Publications by authors named "Lisa Worrillow"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Molecular High-Grade B-Cell Lymphoma: Defining a Poor-Risk Group That Requires Different Approaches to Therapy.

J Clin Oncol 2019 01 3;37(3):202-212. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

1 University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom.

Purpose: Biologic heterogeneity is a feature of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), and the existence of a subgroup with poor prognosis and phenotypic proximity to Burkitt lymphoma is well known. Conventional cytogenetics identifies some patients with rearrangements of MYC and BCL2 and/or BCL6 (double-hit lymphomas) who are increasingly treated with more intensive chemotherapy, but a more biologically coherent and clinically useful definition of this group is required.

Patients And Methods: We defined a molecular high-grade (MHG) group by applying a gene expression-based classifier to 928 patients with DLBCL from a clinical trial that investigated the addition of bortezomib to standard rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) therapy. The prognostic significance of MHG was compared with existing biomarkers. We performed targeted sequencing of 70 genes in 400 patients and explored molecular pathology using gene expression signature databases. Findings were validated in an independent data set.

Results: The MHG group comprised 83 patients (9%), with 75 in the cell-of-origin germinal center B-cell-like group. MYC rearranged and double-hit groups were strongly over-represented in MHG but comprised only one half of the total. Gene expression analysis revealed a proliferative phenotype with a relationship to centroblasts. Progression-free survival rate at 36 months after R-CHOP in the MHG group was 37% (95% CI, 24% to 55%) compared with 72% (95% CI, 68% to 77%) for others, and an analysis of treatment effects suggested a possible positive effect of bortezomib. Double-hit lymphomas lacking the MHG signature showed no evidence of worse outcome than other germinal center B-cell-like cases.

Conclusion: MHG defines a biologically coherent high-grade B-cell lymphoma group with distinct molecular features and clinical outcomes that effectively doubles the size of the poor-prognosis, double-hit group. Patients with MHG may benefit from intensified chemotherapy or novel targeted therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.18.01314DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6338391PMC
January 2019

The prognosis of translocation positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma depends on the second hit.

J Pathol Clin Res 2015 Jul 30;1(3):125-133. Epub 2015 Mar 30.

Division of Molecular HistopathologyDepartment of PathologyUniversity of CambridgeUK; Department of HistopathologyAddenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation TrustCambridgeUK.

A proportion of translocation positive diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL) harbour a and/or translocation, known as double-hit DLBCL, and are clinically aggressive. It is unknown whether there are other genetic abnormalities that cooperate with translocation and form double-hit DLBCL, and whether there is a difference in clinical outcome between the double-hit DLBCL and those with an isolated translocation. We investigated gene mutations along with and translocations in a total of 234 cases of DLBCL, including 81 with translocation. mutations were investigated by PCR and sequencing, while and translocation was studied by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization. The majority of translocation positive DLBCLs (60/81 = 74%) had at least one additional genetic hit. In translocation positive DLBCL treated by R-CHOP ( = 67), mutation and but not translocation had an adverse effect on patient overall survival. In comparison with DLBCL with an isolated translocation, cases with double-hits had the worst overall survival, followed by those with double-hits. In translocation negative DLBCL treated by R-CHOP ( = 101), mutation, and translocation had no impact on patient survival. The prognosis of translocation positive DLBCL critically depends on the second hit, with mutations and translocation contributing to an adverse prognosis. It is pivotal to investigate both mutations and translocations in translocation positive DLBCL, and to distinguish double-hit DLBCLs from those with an isolated translocation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cjp2.10DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4915334PMC
July 2015

Somatic Mutation Screening Using Archival Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Tissues by Fluidigm Multiplex PCR and Illumina Sequencing.

J Mol Diagn 2015 Sep 9;17(5):521-32. Epub 2015 Jul 9.

Division of Molecular Histopathology, Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

High-throughput somatic mutation screening using FFPE tissues is a major challenge because of a lack of established methods and validated variant calling algorithms. We aimed to develop a targeted sequencing protocol by Fluidigm multiplex PCR and Illumina sequencing and to establish a companion variant calling algorithm. The experimental protocol and variant calling algorithm were first developed and optimized against a series of somatic mutations (147 substitutions, 12 indels ranging from 1 to 33 bp) in seven genes, previously detected by Sanger sequencing of DNA from 163 FFPE lymphoma biopsy specimens. The optimized experimental protocol and variant calling algorithm were further ascertained in two separate experiments by including the seven genes as a part of larger gene panels (22 or 13 genes) using FFPE and high-molecular-weight lymphoma DNAs, respectively. We found that most false-positive variants were due to DNA degradation, deamination, and Taq polymerase errors, but they were nonreproducible and could be efficiently eliminated by duplicate experiments. A small fraction of false-positive variants appeared in duplicate, but they were at low alternative allele frequencies and could be separated from mutations when appropriate threshold value was used. In conclusion, we established a robust practical approach for high-throughput mutation screening using archival FFPE tissues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmoldx.2015.04.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4597275PMC
September 2015

A microarray platform-independent classification tool for cell of origin class allows comparative analysis of gene expression in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

PLoS One 2013 12;8(2):e55895. Epub 2013 Feb 12.

Section of Experimental Haematology, Leeds Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom.

Cell of origin classification of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) identifies subsets with biological and clinical significance. Despite the established nature of the classification existing studies display variability in classifier implementation, and a comparative analysis across multiple data sets is lacking. Here we describe the validation of a cell of origin classifier for DLBCL, based on balanced voting between 4 machine-learning tools: the DLBCL automatic classifier (DAC). This shows superior survival separation for assigned Activated B-cell (ABC) and Germinal Center B-cell (GCB) DLBCL classes relative to a range of other classifiers. DAC is effective on data derived from multiple microarray platforms and formalin fixed paraffin embedded samples and is parsimonious, using 20 classifier genes. We use DAC to perform a comparative analysis of gene expression in 10 data sets (2030 cases). We generate ranked meta-profiles of genes showing consistent class-association using ≥6 data sets as a cut-off: ABC (414 genes) and GCB (415 genes). The transcription factor ZBTB32 emerges as the most consistent and differentially expressed gene in ABC-DLBCL while other transcription factors such as ARID3A, BATF, and TCF4 are also amongst the 24 genes associated with this class in all datasets. Analysis of enrichment of 12323 gene signatures against meta-profiles and all data sets individually confirms consistent associations with signatures of molecular pathways, chromosomal cytobands, and transcription factor binding sites. We provide DAC as an open access Windows application, and the accompanying meta-analyses as a resource.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0055895PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3570548PMC
August 2013

Whole genome expression profiling based on paraffin embedded tissue can be used to classify diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and predict clinical outcome.

Br J Haematol 2012 Nov 13;159(4):441-53. Epub 2012 Sep 13.

Haematological Malignancy Diagnostic Service, St. James's Institute of Oncology, Leeds, UK.

This study tested the validity of whole-genome expression profiling (GEP) using RNA from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue to sub-classify Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma (DLBCL), in a population based cohort of 172 patients. GEP was performed using Illumina Whole Genome cDNA-mediated Annealing, Selection, extension & Ligation, and tumours were classified into germinal centre (GCB), activated B-cell (ABC) and Type-III subtypes. The method was highly reproducible and reliably classified cell lines of known phenotype. GCB and ABC subtypes were each characterized by unique gene expression signatures consistent with previously published data. A significant relationship between subtype and survival was observed, with ABC having the worst clinical outcome and in a multivariate survival model only age and GEP class remained significant. This effect was not seen when tumours were classified by immunohistochemistry. There was a significant association between age and subtype (mean ages ABC - 72·8 years, GC - 68·4 years, Type-III - 64·5 years). Older patients with ABC subtype were also over-represented in patients who died soon after diagnosis. The relationship between prognosis and subtype improved when only patients assigned to the three categories with the highest level of confidence were analysed. This study demonstrates that GEP-based classification of DLBCL can be applied to RNA extracted from routine FFPE samples and has potential for use in stratified medicine trials and clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.12045DOI Listing
November 2012

A functional variant in the core promoter of the CD95 cell death receptor gene predicts prognosis in acute promyelocytic leukemia.

Blood 2012 Jan 14;119(1):196-205. Epub 2011 Nov 14.

Newcastle Cancer Centre, Northern Institute for Cancer Research, Newcastle University, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, United Kingdom.

Up to 15% of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) patients fail to achieve or maintain remission. We investigated a common G > A polymorphism at position -1377 (rs2234767) in the core promoter of the CD95 cell death receptor gene in 708 subjects with acute myeloid leukemia, including 231 patients with APL. Compared with the GG genotype, carrier status for the -1377A variant was associated with a significantly worse prognosis in APL patients. Carriers were more likely to fail remission induction (odds ratio = 4.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.41-12.6, P = .01), were more likely to die during the first 8 weeks of remission induction therapy (hazard ratio = 7.26; 95% confidence interval, 2.39-22.9, P = .0005), and had a significantly worse 5-year overall survival (odds ratio = 2.14; 95% confidence interval, 1.10-4.15, P = .03). The -1377A variant destroys a binding site for the SP1 transcriptional regulator and is associated with lower transcriptional activity of the CD95 promoter. Identifying patients at high risk of life-threatening events, such as remission induction failure, is a high priority in APL, especially because such events represent a major cause of death despite the introduction of differentiation therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2011-04-349803DOI Listing
January 2012

Non-homologous end-joining gene profiling reveals distinct expression patterns associated with lymphoma and multiple myeloma.

Br J Haematol 2010 Apr 8;149(2):258-62. Epub 2010 Feb 8.

The Children's Foundation Research Center, Le Bonheur Children's Medical Center, TN 38103, USA.

Repair of DNA strand breaks induced during lymphoid antigen receptor rearrangement involves non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). We investigated NHEJ in the aetiology of lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs) and the disease subtypes therein through real-time quantitative RT-PCR gene expression analysis. Lower expression of XRCC6 and MRE11A was observed in all tumours, with higher expression of both XRCC4 and RAD50 observed only in multiple myeloma (MM). Hierarchical clustering enabled tumours to be clearly distinguished from controls, and by morphological sub-type. We postulate this identifies targets worthy of investigation in the genetic predisposition, pathogenesis and prognosis of lymphoid malignancies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2141.2010.08088.xDOI Listing
April 2010

Polymorphisms in the nucleotide excision repair gene ERCC2/XPD and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Cancer Epidemiol 2009 Oct 6;33(3-4):257-60. Epub 2009 Sep 6.

Department of Biology, University of York, York, YO10 5YW, United Kingdom.

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) represents a complex group of B- and T-cell malignancies characterised by chromosomal translocations. Since defects in DNA repair result in an increased frequency of chromosomal aberrations it has been hypothesised that genetic variation in DNA repair may be associated with risk of NHL. To investigate the relationship between DNA repair and NHL we analysed polymorphisms in XPD (R156R, D312N, K751Q) using DNA collected in a UK population-based case-control study of lymphoma. We observed no association between genetic variation in XPD and risk of NHL. However, the XPD 751 Gln allele was associated with a two-fold decreased risk of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (OR 0.56, 95% CI 0.34-0.92, p=0.02), the major subtype of NHL. Overall, our study identifies that XPD polymorphisms may be important in the aetiology of NHL although analysis of additional polymorphisms and extended haplotype studies are required to clarify their role.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canep.2009.08.002DOI Listing
October 2009

MLH1 -93G>A promoter polymorphism and risk of mismatch repair deficient colorectal cancer.

Int J Cancer 2008 Nov;123(10):2456-9

Northern Institute for Cancer Research, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom.

Rare inherited mutations in the mutL homolog 1 (MLH1) DNA mismatch repair gene can confer an increased susceptibility to colorectal cancer (CRC) with high penetrance where disease frequently develops in the proximal colon. The core promoter of MLH1 contains a common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (-93G>A, dbSNP ID:rs1800734) located in a region essential for maximum transcriptional activity. We used logistic regression analysis to examine the association between this variant and risk of CRC in patients in the United Kingdom. All statistical tests were 2 sided. In an analysis of 1,518 patients with CRC, homozygosity for the MLH1 -93A variant was associated with a significantly increased 3-fold risk of CRC negative for MLH1 protein by immunohistochemistry (odds ratio (OR): AA vs GG = 3.30, 95% CI 1.46-7.47, n = 1392, p = 0.004, MLH1 negative vs MLH1 positive CRC) and with a 68% excess of proximal CRC (OR: AA vs GG=1.68, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00-2.83, n = 1,518, p = 0.05, proximal vs distal CRC). These findings suggest that the MLH1 -93G>A polymorphism defines a low penetrance risk allele for CRC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.23770DOI Listing
November 2008

MDM2 SNP309 and TP53 Arg72Pro interact to alter therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia susceptibility.

Blood 2008 Aug 21;112(3):741-9. Epub 2008 Apr 21.

Department of Medicine, University of Chicago Cancer Research Center, University of Chicago, IL 60637, USA.

The p53 tumor suppressor directs the cellular response to many mechanistically distinct DNA-damaging agents and is selected against during the pathogenesis of therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia (t-AML). We hypothesized that constitutional genetic variation in the p53 pathway would affect t-AML risk. Therefore, we tested associations between patients with t-AML (n = 171) and 2 common functional p53-pathway variants, the MDM2 SNP309 and the TP53 codon 72 polymorphism. Although neither polymorphism alone influenced the risk of t-AML, an interactive effect was detected such that MDM2 TT TP53 Arg/Arg double homozygotes, and individuals carrying both a MDM2 G allele and a TP53 Pro allele, were at increased risk of t-AML (P value for interaction is .009). This interactive effect was observed in patients previously treated with chemotherapy but not in patients treated with radiotherapy, and in patients with loss of chromosomes 5 and/or 7, acquired abnormalities associated with prior exposure to alkylator chemotherapy. In addition, there was a trend toward shorter latency to t-AML in MDM2 GG versus TT homozygotes in females but not in males, and in younger but not older patients. These data indicate that the MDM2 and TP53 variants interact to modulate responses to genotoxic therapy and are determinants of risk for t-AML.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2007-11-126508DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2481552PMC
August 2008

A common genetic variant in XPD associates with risk of 5q- and 7q-deleted acute myeloid leukemia.

Blood 2007 Feb 5;109(3):1233-6. Epub 2006 Oct 5.

Epidemiology and Genetics Unit, Department of Health Sciences, University of York, UK.

Numerous structural genetic abnormalities observed in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) illustrate the heterogeneity of this disease, which likely has contributed to difficulty in identifying susceptibility alleles for AML. We previously reported that carriers of the glutamine-encoding allele at codon 751 of the xeroderma pigmentosum group D (XPD) DNA repair gene were significantly more likely to have a karyotype associated with a less favorable prognosis, and hypothesized that this observation was driven by an association between the codon 751 variant and risk of developing AML with specific structural abnormalities. Using a case series of 927 patients with AML, we show here that the XPD codon 751 glutamine-encoding variant significantly associates with risk of developing AML with a chromosome 5q deletion (odds ratio [OR] 2.09; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14-3.81; n=69; P=.02) or a chromosome 7q deletion (OR 2.27; 95% CI 1.09-4.71; n=47; P=.03), but not with any other commonly recurring cytogenetic lesion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2006-07-037853DOI Listing
February 2007

An intron splice acceptor polymorphism in hMSH2 and risk of leukemia after treatment with chemotherapeutic alkylating agents.

Clin Cancer Res 2003 Aug;9(8):3012-20

Leukaemia Research Fund Epidemiology and Genetics Unit, Academic Unit of Epidemiology, School of Medicine, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, United Kingdom.

Purpose: We sought to determine whether the -6 exon 13 T>C polymorphism in the DNA mismatch repair gene hMSH2 modulates susceptibility to acute myeloid leukemia after therapy and particularly after O(6)-guanine alkylating chemotherapy. We also determined the extent of microsatellite instability (MSI) in therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia (t-AML) as a marker of dysfunctional DNA mismatch repair.

Experimental Design: Using a novel restriction fragment length polymorphism, verified by direct sequencing, we have genotyped 91 t-AML cases, 420 de novo acute myeloid leukemia cases, and 837 controls for the hMSH2 -6 exon 13 polymorphism. MSI was evaluated in presentation bone marrow from 34 cases using the mononucleotide microsatellite markers BAT16, BAT25, and BAT26.

Results: Distribution of the hMSH2 -6 exon 13 polymorphism was not significantly different between de novo acute myeloid leukemia cases and controls, with heterozygotes and homozygotes for the variant (C) allele representing 12.2 and 1.6%, respectively, of the control population. However, the variant (C) hMSH2 allele was significantly overrepresented in t-AML cases that had previously been treated with O(6)-guanine alkylating agents, including cyclophosphamide and procarbazine, compared with controls (odds ratio, 4.02; 95% confidence interval, 1.40-11.37). Thirteen of 34 (38%) t-AML cases were MSI positive, and 2 of these 13 cases were homozygous for the variant (C) allele, a frequency substantially higher than in the control population.

Conclusions: Association of the hMSH2 -6 exon 13 variant (C) allele with leukemia after O(6)-guanine alkylating agents implicates this allele in conferring a nondisabling DNA mismatch repair defect with concomitant moderate alkylation tolerance, which predisposes to the development of t-AML via the induction of DNA mismatch repair-disabling mutations and high-grade MSI. Homozygosity for the hMSH2 variant in 2 of 13 MSI-positive t-AML cases provides some support for this model.
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August 2003