Publications by authors named "Lisa Laprade"

7 Publications

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Rhodoxanthin synthase from honeysuckle; a membrane diiron enzyme catalyzes the multistep conversation of β-carotene to rhodoxanthin.

Sci Adv 2020 Apr 22;6(17):eaay9226. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

DSM Nutritional Products, 60 Westview St, Lexington, MA 02421, USA.

Rhodoxanthin is a vibrant red carotenoid found across the plant kingdom and in certain birds and fish. It is a member of the atypical retro class of carotenoids, which contain an additional double bond and a concerted shift of the conjugated double bonds relative to the more widely occurring carotenoid pigments, and whose biosynthetic origins have long remained elusive. Here, we identify LHRS ( hydroxylase rhodoxanthin synthase), a variant β-carotene hydroxylase (BCH)-type integral membrane diiron enzyme that mediates the conversion of β-carotene into rhodoxanthin. We identify residues that are critical to rhodoxanthin formation by LHRS. Substitution of only three residues converts a typical BCH into a multifunctional enzyme that mediates a multistep pathway from β-carotene to rhodoxanthin via a series of distinct oxidation steps in which the product of each step becomes the substrate for the next catalytic cycle. We propose a biosynthetic pathway from β-carotene to rhodoxanthin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aay9226DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7176425PMC
April 2020

Characterization of new Spt3 and TATA-binding protein mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Spt3 TBP allele-specific interactions and bypass of Spt8.

Genetics 2007 Dec;177(4):2007-17

Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

The Spt-Ada-Gcn5-acetyltransferase (SAGA) complex of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a multifunctional coactivator complex that has been shown to regulate transcription by distinct mechanisms. Previous results have shown that the Spt3 and Spt8 components of SAGA regulate initiation of transcription of particular genes by controlling the level of TATA-binding protein (TBP/Spt15) associated with the TATA box. While biochemical evidence exists for direct Spt8-TBP interactions, similar evidence for Spt3-TBP interactions has been lacking. To learn more about Spt3-TBP interactions in vivo, we have isolated a new class of spt3 mutations that cause a dominant-negative phenotype when overexpressed. These mutations all cluster within a conserved region of Spt3. The isolation of extragenic suppressors of one of these spt3 mutations has identified two new spt15 mutations that show allele-specific interactions with spt3 mutations with respect to transcription and the recruitment of TBP to particular promoters. In addition, these new spt15 mutations partially bypass an spt8 null mutation. Finally, we have examined the level of SAGA-TBP physical interaction in these mutants. While most spt3, spt8, and spt15 mutations do not alter SAGA-TBP interactions, one spt3 mutation, spt3-401, causes a greatly increased level of SAGA-TBP physical association. These results, taken together, suggest that a direct Spt3-TBP interaction is required for normal TBP levels at Spt3-dependent promoters in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1534/genetics.107.081976DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2219495PMC
December 2007

Suppressor analysis of a histone defect identifies a new function for the hda1 complex in chromosome segregation.

Genetics 2006 May 16;173(1):435-50. Epub 2006 Jan 16.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville 72701, USA.

Histones are essential for the compaction of DNA into chromatin and therefore participate in all chromosomal functions. Specific mutations in HTA1, one of the two Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes encoding histone H2A, have been previously shown to cause chromosome segregation defects, including an increase in ploidy associated with altered pericentromeric chromatin structure, suggesting a role for histone H2A in kinetochore function. To identify proteins that may interact with histone H2A in the control of ploidy and chromosome segregation, we performed a genetic screen for suppressors of the increase-in-ploidy phenotype associated with one of the H2A mutations. We identified five genes, HHT1, MKS1, HDA1, HDA2, and HDA3, four of which encode proteins directly connected to chromatin function: histone H3 and each of the three subunits of the Hda1 histone deacetylase complex. Our results show that Hda3 has functions distinct from Hda2 and Hda1 and that it is required for normal chromosome segregation and cell cycle progression. In addition, HDA3 shows genetic interactions with kinetochore components, emphasizing a role in centromere function, and all three Hda proteins show association with centromeric DNA. These findings suggest that the Hda1 deacetylase complex affects histone function at the centromere and that Hda3 has a distinctive participation in chromosome segregation. Moreover, these suppressors provide the basis for future studies regarding histone function in chromosome segregation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1534/genetics.105.050559DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1461434PMC
May 2006

A mutation in NFkB interacting protein 1 results in cardiomyopathy and abnormal skin development in wa3 mice.

Hum Mol Genet 2005 Mar 20;14(5):667-77. Epub 2005 Jan 20.

Genetics Division, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

We have identified waved 3 (wa3), a novel recessive mutation that causes abnormalities of the heart and skin. The cardiac defect results in a severe and rapidly progressive dilated cardiomyopathy. We identified the gene mutated in these mice, which we call NFkB interacting protein1 (Nkip1), using positional cloning. Nkip1 is expressed in skin, heart and vascular endothelium and shares homology with a small family of proteins that play a role in the regulation of transcription factors. A C-terminal fragment of this protein was previously identified as the RelA associated inhibitor (RAI). We show that the full-length protein is larger than previously described, and we confirm that it interacts with NFkB in vivo. Expression analysis of genes known to be regulated by NFkB revealed that Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (Icam1) expression is consistently elevated in mutant mice. This result suggests that wa3 mutant mice represent a potentially important model for the analysis of the role of inflammatory processes in heart disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddi063DOI Listing
March 2005

Intergenic transcription is required to repress the Saccharomyces cerevisiae SER3 gene.

Nature 2004 Jun;429(6991):571-4

Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, 77 Avenue Louis Pasteur, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

Transcription by RNA polymerase II in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and in humans is widespread, even in genomic regions that do not encode proteins. The purpose of such intergenic transcription is largely unknown, although it can be regulatory. We have discovered a role for one case of intergenic transcription by studying the S. cerevisiae SER3 gene. Our previous results demonstrated that transcription of SER3 is tightly repressed during growth in rich medium. We now show that the regulatory region of this gene is highly transcribed under these conditions and produces a non-protein-coding RNA (SRG1). Expression of the SRG1 RNA is required for repression of SER3. Additional experiments have demonstrated that repression occurs by a transcription-interference mechanism in which SRG1 transcription across the SER3 promoter interferes with the binding of activators. This work identifies a previously unknown class of transcriptional regulatory genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature02538DOI Listing
June 2004

Transcription elongation factors repress transcription initiation from cryptic sites.

Science 2003 Aug;301(5636):1096-9

Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, 200 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

Previous studies have suggested that transcription elongation results in changes in chromatin structure. Here we present studies of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Spt6, a conserved protein implicated in both transcription elongation and chromatin structure. Our results show that, surprisingly, an spt6 mutant permits aberrant transcription initiation from within coding regions. Furthermore, transcribed chromatin in the spt6 mutant is hypersensitive to micrococcal nuclease, and this hypersensitivity is suppressed by mutational inactivation of RNA polymerase II. These results suggest that Spt6 plays a critical role in maintaining normal chromatin structure during transcription elongation, thereby repressing transcription initiation from cryptic promoters. Other elongation and chromatin factors, including Spt16 and histone H3, appear to contribute to this control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1087374DOI Listing
August 2003

Spt3 plays opposite roles in filamentous growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans and is required for C. albicans virulence.

Genetics 2002 Jun;161(2):509-19

Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

Spt3 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is required for the normal transcription of many genes in vivo. Past studies have shown that Spt3 is required for both mating and sporulation, two events that initiate when cells are at G(1)/START. We now show that Spt3 is needed for two other events that begin at G(1)/START, diploid filamentous growth and haploid invasive growth. In addition, Spt3 is required for normal expression of FLO11, a gene required for filamentous growth, although this defect is not the sole cause of the spt3Delta/spt3Delta filamentous growth defect. To extend our studies of Spt3's role in filamentous growth to the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans, we have identified the C. albicans SPT3 gene and have studied its role in C. albicans filamentous growth and virulence. Surprisingly, C. albicans spt3Delta/spt3Delta mutants are hyperfilamentous, the opposite phenotype observed for S. cerevisiae spt3Delta/spt3Delta mutants. Furthermore, C. albicans spt3Delta/spt3Delta mutants are avirulent in mice. These experiments demonstrate that Spt3 plays important but opposite roles in filamentous growth in S. cerevisiae and C. albicans.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1462142PMC
June 2002