Publications by authors named "Liu X"

83,240 Publications

Clinical outcomes and predictive factors for failure with MPFL reconstruction combined with tibial tubercle osteotomy and lateral retinacular release for recurrent patellar instability.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2021 Jul 21;22(1):632. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, 37 Guoxue lane, Wuhou District, Chengdu, China.

Background: Medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction combined with tibial tubercle osteotomy (TTO) and lateral retinacular release (LRR) is one of the main treatment methods for patellar instability. So far, few studies have evaluated the clinical effectiveness and assessed potential risk factors for recurrent patellar instability.

Purpose: To report the clinical outcomes of MPFL reconstruction combined with TTO and LRR at least three years after operation and to identify potential risk factors for recurrent patellar instability.

Methods: A retrospective analysis of medical records for patients treated with MPFL, TTO and LRR from 2013 to 2017 was performed. Preoperative assessment for imaging examination included trochlear dysplasia according to Dejour classification, patella alta with the Caton-Deschamps index (CDI), tibial tubercle-trochlear groove distance. Postoperative assessment for knee function included Kujala, IKDC and Tegner scores. Failure rate which was defined by a postoperative dislocation was also reported.

Results: A total of 108 knees in 98 patients were included in the study. The mean age at operation was 19.2 ± 6.1 years (range, 13-40 years), and the mean follow-up was 61.3 ± 15.4 months (range, 36-92 months). All patients included had trochlear dysplasia (A, 24%; B, 17%; C, 35%; D, 24%), and 67% had patellar alta. The mean postoperative scores of Tegner, Kujala and IKDC were 5.3 ± 1.3 (2-8), 90.5 ± 15.5 (24-100) and 72.7 ± 12.1 (26-86). Postoperative dislocation happened in 6 patients (5.6%). Female gender was a risk factor for lower IKDC (70.7 vs 78.1, P = 0.006), Tegner (5.1 vs 6.0, P = 0.006) and Kujala (88.2 vs 96.6, P = 0.008). Age (p = 0.011) and trochlear dysplasia (p = 0.016) were considered to be two failure factors for MPFL combined with TTO and LRR.

Conclusion: As a surgical method, MPFL combined with TTO and LRR would be a reliable choice with a low failure rate (5.6%). Female gender was a risk factor for worse postoperative outcomes. Preoperative failure risk factors in this study were age and trochlear dysplasia.

Level Of Evidence: Level IV; Case series.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12891-021-04508-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8296593PMC
July 2021

Observation of synergistic antibacterial properties of prodigiosin from jx-1 with metal ions in clinical isolates of .

Prep Biochem Biotechnol 2021 Jul 21:1-7. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

College of Biological, Chemical Sciences and Engineering, Jiaxing University, Jiaxing, China.

Methicillin-resistant (MRSA) infections are a major global health problem, and novel and effective antimicrobial drugs are urgently required to combat this life-threatening pathogen. Prodigiosin (PG) is a bacterial secondary metabolite with excellent anticancer and antibacterial properties. However, little is known about the antibacterial function of PG against MRSA. Therefore, the antibacterial efficacy of PG alone and PG in combination with different metal ions against clinic isolates of MRSA and methicillin-sensitive (MSSA) strain was evaluated in the present study. The minimum inhibitory concentration of PG against both MRSA and MSSA was 0.25 μg/mL. However, 0.1 μg/mL PG showed a stronger inhibitory effect on MSSA cell growth (47.12%) than on MRSA cell growth (35.87%). Surprisingly, we observed a significant difference ( < 0.01) in membrane integrity between PG-treated MRSA and MSSA using the propidium iodide staining assay. Further, we found that in combination with PG, Zn, Al, and Cu showed synergistic antibacterial effects against MRSA and MSSA. Our results could increase the current knowledge regarding the efficacy of PG in inhibiting the growth of different types of clinical isolates and also offer a novel strategy for developing efficient antibacterial agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10826068.2021.1944201DOI Listing
July 2021

Recombinant chimpanzee adenovirus AdC7 expressing dimeric tandem-repeat spike protein RBD protects mice against COVID-19.

Emerg Microbes Infect 2021 Jul 22:1-40. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Key Laboratory of Tropical Translational Medicine of Ministry of Education, School of Tropical Medicine and Laboratory Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital, Hainan Medical University, Haikou, China.

A safe and effective vaccine is urgently needed to control the unprecedented COVID-19 pandemic. Four adenovirus vectored vaccines expressing spike (S) protein have been approved for use. Here, we generated several recombinant chimpanzee adenovirus (AdC7) vaccines expressing S, receptor-binding domain (RBD) or tandem-repeat dimeric RBD (RBD-tr2). We found vaccination via either intramuscular or intranasal route was highly immunogenic in mice to elicit both humoral and cellular immune responses. AdC7-RBD-tr2 showed higher antibody responses compared to either AdC7-S or AdC7-RBD. Intranasal administration of AdC7-RBD-tr2 additionally induced mucosal immunity with neutralizing activity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Either single-dose or two-dose mucosal administration of AdC7-RBD-tr2 protected mice against SARS-CoV-2 challenge, with undetectable subgenomic RNA in lung and relieved lung injury. AdC7-RBD-tr2-elicted sera preserved the neutralizing activity against the circulating variants, especially the Delta variant. These results support AdC7-RBD-tr2 as a promising COVID-19 vaccine candidate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/22221751.2021.1959270DOI Listing
July 2021

Effect of alkaline lignin on immobilization of cadmium and lead in soils and the associated mechanisms.

Chemosphere 2021 Oct 24;281:130969. Epub 2021 May 24.

Institute of Soil and Water Resources and Environmental Science, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, China; Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, China. Electronic address:

Lignin is a low-cost and environmental-friendly material and could increase the solubility of phosphorus (P) in soils. Meanwhile, application of P compounds to soils decreases the bioavailability of heavy metals. However, there are few reports on whether lignin-induced P release immobilizes heavy metals in soil. This study investigated this possibility by adding alkaline lignin to forest, paddy and upland soils differing in pH and available P. The amendment of alkaline lignin increased soil P availability and enhanced the adsorption and decreased the desorption percentages of Cd in acid forest and paddy soils. The P released from the soil could immobilize Pb and Cd but the presence of Pb decreased the adsorption capacity of Cd on the acid soils. In comparison, the alkaline lignin decreased Cd adsorption and raised Cd desorption in the alkaline upland soil, due to the formation of soluble complex of hydrophilic organic matter with Cd. In addition, precipitation, complexion, and competition effect among Cd, P and lignin in different soils led to various P concentrations in the experiment. The study suggests that alkaline lignin was effective in Cd/Pb immobilization partly via enhanced P availability in acid soils, but was ineffective in Cd immobilization in alkaline soils.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.130969DOI Listing
October 2021

[Risk factors of peritoneal metastasis in primary appendiceal tumor].

Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi 2021 Jul;43(7):806-809

Department of Coloretcal Surgery, the Sixth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510655, China.

To investigate the risk factors of peritoneal metastasis in primary appendiceal tumor. The clinic data of 71 patients with primary appendiceal tumor admitted in the Sixth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University between Dec 2012 and Jan 2019 were enrolled retrospectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis were carried out to evaluate the risk factors of appendiceal tumor with peritoneal metastasis. Of the 71 patients, 33 were peritoneal metastasis (peritoneal metastasis group) and 38 were non-peritoneal metastasis (no peritoneal metastasis group). Twenty-one patients in the peritoneal metastasis group had increased preoperative cancer embryo antigen (CEA), while 3 cases in the non-peritoneal metastasis group, with statistically significant difference (<0.001). Sixteen cases in peritoneal metastasis group had increased preoperative carbohydrate antigen 199, while only 2 cases in the non-peritoneal metastasis group, the difference was statistically significant (<0.001). The pathological type of 30 cases in the peritoneal metastasis group was adenocarcinoma (including mucus adenocarcinoma and colon adenocarcinoma), while 12 cases of adenocarcinoma in the non-peritoneal metastasis group, with statistically significant difference (<0.001). Twelve cases in the peritoneal metastasis group had lymph node metastasis, while 3 cases in the non-peritoneal metastasis group, the difference is statistically significant (=0.003). Preoperative CEA elevation and pathological type is adenocarinoma were independent risk factors for peritoneal metastasis of appendiceal cancer (<0.05). The propensity of peritoneal metastasis in primary appendiceal tumor is high and the outcome is poor. Patients with increased preoperative CEA, adenocarcinoma histopathology are more inclined to have peritoneal metastasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn112152-20200901-00784DOI Listing
July 2021

[Clinical pathological characteristics of 4 cases of gastric gland-derived tumors].

Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi 2021 Jul;43(7):781-786

Department of Pathology, the 960 Hospital of Chinese People's Liberation Army, Jinan 250000, China.

To investigate the pathological features of gastric tumor originated from the fundic gland, including oxyntic gland adenoma (OGA) and gastric adenocarcinoma of the fundic gland (GA-FG). A retrospective analysis of 2 cases of OGA and 2 cases of GA-FG admitted to our hospital from February 2019 to September 2019 was performed. The histological features were analyzed by immunohistochemical staining combined with endoscopic observation. The four cases arose from the deep layer of the lamina propria mucosae and well differentiated. Two cases of OGA confined to the mucosa, including 1 case of irregular tubules showing low-degree dysplasia and another case of irregular branching and anastomosing tubules showing high-degree dysplasia. Two cases of GA-FG combined with submucosal invasion, showed irregular branching and anastomosing tubules and formed a so-called "endless glands" pattern. Atypia, helicobacter pylori (HP) infection, chronic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, or gastric atrophy were not observed in the superficial epithelium covering the tumor extent. Two cases of OGA and 2 cases of GA-FG showed the same result of immunohistochemical staining: pepsinogen-1 was diffusely positive in the tumor tissues and indicated chief cell differentiation, while positive ATPase and PDGFRA-α indicated parietal cells differentiation. The expression of Syn were positive in all cases, while CD10, MUC2 and CD-X2 were negative. The upregulation of p53 protein or nuclear positivity of β-catenin was not observed. The Ki-67 labeling index in the hot area was approximately 1-5%. GA-FG is a well-differentiated, low-grade malignant novel subtype of gastric cancer. The immunohistochemical markers and narrowband imaging combined with magnifying endoscopy (NBI-ME) enhance the diagnostic sensitivity. Whether Syn positive expression can be one of the diagnostic item needs to be further investigate. The process of tumorigenesis of GA-FG might be the transition from low-grade dysplasia to high-grade dysplasia of OGA and further to submucosal infiltration. However, the mechanism of GAFG was still unclear. Disregulation of the Shh and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway might be associated with tumorigenesis of GA-FG. Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is often the preferred and curative treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn112152-20191202-00776DOI Listing
July 2021

[Analysis of the efficacy and prognostic factors of 1 637 esophageal cancer patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy].

Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi 2021 Jun;43(6):678-684

Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center/National Clinical Research Center for Cancer/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100021, China.

To summarize survival outcomes and prognostic factors in esophageal cancer (EC) patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). A retrospective analysis was performed on the clinical and follow-up data of 1 637 patients with EC who were admitted to our hospital from January 2005 to December 2017 and met the inclusion criteria.The 5-year overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS) and pattern of recurrence were analyzed. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate survival rates, Log-rank test for univariate analysis and Cox method for multivariate analysis were used to detect survival difference. 1-year, 3-year and 5-year OS and PFS of the entire group were 65.9% and 45.8%, 34.2% and 25.0%, 27.0% and 18.5%, respectively. Median OS and PFS were 19.4 months (95% =18.0-20.7 months) and 10.4 months (95% =9.3-11.3 months), respectively. Univariate analysis showed that the sex, KPS, tumor location, T stage, N stage, M stage, TNM stage, radiation dose and treatment modality were prognostic factors for 5-year OS and PFS of EC patients (<0.05). Multivariate analysis indicated that the sex, KPS, TNM stage, radiation dose and treatment modality were independent prognostic factors for 5-year OS and PFS (<0.05). EC patients treated with IMRT can obtain a promising survival. The sex, KPS, TNM stage, radiation dose and treatment modality are independent prognostic factors for prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn112152-20201031-00952DOI Listing
June 2021

A Dendritic Cells-Targeting Nano-Vaccine by Coupling Polylactic-Co-Glycolic Acid-Encapsulated Allergen with Mannan Induces Regulatory T Cells.

Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2021 Jul 21:1-11. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Allergy and Rheumatology, Institute of Dermatology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Nanjing, China.

Background: The efficacy of allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) is mainly depended on the tolerogenic immune responses elicited. Properly conjugated nano-vaccine has the advantages of both specific targeting and continuous and on-demand release of allergen.

Objectives: The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of a dendritic cells (DCs)-targeting nano-vaccine for AIT.

Methods: The nano-vaccine was produced by coupling polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA)-encapsulated ovalbumin (OVA) with mannan. Allergen capture, human monocytes-derived DCs (hMoDCs) activation, and T cells responses were assessed by flow cytometry, confocal microscopy, quantitative real-time PCR, ELISA, and Cytometric Bead Array. Balb/c mice were immunized with the nano-vaccines, and the immune responses were analyzed.

Results: OVA-PLGA nanoparticle (NP) displayed favorable safety profile. OVA-mannan-PLGA NP was captured more efficiently by hMoDCs than OVA-PLGA NP, which was mediated mainly through DC-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing nonintegrin. A tolerogenic phenotype of hMoDCs was induced by OVA-mannan-PLGA NP, but not OVA-PLGA NP, and increased number of regulatory T (Treg) cells was generated subsequently in in vitro coculture. Immunization of Balb/c mice with OVA-mannan-PLGA NP resulted in lower serum level of OVA-specific immunoglobulins and less production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in splenocytes culture than the mice immunized with OVA-PLAG NP, PLGA NP, or OVA, while the number of splenic Treg cells was higher in OVA-mannan-PLGA group than in other groups. Moreover, preimmunization with OVA-mannan-PLGA NP significantly inhibited the Th2 immune response induced by OVA sensitization.

Conclusions: The biocompatible PLGA-encapsulated OVA coupling with mannan has augmented ability for tolerance induction and could be developed as a novel vaccine for AIT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000512872DOI Listing
July 2021

Retainable Superconductivity and Structural Transition in 1T-TaSe Under High Pressure.

Inorg Chem 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012, People's Republic of China.

As a prominent platform possessing the properties of superconductivity (SC) and charge density wave (CDW), transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) have attracted considerable attention for a long time. Moreover, extensive efforts have been devoted for exploring the SC and/or the interplay between SC and CDW in TMDCs in the past few decades. Here, we systematically investigate the electronic properties and structural evolution of 1T-TaSe under pressure. With increasing pressure, pressure-induced superconductivity is observed at ∼2.6 GPa. The superconductive transition temperature () increases with the suppression of the CDW state to the maximum value of ∼5.1 K at 21.8 GPa and then decreases monotonously up to the highest pressure of 57.8 GPa. 1T-TaSe transforms into a monoclinic 2/ structure above 19 GPa. The monoclinic phase coexists with the original phase as the pressure is released under ambient conditions and the retainable superconductivity with = 2.9 K is observed in the released sample. We suggest that the retained superconductivity can be ascribed to the retention of the superconductive high-pressure monoclinic phase in the released sample. Our findings demonstrate that both the structure and CDW order are related to the superconductivity of TaSe.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.inorgchem.1c01378DOI Listing
July 2021

Genetic Analysis Implicates A Molecular Chaperone Complex in Regulating Epigenetic Silencing of Methylated Genomic Regions.

J Integr Plant Biol 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Shanghai Center for Plant Stress Biology and Center for Excellence in Molecular Plant Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China.

DNA cytosine methylation confers stable epigenetic silencing in plants and many animals. However, the mechanisms underlying DNA methylation-mediated genomic silencing are not fully understood. We conducted a forward genetic screen for cellular factors required for the silencing of a heavily methylated p35S:NPTII transgene in the Arabidopsis Thaliana rdm1-1 mutant background, which led to the identification of a Hsp20 family protein, RDS1 ( rdm1-1 suppressor). Loss-of-function mutations in RDS1 released the silencing of the p35S::NPTII transgene in rdm1-1 mutant plants, without changing the DNA methylation state of the transgene. Protein interaction analyses suggest that RDS1 exists in a protein complex consisting of the methyl-DNA binding domain proteins MBD5 and MBD6, two other Hsp20 family proteins, RDS2 and IDM3, a Hsp40/DNAJ family protein, and a Hsp70 family protein. Like rds1 mutations, mutations in RDS2, MBD5, or MBD6 release the silencing of the transgene in the rdm1 mutant background. Our results suggest that Hsp20, Hsp40, and Hsp70 proteins may form a complex that is recruited to some genomic regions with DNA methylation by methyl-DNA binding proteins to regulate the state of silencing of these regions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jipb.13155DOI Listing
July 2021

Immunosuppressive activity is attenuated by Astragalus polysaccharides via remodeling the gut microenvironment in melanoma mice.

Cancer Sci 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Institute of Clinical Immunology, Yue-yang Hospital of Integrative Medicine, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, 200437, China.

Astragalus polysaccharides (APS), which is the main effective component of Astragalus membranaceus, can inhibit tumor growth, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Previous studies suggested that APS is a kind of herbal polysaccharide that can regulate the gut microenvironment, including the gut microbiota and fecal metabolites. In this work, our results showed that APS could control tumor growth in melanoma-bearing mice. It could reduce the number of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), as well as the expression of MDSCs related molecule Arg-1 and cytokines IL-10 and TGF-β, so that CD8 T cells could kill tumor cells more effectively. However, while APS was administrated with antibiotic cocktail (ABX), MDSCs could not be reduced, and the growth rate of tumor was accelerated. Consistent with the changes in MDSCs, the serum level of IL-6, IL-1β was the lowest in the APS group. Meanwhile, we found that fecal suspension from mice in APS group could also reduce the number of MDSCs in tumor tissues. These results revealed that APS regulated the immune function in tumor-bearing mice via remodeling the gut microbiota. Next, we focused on the results of 16S rRNA, and it showed that APS significantly regulated the abundance of microorganisms such as Bifidobacterium_pseudolongum, Lactobacillus_johnsonii and Lactobacillus. According to the Spearman analysis, the changes of abundance of these microorganisms were related to the increase of metabolites like glutamate and creatine, which could control tumor growth. Taken together, this study demonstrates that APS attenuates the immunosuppressive activity of MDSCs in melanoma-bearing mice by remodeling the gut microbiota and fecal metabolites, and our findings will provide a new therapeutic strategy to control tumor growth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cas.15078DOI Listing
July 2021

Effects of oral administration of Spirulina platensis and probiotics on serum immunity indexes, colonic immune factors, fecal odor, and fecal flora in mice.

Anim Sci J 2021 Dec;92(1):e13593

Institute of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Jinan, China.

To evaluate the effects of Spirulina platensis and probiotics on growth, immunity indexes, fecal flora, and fecal odor in mice, 40 mice were randomly allotted to four groups, and each was administrated with nothing, S. platensis, probiotics, or both for 28 days, respectively. Then, many indexes were measured. The results showed that S. platensis was more effective (P < 0.001) than probiotics in improving mice's feed conversion ration (FCR). In immunity, probiotics administration increased (P < 0.042) serum IgE, IgM, IFN-γ, colonic AHR, TLR4, and NF-κB protein expression and decreased (P < 0.039) serum IL-1α, IL-21, IL-22, and colonic ARNT gene expression. However, the S. platensis showed weaker effect, which increased (P < 0.025) the serum IgE, IgM, TNF-α, and the colonic AHR and NF-κB protein expression, and decreased (P < 0.01) serum IL-21. Probiotics consumption decreased the fecal odor by decreasing (P < 0.02) fecal Escherichia coli, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and skatole contents, and the S. platensis decreased (P = 0.04) the IAA. These results indicated that oral administration of probiotics, S. platensis, or both of them in mice probably benefited body's immunity and reduced fecal odor. However, their mechanisms were still unclear and need further study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/asj.13593DOI Listing
December 2021

Structural basis for glucocorticoid receptor recognition of both unmodified and methylated binding sites, precursors of a modern recognition element.

Nucleic Acids Res 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Biochemistry, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.

The most common form of DNA methylation involves the addition of a methyl group to a cytosine base in the context of a cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) dinucleotide. Genomes from more primitive organisms are more abundant in CpG sites that, through the process of methylation, deamination and subsequent mutation to thymine-phosphate-guanine (TpG) sites, can produce new transcription factor binding sites. Here, we examined the evolutionary history of the over 36 000 glucocorticoid receptor (GR) consensus binding motifs in the human genome and identified a subset of them in regulatory regions that arose via a deamination and subsequent mutation event. GR can bind to both unmodified and methylated pre-GR binding sequences (GBSs) that contain a CpG site. Our structural analyses show that CpG methylation in a pre-GBS generates a favorable interaction with Arg447 mimicking that made with a TpG in a GBS. This methyl-specific recognition arose 420 million years ago and was conserved during the evolution of GR and likely helps fix the methylation on the relevant cytosines. Our study provides the first genetic, biochemical and structural evidence of high-affinity binding for the likely evolutionary precursor of extant TpG-containing GBS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkab605DOI Listing
July 2021

Phase I study of Ibrutinib and the CXCR4 antagonist Ulocuplumab in CXCR4 mutated Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia.

Blood 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Harvard Medical School, United States.

MYD88 and CXCR4 mutations are common in Waldenström Macroglobulinemia (WM). Mutated CXCR4 (CXCR4Mut) impacts BTK-inhibitor response. We conducted a Phase I trial of the CXCR4-antagonist ulocuplumab with ibrutinib in this first-ever study to target CXCR4Mut in WM. Ibrutinib was initiated at 420 mg/day with Cycle 1 and continued until intolerance or progression; ulocuplumab was given cycles 1-6, with a 3+3 dose-escalation design. Each cycle was 4 weeks. Thirteen symptomatic patients, nine treatment-naive were enrolled. Twelve were evaluable for response. At best response, their median serum IgM declined from 5,574 to 1,114 mg/dL; bone marrow disease decreased from 65% to 10%; and hemoglobin increased from 10.1 to 14.2 g/dL (p<0.001). The major and VGPR response rates were 100% and 33%, respectively, with VGPRs observed at lower ulocuplumab dose cohorts. Median times to minor and major responses were 0.9 and 1.2 months, respectively. With a median follow-up of 22.4 months, the estimated 2-year PFS was 90%. The most frequent recurring Grade ≥2 adverse events included reversible thrombocytopenia, rash, and skin infections. Ulocuplumab dose-escalation did not impact adverse events. The study demonstrates the feasibility of combining a CXCR4-antagonist with ibrutinib, and provides support for the development of CXCR4-antagonists for CXCR4Mut WM. www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT03225716).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2021012953DOI Listing
July 2021

Association between ARDS Etiology and Risk of Noninvasive Ventilation Failure.

Ann Am Thorac Soc 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, 117972, Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Chongqing, Sichuan, China;

Rationale: The etiology of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) may play an important role in the failure of noninvasive ventilation (NIV).

Objectives: To explore the association between ARDS etiology and risk of noninvasive ventilation failure.

Methods: A multicenter prospective observational study was performed in 17 ICUs in China from September 2017 to December 2019. Patients with ARDS who used NIV as a first-line therapy were enrolled. The etiology of ARDS was recorded at study entry.

Results: A total of 306 patients were enrolled. Of the patients, 146 were classified as having pulmonary ARDS (ARDSp) and 160 were classified as having extrapulmonary ARDS (ARDSexp). From initiation to 24 h of NIV, the respiratory rate, heart rate, PaO2/FiO2, and PaCO2 improved slower in patients with ARDSp than those with ARDSexp. Patients with ARDSp experienced more NIV failure (55% vs. 28%; p < 0.01) and higher 28-day mortality (47% vs. 14%; p < 0.01). The adjusted odds ratio of NIV failure and 28-day mortality were 5.47 (95%CI: 3.04-9.86) and 10.13 (95%CI: 5.01-20.46), respectively. In addition, we combined the presence of ARDSp, presence of septic shock, age, non-pulmonary SOFA score, respiratory rate at 1-2 h of NIV, and PaO2/FiO2 at 1-2 h of NIV to develop a risk score of NIV failure. With the increase of the risk score, the rate of NIV failure increased. Using 5.5 as cutoff value to predict NIV failure, the sensitivity and specificity was good both in training and validation cohorts.

Conclusions: Among patients with ARDS who used NIV as a first-line therapy, ARDSp was associated with slower improvement, more NIV failure, and higher 28-day mortality than ARDSexp. The risk score combined presence of ARDSp, presence of septic shock, age, non-pulmonary SOFA score, respiratory rate at 1-2 h of NIV, and PaO2/FiO2 at 1-2 h of NIV has high accuracy to predict NIV failure among ARDS population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1513/AnnalsATS.202102-161OCDOI Listing
July 2021

Exsolution of Ni Nanoparticles from A-Site-Deficient Layered Double Perovskites for Dry Reforming of Methane and as an Anode Material for a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Univ Rennes, CNRS, ISCR (Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes) - UMR 6226, F-35000 Rennes, France.

Exsolution is a promising technique to design metal nanoparticles for electrocatalysis and renewable energy. In this work, Ni-doped perovskites, (PrBa)MnNiO with = 0, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 (S-PBMNx), were prepared to design exsolution systems as solid oxide fuel cell anodes and for catalysis applications. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses demonstrated that correlating A-site deficiency with Ni content can effectively induce exsolution of all Ni under H atmosphere at ∼ 875 °C, yielding the reduced (exsolved) R-PBMNx materials. On heating the exsolution systems in air, metal incorporation in the oxide lattice did not occur; instead, the Ni nanoparticles oxidized to NiO on the layered perovskite surface. The lowest area-specific resistance (ASR) under wet 5% H/N in symmetrical cells was observed for -PBMN0.2 anode (ASR ∼ 0.64 Ω cm at 850 °C) due to the highest Ni particle density in the -PBMNx series. The best performance for dry reforming of methane (DRM) was also obtained for -PBMN0.2, with CH and CO conversion rates at 11 and 32%, respectively, and the highest production of H (37%). The DRM activity of -PBMN0.2 starts at 800 °C and is sustained for up to at least 5 h operation with little carbon deposition (0.017 g·gcat·h). These results clearly demonstrate that varying Ni-doping in layered double perovskite oxides is an effective strategy to manipulate the electrochemical performance and catalytic activity for energy conversion purposes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c08158DOI Listing
July 2021

Comparative serum microRNA array analysis of the spleen-stomach dampness-heat syndrome in different diseases: Chronic hepatitis B and chronic gastritis.

Anat Rec (Hoboken) 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

College of Basic Medical Sciences Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, China.

Spleen-stomach dampness-heat syndrome (SSDHS) is the common Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) syndrome observed in both chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and chronic gastritis (CG). The specialized TCM prescription for CHB and CG patients with SSDHS is same, but there is limited information about the biological characteristics of this TCM syndrome. This study aimed to identify the serum miRNAs profile for the SSDHS in two different diseases in order to evaluate the miRNA-mediated biological characteristics of this TCM syndrome. We performed comparative microarray analysis of serum miRNA expression profiles in 10 CHB patients with SSDHS (SSDHS-CHB), 10 CG patients with SSDHS (SSDHS-CG), and 10 healthy controls (HC). The selected miRNAs were further validated by qRT-PCR in 13 SSDHS-CHB patients, 13 SSDHS-CG patients, and 13 HC. Moreover, bioinformatics analysis (GO and KEGG pathway enrichment analyses) was applied to identify the involved target genes and pathways for these selected miRNAs. Nine significantly differentially expressed (SDE)-miRNAs in the SSDHS-CHB group and 24 SDE-miRNAs in the SSDHS-CG group were identified, compared with the HC group (fold change >2.0 and p < .05). Among these, upregulated hsa-miR-483-3p and downregulated hsa-miR-223-3p were identified as the common SDE-miRNAs for both SSDHS-CHB and SSDHS-CG groups. Bioinformatics analysis of the common SDE-miRNA's target genes showed their involvement in the regulation of inflammation, immune response, and tumorigenesis. SSDHS-specific hsa-miR-483-3p and hsa-miR-223-3p identified in this study indicated a relevance to the underlying biological basis of SSDHS, and may provide scientific basis for the application of same TCM prescription in CHB and CG.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ar.24690DOI Listing
July 2021

Association of anaplastic lymphoma kinase variants and alterations with ensartinib response duration in non-small cell lung cancer.

Thorac Cancer 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Diagnostic Radiology, National Cancer Center/National Clinical Research Center for Cancer/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

Background: Here, we aimed to assess the association of ALK variants and alterations with ensartinib response duration in NSCLC, and explore the potential value of computed tomography (CT) radiomic features in predicting progression-free survival (PFS).

Methods: We enrolled 88 patients with identified ALK variant NSCLC in a multicenter phase 2 trial, and assessed the impact of ALK variants and secondary ALK alterations on the clinical outcome (response duration) of patients receiving ensartinib. We also established a multifactorial model of clinicopathological and quantitative CT radiomic features to predict PFS and risk stratification. Kaplan-Meier analysis was conducted to identify risk factors for tumor progression.

Results: Univariate analysis indicated a statistical difference (p = 0.035) in PFS among ALK variants in three classifications (V1, V3, and other variants). Secondary ALK alterations were adversely associated with PFS both in univariate (p = 0.008) and multivariate (p = 0.04) analyses and could identify patients at high risk for early progression in the Kaplan-Meier analysis (p = 0.002). Additionally, response duration to crizotinib <1 year and liver metastasis were adversely associated with PFS. The combined model, composed of clinicopathological signature and CT radiomic signature, showed good prediction ability with the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve being 0.85, and 0.89 in the training and validation dataset respectively.

Conclusions: Our study showed that secondary ALK alterations were adversely associated with ensartinib efficacy, and that ALK variants might not correlate with PFS. The quantitative radiomic signature provided added prognostic prediction value to the clinicopathological features.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1759-7714.14083DOI Listing
July 2021

Advances in Understanding the Electrocatalytic Reconstruction Chemistry of Coordination Compounds.

Small 2021 Jul 19:e2100629. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan, 430070, China.

Coordination compounds including mainstream metal-organic frameworks and Prussian blue analogues receive extensive researches when they directly serve as electrocatalysts. Their reconstruction phenomena, that are closely associated with actual contributions and intrinsic catalytic mechanisms, are expected to be well summarized. Here, the recent advances in understanding reconstruction chemistry of coordination compounds are reviewed, including their main classifications and structural properties, reconstruction phenomena in electrocatalysis (e.g., oxygen/hydrogen evolution reaction, CO reduction), influence factors of reconstruction parameters (e.g., reconstruction rate and reconstruction degree), and reconstruction-performance correlation. It is outlined that the reconstruction processes are influenced by electronic structure of coordination compounds, pH and temperature of testing solution, and applied potentials. The characterization techniques reflecting the evolution information before and after catalysis are also introduced for reconstruction-related mechanistic study. Finally, some challenges and outlooks on reconstruction investigations of coordination compounds are proposed, and the necessity of studying and understanding of these themes under actual working conditions of devices is highlighted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202100629DOI Listing
July 2021

Reactivity of flavanols: Their fate in physical food processing and recent advances in their analysis by depolymerization.

Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

INRAE, Avignon University, UMR408 SQPOV, Avignon, France.

Flavanols, a subgroup of polyphenols, are secondary metabolites with antioxidant properties naturally produced in various plants (e.g., green tea, cocoa, grapes, and apples); they are a major polyphenol class in human foods and beverages, and have recognized effect on maintaining human health. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate their changes (i.e., oxidation, polymerization, degradation, and epimerization) during various physical processing (i.e., heating, drying, mechanical shearing, high-pressure, ultrasound, and radiation) to improve the nutritional value of food products. However, the roles of flavanols, in particular for their polymerized forms, are often underestimated, for a large part because of analytical challenges: they are difficult to extract quantitatively, and their quantification demands chemical reactions. This review examines the existing data on the effects of different physical processing techniques on the content of flavanols and highlights the changes in epimerization and degree of polymerization, as well as some of the latest acidolysis methods for proanthocyanidin characterization and quantification. More and more evidence show that physical processing can affect content but also modify the structure of flavanols by promoting a series of internal reactions. The most important reactivity of flavanols in processing includes oxidative coupling and rearrangements, chain cleavage, structural rearrangements (e.g., polymerization, degradation, and epimerization), and addition to other macromolecules, that is, proteins and polysaccharides. Some acidolysis methods for the analysis of polymeric proanthocyanidins have been updated, which has contributed to complete analysis of proanthocyanidin structures in particular regarding their proportion of A-type proanthocyanidins and their degree of polymerization in various plants. However, future research is also needed to better extract and characterize high-polymer proanthocyanidins, whether in their native or modified forms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1541-4337.12797DOI Listing
July 2021

Comparisons of β-Hairpin Propensity Among Peptides with Homochiral or Heterochiral Strands.

Chembiochem 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

University of Wisconsin, Department of Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, 1101 University Ave, 53706, Madison, UNITED STATES.

Assemblies of racemic β-sheet-forming peptides have attracted attention for biomedical applications because racemic forms of peptides can self-associate more avidly than do single enantiomers. In 1953, Pauling and Corey proposed "rippled β-sheet" modes of H-bond-mediated interstrand assembly for alternating L- and D-peptide strands; this structural hypothesis was complementary to their proposal of "pleated β-sheet" assembly for L-peptides. Although no high-resolution structure has been reported for a rippled β-sheet, there is strong evidence for the occurrence of rippled β-sheets in racemic peptide assemblies. Here we compare propensities of peptide diastereomers in aqueous solution to form a minimum increment of β-sheet in which two antiparallel strands associate. β-Hairpin folding is observed for homochiral peptides with aligned nonpolar side chains, but no β-hairpin population can be detected for diastereomers in which one strand contains L residues and the other contains D residues. These observations suggest that rippled β-sheet assemblies are stabilized by interactions between β-sheet layers rather than interactions within these layers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbic.202100324DOI Listing
July 2021

Exosomal miR-21-5p derived from cisplatin-resistant SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells promotes glycolysis and inhibits chemosensitivity of its progenitor SKOV3 cells by targeting PDHA1.

Cell Biol Int 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Gynecology, People's Hospital Affiliated of Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Fuzhou, China.

Ovarian cancer (OC) is a common reason for gynecologic cancer death. Standard treatments of OC consist of surgery and chemotherapy. However, chemoresistance should be considered. Exosomal miR-21-5p has been shown to regulate the chemosensitivity of cancer cells through regulating pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 subunit alpha 1 (PDHA1). However, the role of miR-21-5p/PDHA1 in OC is unclear. The levels of miR-21-5p and PDHA1 in clinical samples and cells were investigated. Exosomes derived from SKOV3/cisplatin (SKOV3/DDP) cells (DDP-Exos) were isolated and used to treat SKOV3 cells to test DDP-Exos effects on SKOV3 cells. Extracellular acidification rate (ECAR) and oxygen consumption rate (OCR) were tested with a Seahorse analyzer. Cell apoptosis was analyzed by a flow cytometer. PDHA1 was overexpressed and miR-21-5p was silenced in SKOV3 cells to study the underlying mechanism of miR-21-5p in OC. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and immunoblots were applied to measure gene expression at mRNA and protein level. The levels of PDHA1 in DDP-resistant SKOV3 or tumor tissues were significantly decreased while the levels of miR-21-5p were remarkably up-regulated. miR-21-5p in DDP-Exos was sharply increased compared to that of Exos. Data also indicated that DDP-Exos treatment suppressed the sensitivity of SKOV3 cells to DDP and promoted cell viability and glycolysis of SKOV3 cells through inhibiting PDHA1 by exosomal miR-21-5p. miR-21-5p derived from DDP-resistant SKOV3 OC cells promotes glycolysis and inhibits chemosensitivity of its progenitor SKOV3 cells by targeting PDHA1. Our data highlights the important role of miR-21-5p/PDHA1 axis in OC and sheds lights on new therapeutic development. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbin.11671DOI Listing
July 2021

The role of long noncoding RNA THAP9-AS1 in the osteogenic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells via the miR-652-3p/VEGFA axis.

Eur J Oral Sci 2021 Jul 19:e12790. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Prosthodontics, Qingdao Stomatological Hospital Affiliated to Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong, China.

Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are multipotent and may play crucial roles in dentin-pulp regeneration. Recent studies have revealed that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are implicated in the osteogenic differentiation of DPSCs. However, the specific role and potential mechanisms of the lncRNA trihydroxyacetophenone domain containing nine antisense RNA 1 (THAP9-AS1) during osteogenic differentiation of DPSCs remain unknown. In the present study, we determined that THAP9-AS1 expression was upregulated during osteogenic differentiation of DPSCs. Moreover, we investigated the biological functions of THAP9-AS1 during osteogenic differentiation of DPSCs by loss-of-function assays. THAP9-AS1 knockdown inhibited osteogenic differentiation of DPSCs by decreasing alkaline phosphatase activity, alkaline phosphatase-positive cell ratio, mineralizing matrix and mRNA, and protein levels of early osteogenic-markers. We also found that THAP9-AS1 interacted with miR-652-3p, whose downstream gene target is vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA). In addition, rescue assays indicated that VEGFA rescued the effects of THAP9-AS1 knockdown during osteogenic differentiation of DPSCs. In summary, we verified that knockdown of THAP9-AS1 inhibits osteogenic differentiation of DPSCs via the miR-652-3p/VEGFA axis. Our findings may be helpful to extend research on the mechanisms underlying osteogenic differentiation of DPSCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/eos.12790DOI Listing
July 2021

IL-17 signaling induces iNOS+ microglia activation in retinal vascular diseases.

Glia 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, P. R. China.

Activation of microglia and inflammation-mediated vascular damages are suggested to play a decisive role in the pathogenesis of various retinopathies. The inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was required for activated microglia-mediated injuries. However, the induction mechanism of microglia activation during retinal vascular diseases is still elusive. Here we showed that IL-17 induced microglia activation with high expression of iNOS and promoted the development of retinal vascular diseases. IL-17-dependent activation of the STAT3-iNOS pathway was essentially required for microglia activation, which promoted endothelial cell growth and accelerated vascular leakage and leukostasis via IL-6 in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, our data provide novel mechanistic insights on microglia activation-mediated retinopathy, unveil the specific role of IL-17 on microglia, and define novel therapeutic targets for treating retinal vascular diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/glia.24063DOI Listing
July 2021

Financial and social impacts of drug price changes: Evidence from 2017 healthcare reform in Liaoning Province, China.

Int J Health Plann Manage 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Rutgers Business School, Rutgers University, Newark, New Jersey, USA.

Healthcare reform was launched in China in 2017 to reduce the financial burden on both patients and the government by terminating the 15% markup on drug prices at public hospitals. To evaluate this reform's impacts, we conduct a quantitative study based on the operational data from one of the top 10 hospitals in Liaoning, China. Specifically, we utilize log-linear and logistic regression models to examine the policy's impacts on patients' total healthcare expenditures and the hospital's adjustments of its offering list that consists of western medicine (WM), traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and non-medicine (NM). We find that the reform effectively alters the patients' spending structure and the hospital's profit model: (1) it decreases patients' average per-visit expenditure on WM and TCM while increases their average NM expenditure; (2) it differently affects patients from various socioeconomic groups and leaves space to target on groups that may demand extra financial and healthcare assistance; (3) it slows down the hospital's revenue increase and incentivizes the hospital to shift the WM revenue from margin-driven to volume-driven and to weigh more on NM revenue and (4) it encourages the hospital to keep WMs with steady price and drop WMs whose price keeps rising.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hpm.3287DOI Listing
July 2021

Socioeconomic-related inequality in dental care utilization among preschool children in China.

Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Preventive Dentistry, National Engineering Laboratory for Digital and Material Technology of Stomatology, Beijing Key Laboratory of Digital Stomatology, National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, Beijing, China.

Objectives: This study aimed to investigate socioeconomic-related inequality in dental care service utilization in the past 12 months among Chinese preschool children and to explore the contribution of various factors to this inequality.

Method: A total of 40 305 children aged 3-5 years from 372 kindergartens who participated in the Fourth National Oral Health Survey in China were included in the final analysis. The method of data weighting in complex sampling was adopted to make the samples more representative. Erreygers-corrected concentration index (EI) was used to measure socioeconomic-related inequality in dental care service utilization. The horizontal inequality index (HI) was employed to analyse horizontal inequality. Decomposition analyses were conducted to explore the contributions of income level, need variables (dmft, caregiver-evaluated oral health status and toothache experience) and nonneed variables (caregiver education level, residential location, age, and sex) to the inequality of health service utilization.

Result: The utilization of oral health services within the past 12 months among the high-, middle- and low-income groups was 17.4% (95% CI: 15.6-19.3), 13.6% (95% CI: 12.2-15.1) and 9.4% (95% CI: 8.1-11.0) respectively. The concentration curve was below the line of equality, and the EI and HI were 0.072 and 0.078, respectively, indicating that dental care utilization in children aged 3-5 years was concentrated in those who were better off. The contribution of the need variables to socioeconomic-related inequality in dental services was minimal, and most dental care utilization inequality could be explained by household income, caregiver education attainment and urban-rural disparities, accounting for 32.0%, 49.4% and 20.4% respectively.

Conclusion: This study reveals the existence of pro-rich inequality in dental care utilization among preschool children in China. The decomposition analysis suggests that income, caregiver education background and urban-rural disparities are the main factors contributing to this outcome. Equity-oriented policies and programmes are needed to achieve equitable dental care utilization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cdoe.12681DOI Listing
July 2021

A Purely Inorganic Quasi-Keggin Polyoxometalate for Photocatalytic Conversion of Carbon Dioxide to Carbon Monoxide.

Chempluschem 2021 Jul;86(7):1014-1020

College of Chemical Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing, 210009, P. R. China.

A pure inorganic cluster, H Na Co Mo (PO ) O  ⋅ 15H O (denoted as {Co Mo }), has been successfully synthesized by hydrothermal method. Notably, the assembly of a central {Co PO } tetrahedron and four peripheral {Co[P Mo ]} fragments gives rise to a rare "quasi-Keggin" structure of {Co Mo }, in which Co linkers continue to bridge adjacent substructures, resulting in the generation of 3D framework with large cavities. Benefitting from the combination of strong reductive {P Mo } units and Co active centers, the photocatalytic system with {Co Mo } as heterogeneous catalyst exhibits excellent activity for CO conversion to CO, offering the CO formation rate of 1848.3 μmol g h with high selectivity of 97.0 %. Besides, thermogravimetric and X-ray diffraction analysis confirm that {Co Mo } can maintain stable during the photocatalytic reaction process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cplu.202100260DOI Listing
July 2021

Mechanism of Pd-catalysed C(sp)-H arylation of thioethers with Ag(I) additives.

Org Biomol Chem 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Tianjin Key Laboratory of Molecular Optoelectronic Sciences, Department of Chemistry, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China.

Mechanistic studies reveal that Pd-catalyzed C(sp3)-H arylation of thioethers with silver(i) additives takes place via C(sp3)-H activation, oxidative addition and reductive elimination, wherein all steps proceed via the heterodimeric Pd-Ag pathway. Besides, the active heterodimeric Pd-Ag species are detected by mass spectrometry via control experiments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1ob00704aDOI Listing
July 2021

Constructing highly active Co sites in Prussian blue analogues for boosting electrocatalytic water oxidation.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

College of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Coal Mine Disaster Dynamics and Control, Chongqing University, Chongqing 401331, China. and Analytical and Testing Center, Chongqing University, Chongqing 401331, China.

High-valence cobalt sites are considered as highly active centers for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and their corresponding construction is thus of primary importance in the pursuit of outstanding performance. Herein, we report the design and facile synthesis of abundant high-valence cobalt sites by introducing Zn2+ into CoFe Prussian blue analogues (PBAs). The modification results in the drastic morphological transformation from a pure phase (CoFe-PBA) to a three-phase composite (CoFeZn-PBA), with a significant increase not only the amount of highly oxidized Co sites but the specific surface area (by up to 4 times). Moreover, the obtained sample also exhibits outstanding electric conductivity. Consequently, an excellent OER performance with an overpotential of 343 [email protected] mA cm-2 and a Tafel slope of 75 mV dec-1 was achieved in CoFeZn-PBA, which outperforms the commercial IrO2 catalyst. Further analysis reveals that CoFeZn-PBA becomes (oxyhydr)oxides after the OER.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cc02224eDOI Listing
July 2021

Effects of different heat exposure patterns (accumulated and transient) and schizophrenia hospitalizations: a time-series analysis on hourly temperature basis.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Anhui Medical University, 81 Meishan Road, Hefei, 230032, Anhui, China.

Growing studies have shown that high temperature is a potential risk factor of schizophrenia occurrence. Therefore, elaborate analysis of different temperature exposure patterns, such as cumulative heat exposure within a time period and transient exposure at a particular time point, is of important public health significance. This study aims to utilize hourly temperature data to better capture the effects of cumulative and transient heat exposures on schizophrenia during the warm season in Hefei, China. We included the daily mean temperature and daily schizophrenia hospitalizations into the distributed lag non-linear model (DLNM) to simulate the exposure-response curve and determine the heat threshold (19.4 °C). We calculated and applied a novel indicator-daily excess hourly heat (DEHH)-to examine the effects of cumulative heat exposure over a day on schizophrenia hospitalizations. Temperature measurements at each time point were also incorporated in the DLNM as independent exposure indicators to analyze the impact of transient heat exposure on schizophrenia. Each increment of interquartile range (IQR) in DEHH was associated with elevated risk of schizophrenia hospitalizations from lag 1 (RR = 1.036, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.016, 1.057) to lag 4 (RR = 1.025, 95% CI: 1.005, 1.046). Men and people over 40 years old were more susceptible to DEHH. Besides, we found a greater risk of heat-related schizophrenia hospitalizations between 0 a.m. and 6 a.m. This study revealed the adverse effects of accumulated and transient heat exposures on schizophrenia hospitalizations. Our findings need to be further tested in other regions with distinct regional features.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-15371-7DOI Listing
July 2021