafel slope low to 28.1 mV dec indicates a favorable OER kinetics. The superior catalytic activity of NiFeMoO nanosheets should be attributed to the lower oxidation states of Ni and Fe induced by high-valence dopant, leading to easier surface reconstruction at low charge oxidation cycling during OER, thereby effectively reducing the overpotential. The synergy between the electronic effect among multimetallic sites and the unique morphology is expected to inspire the development of robust OER electrocatalyst for industrial application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2022.04.129DOI Listing
April 2022

Transcriptome analysis of developing zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo following exposure to Gaudichaudione H reveals teratogenicity and cardiovascular defects caused by abnormal iron metabolism.

Chem Biol Interact 2022 May 5;361:109968. Epub 2022 May 5.

The Academician Workstation, Jiangxi University of Chinese Medicine, Nanchang 330004, Jiangxi, People's Republic of China.

Gaudichaudione H (GH), a caged polyprenylated xanthone from Garcinia plants, showed anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory effects in vitro. However, the in vivo toxicity of this compound has never been reported. The present study was aimed to address the toxic effects of Gaudichaudione H using zebrafish embryos and larvae as an in vivo test model. The zebrafish embryos were treated with GH having different concentrations (0, 0.28, 0.38 and 0.57 μg/mL). The results revealed that GH induces significant embryonic mortality, decreased heartbeat, cardiotoxicity, cardiovascular defects, increased apoptosis and decreased hemoglobinization in zebrafish embryos and larvae. According to transcriptome analysis, 1841 genes were significantly differentially expressed (1185 down-regulated and 656 up-regulated) after GH treatment. The main functions of these genes were related to iron metabolism pathways. The toxicity of GH on zebrafish embryonic development and cardiovascular may due to large amounts of downregulated genes involved in metabolic pathways and DEGs related to 'Iron ion binding' and 'Heme binding' functions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbi.2022.109968DOI Listing
May 2022

Identification of shared loci associated with both Crohn's disease and leprosy in east Asians.

Hum Mol Genet 2022 May 5. Epub 2022 May 5.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of Crohn's disease (CD) in European and leprosy in Chinese population have shown that CD and leprosy share genetic risk loci. As these shared loci were identified through cross-comparisons across different ethnic populations, we hypothesized that meta-analysis of GWAS on CD and leprosy in East Asian populations would increase power to identify additional shared loci. We performed a cross-disease meta-analysis of GWAS data from CD (1621 cases and 4419 controls) and leprosy (2901 cases 3801 controls) followed by replication in additional datasets comprising 738 CD cases and 488 controls and 842 leprosy cases and 925 controls. We identified one novel locus at 7p22.3, rs77992257 in intron 2 of ADAP1, shared between CD and leprosy with genome-wide significance (P = 3.80 × 10-11) and confirmed 10 previously established loci in both diseases: IL23R, IL18RAP, IL12B, RIPK2, TNFSF15, ZNF365-EGR2, CCDC88B, LACC1, IL27, NOD2. Phenotype variance explained by the polygenic risk scores derived from Chinese leprosy data explained up to 5.28% of variance of Korean CD, supporting similar genetic structures between the two diseases. Although CD and leprosy shared a substantial number of genetic susceptibility loci in East Asians, the majority of shared susceptibility loci showed allelic effects in the opposite direction. Investigation of the genetic correlation using cross-trait linkage disequilibrium score regression also showed a negative genetic correlation between CD and leprosy (rg [SE] = -0.40, [0.13], P = 2.6 × 10-3). These observations implicate the possibility that CD might be caused by hyper-sensitive reactions toward pathogenic stimuli.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddac101DOI Listing
May 2022

Synchronous Disintegration of Ferroptosis Defense Axis via Engineered Exosome-Conjugated Magnetic Nanoparticles for Glioblastoma Therapy.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2022 May 4:e2105451. Epub 2022 May 4.

Department of Neurosurgery, Qilu Hospital, Cheeloo College of Medicine and Institute of Brain and Brain-Inspired Science, Shandong University, Jinan, 250012, P. R. China.

Glioblastoma (GBM) is one of the most fatal central nervous system tumors and lacks effective or sufficient therapies. Ferroptosis is a newly discovered method of programmed cell death and opens a new direction for GBM treatment. However, poor blood-brain barrier (BBB) penetration, reduced tumor targeting ability, and potential compensatory mechanisms hinder the effectiveness of ferroptosis agents during GBM treatment. Here, a novel composite therapeutic platform combining the magnetic targeting features and drug delivery properties of magnetic nanoparticles with the BBB penetration abilities and siRNA encapsulation properties of engineered exosomes for GBM therapy is presented. This platform can be enriched in the brain under local magnetic localization and angiopep-2 peptide-modified engineered exosomes can trigger transcytosis, allowing the particles to cross the BBB and target GBM cells by recognizing the LRP-1 receptor. Synergistic ferroptosis therapy of GBM is achieved by the combined triple actions of the disintegration of dihydroorotate dehydrogenase and the glutathione peroxidase 4 ferroptosis defense axis with Fe O nanoparticle-mediated Fe release. Thus, the present findings show that this system can serve as a promising platform for the treatment of glioblastoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/advs.202105451DOI Listing
May 2022

The coexistence of long and high as a concise criterion for a good single-molecule magnet: a theoretical case study of square antiprism dysprosium single-ion magnets.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2022 May 18;24(19):11729-11742. Epub 2022 May 18.

Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule of the Ministry of Education, Lab of Theoretical Molecular Magnetism, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi'an, 710127, P. R. China.

A systematic theoretical study is performed on a group of 16 square antiprism dysprosium single-ion magnets. Based on calculations, the quantum tunneling of magnetization (QTM) time, , , and effective barrier of magnetic reversal, , are theoretically predicted. The theoretical is able to identify the ones with the longest QTM time with small numerical deviations. Similar results occur with respect to too. The systems possessing the best single-molecule magnet (SMM) properties here are just the ones having both the longest and the highest , from either experiment or theory. Thus, our results suggest the coexistence of long and high to be a criterion for high-performance SMMs. Although having its own limits, this criterion is easy to be applied in a large number of systems since both and could be predicted by theory with satisfactory efficiency and reliability. Therefore, this concise criterion could provide screened candidates for high-performance SMMs quickly and, hence, ease the burden of further exploration aiming for a higher degree of precision. This screening is important since the further exploration could easily demand tens or even hundreds of calculations for a single SMM. A semi-quantitative crystal field (CF) analysis is performed and shown here to be capable of indicating the general trends in a more chemically intuitive way. This analysis could help to identify the most important coordinating atoms for both diagonal and non-diagonal CF components. Thus, it could give some direct clues for improving the SMM properties: reducing the distance of the axial atom to the central ion, rotating the axial atom closer to the easy axis or increasing the amount of its negative charge. Correspondingly, opposite operations on the equatorial atom could give the same result.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2cp00776bDOI Listing
May 2022

Analysis of Factors Influencing Restenosis after Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty.

Blood Purif 2022 May 3:1-8. Epub 2022 May 3.

Department of Radiology, Yongchuan Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Introduction: This study aimed to analyse the influencing factors of arteriovenous fistula (AVF) ultrasound-guided restenosis after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA).

Methods: This was a retrospective trial. The clinical data and ultrasound examination data of patients in maintenance haemodialysis who received ultrasound-guided PTA for AVF stenosis at our hospital from January 2018 to December 2020 were retrospectively analysed. The fistula patency and the relationship between age, dialysis age, fistula service age, combined hypertension, diabetes, hypoproteinaemia, stenosis type, fistula location, and patency rate after the operation were evaluated.

Results: A total of 128 participants were evaluated. The results showed that being over 65 years old, with complications from hypertension, diabetes, and hypoproteinaemia, are all risk factors affecting the patency of postoperative internal fistulas. Compared with lumen stenosis, the patency rate of hyperplastic endothelial stenosis (p = 0.014) and thrombotic stenosis (p = 0.017) was lower, and the difference was statistically significant. The patency rate of the mixed site (p = 0.010), the anastomotic site (p = 0.041), and the cephalic vein near the anastomotic site (p = 0.018) was lower than the forearm cephalic vein, and the difference was statistically significant.

Conclusion: Age, hypertension complications, diabetes complications, hypoproteinaemia, and the type and location of the AVF stenosis were essential for vascular patency of internal fistulas after PTA. Other risk factors of restenosis after PTA still need further research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000524159DOI Listing
May 2022

Intrathecal Injection of Ropivacaine Reduces Cervical Resistance in Late-Pregnant Rats.

Drug Des Devel Ther 2022 26;16:1183-1189. Epub 2022 Apr 26.

Department of Anesthesiology, Xuzhou Maternity and Child Health Care Hospital, Xuzhou, Jiangsu, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Neuraxial (spinal and epidural) anesthesia is the cornerstone of ensuring the satisfaction rate of painless delivery; however, whether it prolongs the first stage of labor remains controversial. Although current clinical research results tend to be negative, the conclusions are not convincing due to the lack of basic research. This study was conducted to provide a theoretical reference for this controversy through basic research.

Materials And Methods: A spinal anesthesia model was established by the intrathecal injection of 0.1% ropivacaine in late-pregnant rats (day 22). The cervical resistance test was used to measure the tension of different groups of isolated cervical tissues. Western blotting and cervical tissue cyclic AMP (cAMP) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were performed to clarify the possible related mechanisms.

Results: Cervical resistance experiments showed that the intrathecal injection of ropivacaine decreased the cervical resistance, and norepinephrine injection reversed this effect. Western blotting showed that α2A adrenergic receptor (α-AR) levels gradually increased over time in pregnant rats. The cAMP enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed that the intrathecal injection of norepinephrine reversed the increase in cervical tissue cAMP concentration caused by ropivacaine injection.

Conclusion: Ropivacaine relaxes the cervix. Further, α-AR may be involved in the process of cervical contraction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DDDT.S352411DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9056095PMC
May 2022

Effect of different superfine grinding technologies on the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of tartary buckwheat bran powder.

RSC Adv 2021 Sep 17;11(49):30898-30910. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Huantai Biotechnology Co., Ltd. Chengdu 610225 China.

The effect of shear crushing, airflow comminution, and wet grinding on the physical and chemical properties of Tartary buckwheat bran (TBB) powder was compared. Superfine grinding significantly reduces the particle size of bran (1.644 μm), while increasing the protein content (23.60%), water-holding capacity (4.38 g g), solubility (21.077 g 100 g), bulk density (0.34 g mL), and tap density (0.53 g mL) providing good processing characteristics. The antioxidant properties of bran powder prepared by the three methods mentioned above were compared. The results showed that different bran powders subjected to superfine grinding displayed varying levels of antioxidant capacity. The quercetin content (2.18 g 100 g) of the wet-grinding bran powder (WGBP) was twice that of the control group, while no rutin was detected. The total flavonoid content (TFC) and total phenolic content (TPC) were significantly different from those of other groups. The DPPH, ˙OH, and ABTS removal rates were 60.74%, 86.62%, and 92.98%, respectively, while that of ˙OH was significantly higher than in the other treatment groups. The control group, shear crushed, and airflow comminution bran exhibited no significant differences in TFC, TPC, and oxidation resistance, except for the ability to remove ˙OH. TBB powder obtained superfine grinding displayed superior taste and functional characteristics, providing a theoretical reference for the processing of this bran.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1ra05093aDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9041412PMC
September 2021

A novel method of preparing vanadium-based precursors and their enhancement mechanism in vanadium nitride preparation.

RSC Adv 2022 Apr 29;12(21):13093-13102. Epub 2022 Apr 29.

School of Resource and Environmental Engineering, Wuhan University of Science and Technology Wuhan 430081 Hubei Province PR China +86 15271803213 +86 13907158287.

Vanadium nitride is widely used because of its excellent properties. The existing production methods are affected by the problems of complex preparation for the vanadium source, high temperature, and low N content. In this work, a wide range of vanadium solutions were used as the vanadium source to prepare vanadium nitride with high N content. In this work, a novel precursor was prepared by a microwave-assisted precipitation process, and then the vanadium nitride was prepared by reduction and nitridation precursor at 1150 °C. The results show that in the microwave-assisted method, the particle size and structure of the precursor can be adjusted, so that the contact area of the precursor with N during the nitridation process becomes larger, the N diffusion path becomes shorter, and the formation of vanadium nitride is enhanced. The prepared product has a nitrogen content of 17.67 wt% and is composed of uniform spherical particles. The content of other chemical components and density can achieve the standard requirements specified in VN16. Meanwhile, the thermodynamic analysis showed that the NH generated by the thermal decomposition of the precursor can be used directly as a reducing gas to reduce VO, and reduced the emission of polluting gases. It is a feasible method to prepare vanadium nitride by reduction and nitridation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2ra00584kDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9052464PMC
April 2022

Breast Cancer Molecular Subtype Prediction on Pathological Images with Discriminative Patch Selection and Multi-Instance Learning.

Front Oncol 2022 14;12:858453. Epub 2022 Apr 14.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Mobile Computing and Pervasive Device, Institute of Computing Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

Molecular subtypes of breast cancer are important references to personalized clinical treatment. For cost and labor savings, only one of the patient's paraffin blocks is usually selected for subsequent immunohistochemistry (IHC) to obtain molecular subtypes. Inevitable block sampling error is risky due to the tumor heterogeneity and could result in a delay in treatment. Molecular subtype prediction from conventional H&E pathological whole slide images (WSI) using the AI method is useful and critical to assist pathologists to pre-screen proper paraffin block for IHC. It is a challenging task since only WSI-level labels of molecular subtypes from IHC can be obtained without detailed local region information. Gigapixel WSIs are divided into a huge amount of patches to be computationally feasible for deep learning, while with coarse slide-level labels, patch-based methods may suffer from abundant noise patches, such as folds, overstained regions, or non-tumor tissues. A weakly supervised learning framework based on discriminative patch selection and multi-instance learning was proposed for breast cancer molecular subtype prediction from H&E WSIs. Firstly, co-teaching strategy using two networks was adopted to learn molecular subtype representations and filter out some noise patches. Then, a balanced sampling strategy was used to handle the imbalance in subtypes in the dataset. In addition, a noise patch filtering algorithm that used local outlier factor based on cluster centers was proposed to further select discriminative patches. Finally, a loss function integrating local patch with global slide constraint information was used to fine-tune MIL framework on obtained discriminative patches and further improve the prediction performance of molecular subtyping. The experimental results confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed AI method and our models outperformed even senior pathologists, which has the potential to assist pathologists to pre-screen paraffin blocks for IHC in clinic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2022.858453DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9046851PMC
April 2022

Microbiology and Outcome of Peritoneal Dialysis-Related Peritonitis in Elderly Patients: A Retrospective Study in China.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2022 14;9:799110. Epub 2022 Apr 14.

Department of Nephrology, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Hunan Key Laboratory of Kidney Disease and Blood Purification, Changsha, China.

Objective: The number of elderly patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) has rapidly increased in the past few decades. We sought to explore the microbiology and outcomes of peritonitis in elderly PD patients compared with younger PD patients.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective study to analyze the clinical characteristics, causative organism distribution, and outcome of all PD patients who developed peritonitis between September 1, 2014 and December 31, 2020, from Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, China. Patients who experienced peritonitis were separated into elderly and younger groups. The elderly was defined as ≥ 65 years old at the initiation of PD.

Results: Among 1,200 patients, 64(33.9%) in elderly ( = 189) and 215 (21.3%) in younger ( = 1,011) developed at least one episode of peritonitis. A total of 394 episodes of peritonitis occurred in 279 patients. Of these, 88 episodes occurred in 64 elderly patients, and 306 episodes occurred in 215 younger patients. Gram-positive bacteria were the main causative organisms in elderly and younger patients (43.2% and 38.0%, respectively). Staphylococcus and Escherichia coli were the most common gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, respectively. Fungal peritonitis in elderly patients was higher compared with younger patients (χ2 = 6.55, = 0.01). Moreover, Acinetobacter baumannii (χ =9.25, = 0.002) and polymicrobial peritonitis (χ = 6.41, = 0.01) in elderly patients were also significantly higher than that in younger patients. Additionally, elderly PD patients had higher peritonitis-related mortality than younger patients (χ = 12.521, = 0.000), though there was no significant difference in catheter removal between the two groups. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that cumulative survival was significantly lower in elderly patients than younger patients (log rank = 7.867, = 0.005), but similar technical survival in both groups (log rank = 0.036, = 0.849).

Conclusions: This retrospective study demonstrated that elderly PD patients were more likely to develop Acinetobacter baumannii, fungal and polymicrobial peritonitis than younger PD patients. In addition, peritonitis-related mortality was significantly higher in elderly patients, whereas peritonitis-related catheter removal was comparable between elderly and younger PD patients. Understanding microbiology and outcome in elderly patients will help to reduce the incidence of PD-associated peritonitis and improve the quality of life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2022.799110DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9046869PMC
April 2022

Bombesin receptor-activated protein exacerbates cisplatin-induced AKI by regulating the degradation of SIRT2.

Nephrol Dial Transplant 2022 Apr 30. Epub 2022 Apr 30.

Department of Nephrology, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China.

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a public health problem with no specific therapies in the clinic, and the underlying pathogenesis of AKI remains obscure. Bombesin receptor-activated protein(BRAP, C6ORF89 protein) was initially discovered as a ligand for a previously orphan G protein-coupled receptor bombesin-like receptor-3. At present, accepted biological effects of BRAP include cell cycle progression, wound repair, and the activation of histone deacetylases. However, its role in kidney disease is unknown. In this study, we have investigated the role of BRAP and underlying mechanisms involved in cisplatin-induced AKI. BRAP was down-regulated in mice and human kidneys with AKI. Global Bc004004(homologous of C6ORF89 in mice) deletion alleviated tubular cell apoptosis and necroptosis in cisplatin-induced AKI mice, whereas local overexpression of BRAP in kidneys aggravated them. The pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD pretreatments attenuated cisplatin-induced blood creatinine increase and kidney injury in wild-type mice, but not in BRAP-/- mice. The activation of MLKL was magnified by Z-VAD in cisplatin-treated mice, especially in BRAP-/- mice. The cytoprotective effect of Z-VAD was more substantial than Necrostatin-1(Nec-1, an inhibitor of necroptosis) in CP-treated human kidney proximal tubular epithelial (HK2) cells. Furthermore, Nec-1pretreatment reduced the CP-induced cell death in BRAP overexpression HK2 cells but did not work in cells with normal BRAP levels. We determined that cisplatin treatment activated NF-κB subunit P65, and inhibition of P65 increased the mRNA levels of BRAP in HK2cells. ChIP assay and Dual-luciferase reporter gene assay verified P65 binding to the C6ORF89 promoter and reduced its mRNA expression upon cisplatin treatment. Next, we found that SIRT2 was downregulated in cisplatin-induced AKI, and BRAP levels directly impacted the protein levels of SIRT2. Our findings further confirmed that BRAP regulates the SIRT2 protein levels by affecting SIRT2's interactions with E3 ubiquitin ligase HRD1 and subsequent proteasomal degradation. Collectively, our results demonstrated that BRAP played an important role in tubular cell apoptosis and necroptosis during cisplatin-induced AKI. Safe and efficient BRAP inhibitors might be effective therapeutic options for AKI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfac164DOI Listing
April 2022

Rational synthesis of IR820-albumin complex for NIR-II fluorescence imaging-guided surgical treatment of tumors and gastrointestinal obstruction.

RSC Adv 2022 Apr 21;12(19):12136-12144. Epub 2022 Apr 21.

School of Medical Imaging, Tianjin Medical University Tianjin 300203 China

IR820, an analog of FDA-approved indocyanine green, is a promising second near-infrared window (NIR-II) fluorescence probe with better NIR-II fluorescence stability and great clinical transformation potential. Moreover, its fluorescence can be further remarkably enhanced by the interaction with albumin. Therefore, it is significant to flexibly design IR820-albumin complex using endogenous or exogenetic albumin to meet the requirements of different biological applications. Herein, we show the rational synthesis of IR820-albumin complex for NIR-II fluorescence imaging-guided surgical treatment of tumors and gastrointestinal obstruction. We compared the NIR-II fluorescence imaging ability of IR820 pre-incubated with albumin or not to visualize tumors and the gastrointestinal tract and found that the formation of IR820-albumin was essential for the intense NIR-II fluorescence. For imaging-guided tumor treatment, after intravenous injection of free IR820, IR820-albumin complex can be formed due to the presence of plenty of albumin in the blood. For imaging-guided gastrointestinal obstruction removal, IR820-albumin complex should be synthesized before oral administration. NIR-II fluorescence imaging-guided surgeries were successfully realized in both tumor resection and gastrointestinal obstruction removal. Besides, toxicity assessments and confirmed the good biocompatibility of IR820. Our study provides a flexible paradigm for IR820-based NIR-II fluorescence imaging and surgical navigation towards different diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2ra00449fDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9023119PMC
April 2022

Effects of different ozone treatments on the storage quality and stability of fresh peeled garlic.

RSC Adv 2021 Jun 28;11(37):22530-22543. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Key Laboratory of Grain and Oil Processing and Food Safety of Sichuan Province, College of Food and Bioengineering, Xihua University Chengdu 610039 China

In order to understand their impacts on the preservation of fresh garlic, varying concentrations of ozone gas and different storage temperatures were tested for this experiment. The results demonstrated that freshly peeled garlic was best preserved by an ozone concentration of 5 ppm and storage at 4 °C compared to other treatment groups. With these optimized conditions, after 25 days of storage, the weight of garlic decreased by only 1.89% and, under the same storage conditions, the water loss rate was only 65.17% that of the control group, with a decay rate of only 12.50%. The rate of decay in the blank control group was three times that of this group. The germination rate was also low: only 30.26%, which was 57.69% that of the blank control group. The hardness was measured at 7.48 kg cm, 19.79% higher than that of the blank group. The content of soluble solids was 9.15 g 100 mL, which was 10.27% higher than that of the blank group, again proving that the above storage parameters were effective. At the same time, the titratable acid (TA) in the garlic was 15.48%, which was 1.17 times that of the blank group and corresponds to the vitamin C content. Also, the content of diallyl trisulfide only decreased by 3.98% and was 11.2% higher ( < 0.01) than that of the blank group. Finally, the validity of this optimal result was also confirmed by sensory evaluation. These results, for garlic, support the application of ozone as a safe, non-thermal preservation technique benefiting both producers and consumers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1ra00433fDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9034373PMC
June 2021

Drawing at the Nanoscale through Macroscopic Movement.

Small Methods 2022 Apr 27:e2200293. Epub 2022 Apr 27.

Institute for Composites Science Innovation, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027, China.

Nanopatterns are important for applications in various nanodevice fields. Existing nanopatterning techniques mainly directly manufacture the nanopatterns through various lithographic methods, which usually are laborious, time-consuming, and need expensive equipment. Here, an extremely simple drawing at the nanoscale (DAN) concept to indirectly fabricate rational nanopatterns through controlling the macroscopic movement of the substrate , is demonstrated. The structure of the nanopatterns is completely determined by and can be shrunk by millions of times from the moving track of the substrate. Multiple surface nanopatterns of different materials with accurately tailorable relative positions can be simply stacked together by moving the substrate by macroscopic distances during different DAN processes. In combination with sophisticated lithographic methods, the DAN method is anticipated to enable substantial advances in nanofabrication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smtd.202200293DOI Listing
April 2022

Mercury thermometer-inspired test strip for concentration cell-based potentiometric detection of salivary α-amylase.

Anal Chim Acta 2022 May 1;1206:339770. Epub 2022 Apr 1.

State Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics, School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Southeast University, 210096, Nanjing, China. Electronic address:

In this work, we report on the mercury thermometer-inspired test strip for potentiometric detection of salivary α-amylase (sAA). The test strip contains a reaction chamber and two split channels, which are connected by a curved hydrophobic channel. The detection of sAA is based on sequential two-step reactions with preloaded reagents on the test strip. In the first step, maltose is produced by catalyzing the hydrolysis of starch using sAA in the reaction chamber. In the second step, the test strip is shaken to introduce the reaction mixture to the split channels under the inertia force, similar to the operation of a mercury thermometer. In one split channel, maltose reduces [Fe(CN)] to [Fe(CN)] under the alkaline condition, while the reaction hardly occurs in the other split channel with the neutral condition. This leads to a difference in the ratio of [Fe(CN)]/[Fe(CN)] between the two channels and therefore a potential difference that can be measured and correlated to sAA concentration. Using this test strip, sAA in the human saliva sample was quantitatively analyzed within 2 min. The application of this technique in the psychological evaluation was also demonstrated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2022.339770DOI Listing
May 2022

Effect of lipid-lowering medications in patients with coronary artery bypass grafting surgery outcomes.

BMC Anesthesiol 2022 04 26;22(1):122. Epub 2022 Apr 26.

Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, University of California Davis Health, 4150 V Street, Suite 1200, Sacramento, CA, 95817, USA.

Background: Increased life expectancy and improved medical technology allow increasing numbers of elderly patients to undergo cardiac surgery. Elderly patients may be at greater risk of postoperative morbidity and mortality. Complications can lead to worsened quality of life, shortened life expectancy and higher healthcare costs. Reducing perioperative complications, especially severe adverse events, is key to improving outcomes in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. The objective of this study is to determine whether perioperative lipid-lowering medication use is associated with a reduced risk of complications and mortality after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB).

Methods: After IRB approval, we reviewed charts of 9,518 patients who underwent cardiac surgery with CPB at three medical centers between July 2001 and June 2015. The relationship between perioperative lipid-lowering treatment and postoperative outcome was investigated. 3,988 patients who underwent CABG met inclusion criteria and were analyzed. Patients were divided into lipid-lowering or non-lipid-lowering treatment groups.

Results: A total of 3,988 patients were included in the final analysis. Compared to the patients without lipid-lowering medications, the patients with lipid-lowering medications had lower postoperative neurologic complications and overall mortality (P < 0.05). Propensity weighted risk-adjustment showed that lipid-lowering medication reduced in-hospital total complications (odds ratio (OR) = 0.856; 95% CI 0.781-0.938; P < 0.001); all neurologic complications (OR = 0.572; 95% CI 0.441-0.739; P < 0.001) including stroke (OR = 0.481; 95% CI 0.349-0.654; P < 0.001); in-hospital mortality (OR = 0.616; 95% CI 0.432-0.869; P = 0.006; P < 0.001); and overall mortality (OR = 0.723; 95% CI 0.634-0.824; P < 0.001). In addition, the results indicated postoperative lipid-lowering medication use was associated with improved long-term survival in this patient population.

Conclusions: Perioperative lipid-lowering medication use was associated with significantly reduced postoperative adverse events and improved overall outcome in elderly patients undergoing CABG surgery with CPB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12871-022-01675-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9040242PMC
April 2022

Recent advances and clinical applications of deep learning in medical image analysis.

Med Image Anal 2022 Apr 4;79:102444. Epub 2022 Apr 4.

School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019, USA. Electronic address:

Deep learning has received extensive research interest in developing new medical image processing algorithms, and deep learning based models have been remarkably successful in a variety of medical imaging tasks to support disease detection and diagnosis. Despite the success, the further improvement of deep learning models in medical image analysis is majorly bottlenecked by the lack of large-sized and well-annotated datasets. In the past five years, many studies have focused on addressing this challenge. In this paper, we reviewed and summarized these recent studies to provide a comprehensive overview of applying deep learning methods in various medical image analysis tasks. Especially, we emphasize the latest progress and contributions of state-of-the-art unsupervised and semi-supervised deep learning in medical image analysis, which are summarized based on different application scenarios, including classification, segmentation, detection, and image registration. We also discuss major technical challenges and suggest possible solutions in the future research efforts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.media.2022.102444DOI Listing
April 2022
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