Publications by authors named "Lisa Lole"

9 Publications

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Young people who purchase loot boxes are more likely to have gambling problems: An online survey of adolescents and young adults living in NSW Australia.

J Behav Addict 2021 Feb 24. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

1Experimental Gambling Research Laboratory, School of Health, Medical and Applied Sciences, Central Queensland University, Bundaberg, QLD, Australia.

Background And Aims: Loot boxes are a common feature in video games where players win, buy or are gifted a virtual box or other container that is unwrapped to reveal virtual items of value, such as skins, weapons, in-game currency or special abilities. The current study aimed to relate the use of loot boxes to gambling problems and harm.

Methods: An online survey was conducted with 1,954 adolescents and young adults from NSW Australia, 59.9% female (aged 12-24), recruited by online panel aggregator, Qualtrics.

Results: Buying and selling loot boxes was associated with higher 12-month gambling frequency and gambling problems in young adults, aged 18-24 (Problem Gambling Severity Index). Young adults who bought loot boxes additionally had more gambling-related harms (Short Gambling Harms Screen). Young women, aged 18-24, who opened, bought and/or sold loot boxes spent more money in the last 12 months on gambling. In adolescents, aged 12-17, buying loot boxes was similarly associated with gambling problems (DSM-IV-MR-J). Furthermore, adolescent girls who bought and/or sold loot boxes viewed gambling more positively than other girls (Attitudes Towards Gambling Scale). There was no evidence, however, that longer-term experience in opening or purchasing loot boxes, a differentiating feature of the survey, is associated with current gambling problems.

Discussion And Conclusions: This study suggests that loot boxes may be attractive to people who are already predisposed to engage in other gambling, and females who use loot boxes may have unique vulnerabilities to gambling problems that could be explored in future research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1556/2006.2021.00007DOI Listing
February 2021

"It's about getting the best bang for your buck": Exploring local councils' perceptions about providing exercise infrastructure in public parks.

Health Promot J Austr 2020 Jun 28. Epub 2020 Jun 28.

School of Education and the Arts, Central Queensland University Australia, Bundaberg, QLD, Australia.

Issue Addressed: Growing evidence suggests that public parks enable physically active communities; however, little is known of the impact of council-provided exercise facilities in outdoor green spaces, and the challenges of providing this infrastructure at a local level. This paper sought to describe some of the factors, as perceived by local government area (LGA) council representatives within Queensland, Australia, that influence community use of, as well as council provision for, weight-bearing outdoor fitness station infrastructure in public parks.

Methods: A nested mixed-methods study was employed, comprised of a survey sent to council representatives for all 78 Queensland LGAs (Stage 1), and follow-up interviews to elicit further insights into the provision of infrastructure in public parks (Stage 2; n = 7). Perceptions around participants' corporate role in the provision of outdoor fitness stations were the focus of analyses.

Findings: A thematic analysis described themes of: Moderating public attitudes and motivation; The flow of information; Supporting an active community; Return on investment; and Safety, complianceand climate. Provision of equipment was influenced by the perception that it represented poor value for money, in terms of the desired outcome of increased physical activity, especially when compared with other types of infrastructure (particularly, walking trails); however, opinions about this lack of use outdoor exercise equipment were most often based on anecdotal evidence.

Conclusions: Councils are motivated to support active communities. They would benefit from better access to information about park usage, strategies for marketing healthy living initiatives and data about the economic benefits of parks. SO WHAT?: The current study explores the perspectives of LGA professional "gatekeepers," who develop and maintain public physical activity facilities. Their insights are essential to better understand the practicalities of delivering desirable urban green spaces for physically active communities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hpja.380DOI Listing
June 2020

Interest in inducements: A psychophysiological study on sports betting advertising.

Int J Psychophysiol 2020 01 21;147:100-106. Epub 2019 Nov 21.

School of Health, Medical, and Applied Sciences, Central Queensland University, Australia.

Recent research has shown an association between the viewing of wagering advertising, which often presents inducements to gamble, and maladaptive sports-betting behaviours; however, the mechanism/s underlying the development of the intention to gamble remains relatively understudied. Eye-tracking and tonic electrodermal activity was recorded from 59 participants (including 49 regular gamblers and 10 non-gamblers), while they watched a series of advertisements. Following each advertisement, participants were asked to rate how likely they would be to take up the offer presented, therein. The number of fixations placed on each offer differed according to the type of inducement shown (p < .001), with reduced risk and cash back inducements being looked at more often than better odds and bonus bet inducements by all groups. Increased electrodermal activity while viewing the advertisements was associated with greater severity of gambling-related harm (p < .001), as well as greater ratings of desire for most advertisements. Rating of desire was, likewise, positively associated with gambling-related harm (p < .001). These results may suggest that, while the offers in gambling advertisements may be looked at by most viewers, unless there an attendant increase in arousal, it is quite unlikely that these inducements will elicit a desire to gamble. For individuals already at risk of gambling problems, exposure to these advertisements, especially those offering what is perceived to be safer betting options that minimise financial losses, may exacerbate existing harms. Such information may prove useful in guiding industry practice, government regulations, therapeutic interventions, and future research on this topic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2019.10.015DOI Listing
January 2020

Are sports bettors looking at responsible gambling messages? An eye-tracking study on wagering advertisements.

J Behav Addict 2019 Sep 26;8(3):499-507. Epub 2019 Aug 26.

School of Health Medical and Applied Sciences,Central Queensland University, Branyan, QLD,Australia.

Background And Aims: The broadcast of wagering advertisements during televised sports matches has been associated with various adverse outcomes. In order to counter these effects, legislative bodies require wagering operators to include responsible gambling messages in their advertisements; however, the effectiveness of these messages is unclear. This study sought to examine the extent to which responsible gambling messages are looked at, in the wider context of gambling advertisements.

Methods: Forty-nine regular sports bettors and 10 non-gamblers viewed a series of sports betting advertisements, while an eye-tracker recorded the number of fixations placed on responsible gambling messages, as well as other text-based wagering content.

Results: Responsible gambling messages were, generally, presented in a non-conspicuous manner. Eye-tracking data revealed that significantly fewer fixations were placed on responsible gambling messages, compared to wagering information ( < .001); however, this effect did not differ according to level of gambling risk ( = .169). The number of fixations placed on the different types of responsible gambling messages was found to vary, based on gambling risk ( = .006), as well as, what appears to be, the physical characteristics of these messages.

Discussion: Very few fixations were placed on, or near, responsible gambling messages, compared to other wagering information, meaning that, in their current form, they are unlikely to be effective in protecting against gambling harm. Preliminary evidence shows that presenting messages on a high-contrast/block-color background increases the number of fixations on these.

Conclusion: Further research is needed to identify ways of increasing the effectiveness of responsible gambling initiatives in the sports betting context.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1556/2006.8.2019.37DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7044613PMC
September 2019

Does size matter? An examination of problem gamblers' skin conductance responses to large and small magnitude rewards.

Psychophysiology 2017 Oct 27;54(10):1541-1548. Epub 2017 May 27.

School of Psychology, Western Sydney University, Penrith, New South Wales, Australia.

Previous research has shown that individuals with substance use disorder equally value small and large magnitude rewards. This has led some researchers to conceptualize the problematic behaviors associated with this disorder as being, at least in part, caused by a deficiency in processing reward stimuli. Considering the documented similarities between substance use disorder and disordered gambling, the current study sought to investigate whether problem gamblers also display such an aberrant pattern of incentive processing. Skin conductance responses (SCRs) to small and large magnitude wins were recorded from 16 problem gamblers (PGs) and 16 healthy controls (HCs) while they completed a computer-simulated electronic gaming machine task. The results show that, while large wins elicited greater SCRs compared to small wins for the HC group, no difference in SCR amplitude was found following large and small wins in the PG group. These findings suggest that problem gamblers may be less effective at evaluating the value of incentives, and are discussed in terms of relevant theoretical frameworks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/psyp.12897DOI Listing
October 2017

Reward and punishment hyposensitivity in problem gamblers: A study of event-related potentials using a principal components analysis.

Clin Neurophysiol 2015 Jul 19;126(7):1295-309. Epub 2014 Oct 19.

School of Psychology, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia; Brain & Behaviour Research Institute, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia.

Objective: To investigate whether the latent neural correlates of incentive processing differ between problem gamblers (PGs) and healthy controls (HCs).

Methods: Event-related potential (ERP) data were derived while 16 PGs and 20 HCs played a computer electronic gaming machine (EGM) task. Psychophysiological responses to outcomes commonly encountered during EGM gambling, including Large wins, Small wins, Near-wins, and Losses, were examined using a spatiotemporal principal components analysis (PCA). Subjects also completed questionnaires that assessed their levels of impulsivity, attraction to appetitive stimuli, and avoidance of aversive stimuli.

Results: Losses elicited a feedback-related negativity (FRN), whereas wins elicited a feedback-related positivity (FRP) at the same latency and topography. PGs exhibited both attenuated FRN amplitudes following Losses and FRP amplitudes following Wins. Greater P3b amplitudes were found following Wins compared to Losses. FRN amplitudes following Near-wins were significantly reduced compared to Losses for both PGs and HCs. Trends for reduced P3b amplitudes following all outcome types, and for similar P3b amplitudes following Large and Small wins, were found for the PG group.

Conclusions: We provide evidence that PGs are hyposensitive to both positive and negative outcomes.

Significance: The finding that PGs are hyposensitive to reward and punishment provides valuable insight into the nature of deficit in this disorder, and provides a foundation for future research and clinical interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinph.2014.10.011DOI Listing
July 2015

Problem gamblers are hyposensitive to wins: an analysis of skin conductance responses during actual gambling on electronic gaming machines.

Psychophysiology 2014 Jun 3;51(6):556-64. Epub 2014 Mar 3.

School of Psychology, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, Australia; Brain & Behaviour Research Institute, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, Australia.

Physiological arousal is purportedly a key determinant in the development and maintenance of gambling behaviors, with problem gambling conceptualized in terms of abnormal autonomic responses. Theoretical conceptualizations of problem gambling are discordant regarding the nature of deficit in this disorder; some accounts posit that problem gamblers are hypersensitive to reward, and others that they are hyposensitive to reward and/or punishment. Previous research examining phasic electrodermal responses in gamblers has been limited to laboratory settings, and reactions to real gaming situations need to be examined. Skin conductance responses (SCRs) to losses, wins, and losses disguised as wins (LDWs) were recorded from 15 problem gamblers (PGs) and 15 nonproblem gamblers (NPGs) while they wagered their own money during electronic gaming machine play. PGs demonstrated significantly reduced SCRs to reward. SCRs to losses and LDWs did not differ for either PGs or NPGs. This hyposensitivity to wins may reflect abnormalities in incentive processing, and may represent a potential biological marker for problem gambling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/psyp.12198DOI Listing
June 2014

Can event-related potentials serve as neural markers for wins, losses, and near-wins in a gambling task? A principal components analysis.

Int J Psychophysiol 2013 Sep 18;89(3):390-8. Epub 2013 Jun 18.

School of Psychology, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia; Brain & Behaviour Research Institute, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia. Electronic address:

Originally, the feedback related negativity (FRN) event-related potential (ERP) component was considered to be a robust neural correlate of non-reward/punishment processing, with greater negative deflections observed following unfavourable outcomes. More recently, it has been suggested that this component is better conceptualised as a positive deflection following rewarding outcomes. The current study sought to elucidate the nature of the FRN, as well as another component associated with incentive-value processing, the P3b, through application of a spatiotemporal principal components analysis (PCA). Seventeen healthy controls played a computer electronic gaming machine (EGM) task and received feedback on credits won or lost on each trial, and ERPs were recorded. The distribution of reward/non-reward outcomes closely matched that of a real EGM, with frequent losses, and infrequent wins and near-wins. The PCA revealed that feedback elicited both a frontally maximal negative deflection to losses, and a positive deflection to wins (which was also sensitive to reward magnitude), implying that the neural generator/s of the FRN are differentially activated following these outcomes. As expected, greater P3b amplitudes were found for wins compared to losses. Interestingly, near-wins elicited significantly smaller FRN amplitudes than losses (with no differences in P3b amplitude), and may contribute to the maintenance of gambling behaviours on EGMs. The results of the current study are integrated into a response profile of healthy controls to outcomes of varying incentive value. This may provide a foundation for the future examination of individuals who exhibit abnormalities in reward/punishment processing, such as problem gamblers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2013.06.011DOI Listing
September 2013

Electrodermal activity reliably captures physiological differences between wins and losses during gambling on electronic machines.

Psychophysiology 2012 Feb 19;49(2):154-63. Epub 2011 Sep 19.

School of Psychology, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, Australia.

Differential patterns of physiological arousal to win and loss events during gambling is central to psychological conceptualizations of gambling behaviors but is poorly researched. We recorded heart rate (HR) and skin conductance responses (SCRs) to wins and losses while 23 healthy participants played for small incentives on a simulated electronic gambling task. Wins produced large SCRs whereas losses did not, and large wins produced larger SCRs than small wins. Electrodermal measures also correlated with reward responsiveness on a personality measure and with ratings of excitement during gambling. HR evidenced a slight deceleration before event outcomes, and the rebound HR was larger after wins than after losses. The study demonstrates that physiological changes to gambling events can be reliably captured, and that these changes are sensitive to differential outcomes. These findings establish a foundation for future research in field settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8986.2011.01290.xDOI Listing
February 2012