Publications by authors named "Lisa K Sykes"

30 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Mercury-associated diagnoses among children diagnosed with pervasive development disorders.

Metab Brain Dis 2018 06 6;33(3):949-960. Epub 2018 Mar 6.

The Institute of Chronic Illnesses, Inc, 14 Redgate Ct, Silver Spring, MD, USA.

Nelson and Bauman (Pediatrics 111:674-679, 2003) previously hypothesized that pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) was not associated with mercury (Hg) exposure because the medical conditions associated with Hg exposure were not associated with PDD. A hypothesis-testing longitudinal case-control study evaluated the frequency of medically diagnosed conditions previously associated with Hg poisoning, including: epilepsy, dysarthria, failure to thrive, cerebral palsy, or contact dermatitis and other eczema among children preceding their eventual PDD diagnosis (cases) compared to controls. A retrospective examination of medical records within the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) was undertaken. Cases diagnosed with PDD (n = 534) were born from 1991 to 2000 and continuously enrolled until their PDD diagnosis. Controls (n = 26,367) were born from 1991 to 1993 and continuously enrolled from birth for 7.22 years. Within the first 5 years of life, cases compared to controls were significantly (p < 0.0001) more likely to be assigned a diagnosis of contact dermatitis and other eczema (odds ratio (OR) = 2.033), dysarthria (OR = 23.992), epilepsy (OR = 5.351), failure to thrive (OR = 25.3), and cerebral palsy (OR = 4.464). Similar results were observed when the data were separated by gender. Overall, the results of the present study and recently published studies provide direct evidence supporting a link in twelve of twelve categories (100%) of Hg poisoning associated symptoms as defined by Nelson and Bauman (Pediatrics 111:674-679, 2003) and symptoms observed in those with a PDD diagnosis. The results of this study support the biological plausibility of Hg poisoning to induce PDD diagnoses and rejection of the Nelson and Bauman (Pediatrics 111:674-679, 2003) hypothesis because those with a PDD diagnosis have an increased frequency of conditions previously associated with Hg poisoning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11011-018-0211-9DOI Listing
June 2018

Systematic Assessment of Research on Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Mercury Reveals Conflicts of Interest and the Need for Transparency in Autism Research.

Sci Eng Ethics 2017 12;23(6):1691-1718

Institute of Chronic Illnesses, Inc, 14 Redgate Court, Silver Spring, MD, 20905, USA.

Historically, entities with a vested interest in a product that critics have suggested is harmful have consistently used research to back their claims that the product is safe. Prominent examples are: tobacco, lead, bisphenol A, and atrazine. Research literature indicates that about 80-90% of studies with industry affiliation found no harm from the product, while only about 10-20% of studies without industry affiliation found no harm. In parallel to other historical debates, recent studies examining a possible relationship between mercury (Hg) exposure and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show a similar dichotomy. Studies sponsored and supported by industry or entities with an apparent conflict of interest have most often shown no evidence of harm or no "consistent" evidence of harm, while studies without such affiliations report positive evidence of a Hg/autism association. The potentially causal relationship between Hg exposure and ASD differs from other toxic products since there is a broad coalition of entities for whom a conflict of interest arises. These include influential governmental public health entities, the pharmaceutical industry, and even the coal burning industry. This review includes a systematic literature search of original studies on the potential relationship between Hg and ASD from 1999 to August 2015, finding that of the studies with public health and/or industry affiliation, 86% reported no relationship between Hg and ASD. However, among studies without public health and/or industry affiliation, only 21% find no relationship between Hg and ASD. The discrepancy in these results suggests a bias indicative of a conflict of interest.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11948-017-9983-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5705731PMC
December 2017

Thimerosal-containing Hepatitis B Vaccine Exposure is Highly Associated with Childhood Obesity: A Case-control Study Using the Vaccine Safety Datalink.

N Am J Med Sci 2016 Jul;8(7):297-306

Department of Research, Institute of Chronic Illnesses Inc., MD, USA; Department of Research, CoMeD, Inc., Silver Spring, MD, USA.

Background: Obesity among children and adolescents in the United States has tripled since 1980, and has become a major public health concern.

Aims: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential relationship between exposure to organic mercury from Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccines and the children's subsequent risk of an obesity diagnosis.

Materials And Methods: A hypothesis-testing, case-control study was undertaken to evaluate exposure to organic mercury from Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccines, which were administered at specific intervals in the first 6 months of life, among cases diagnosed with childhood obesity and controls by examining automated medical records for children born from 1991 to 2000 who were continuously enrolled in the Vaccine Safety Datalink database.

Results: This study found highly significant associations as follows. Cases diagnosed with obesity were significantly (P < 0.00001) more likely to have received greater exposure to organic mercury from Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccines administered within the first month of life (odds ratio (OR) =1.511), first 2 months of life (OR = 1.486), and first 6 months of life (OR = 3.795) than the controls. Similar outcomes were observed when the overall data were separated by gender. In a dose-response manner, cases diagnosed with obesity were significantly more likely than controls to have received greater exposure to organic mercury from Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccines, which were administered within the first 6 months of life (OR = 1.0375 per μg of mercury, P < 0.00001).

Conclusions: In a dose-response manner, the present study associates an increased organic mercury exposure from Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccines with an increased risk of obesity diagnosis, and suggests that Thimerosal is an obesogen. The results are biologically plausible and future studies are needed to examine this phenomenon.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1947-2714.187148DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4982359PMC
July 2016

Examining genotypic variation in autism spectrum disorder and its relationship to parental age and phenotype.

Appl Clin Genet 2016 28;9:121-9. Epub 2016 Jul 28.

Research Department, The Institute of Chronic Illnesses, Inc; Research Department, CoMeD, Inc, Silver Spring, MD.

Background: Previous studies on genetic testing of chromosomal abnormalities in individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) found that ~80% have negative genetic test results (NGTRs) and ~20% have positive genetic test results (PGTRs), of which ~7% were probable de novo mutations (PDNMs). Research suggests that parental age is a risk factor for an ASD diagnosis. This study examined genotypic variation in ASD and its relationship to parental age and phenotype.

Methods: Phenotype was derived from detailed clinical information, and genotype was derived from high-resolution blood chromosome and blood whole-genome copy number variant genetic testing on a consecutive cohort (born: 1983-2009) of subjects diagnosed with ASD (N=218).

Results: Among the subjects examined, 80.3% had NGTRs and 19.7% had PGTRs, of which 6.9% had PDNMs. NGTR subjects were born more recently (the risk of PDNMs decreasing by 12% per more recent birth year) and tended to have an increased male-female ratio compared to PDNM subjects. PDNM subjects had significantly increased mean parental age and paternal age at subject's birth (the risk of a PDNM increasing by 7%-8% per year of parental or paternal age) compared to NGTR subjects. PGTR and NGTR subjects showed significant improvements in speech/language/communication with increasing age. PGTR subjects showed significant improvements in sociability, a core feature of an ASD diagnosis, with increasing age, whereas NGTR subjects showed significant worsening in sociability with increasing age.

Conclusion: This study helps to elucidate different phenotypic ASD subtypes and may even indicate the need for differential diagnostic classifications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/TACG.S112712DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4968978PMC
August 2016

The relationship between mercury and autism: A comprehensive review and discussion.

J Trace Elem Med Biol 2016 Sep 2;37:8-24. Epub 2016 Jun 2.

Institute of Chronic Illnesses, Inc., 14 Redgate Court, Silver Spring, MD, 20905 USA; CoMeD, Inc., 14 Redgate Court, Silver Spring, MD, 20905 USA.

The brain pathology in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) indicates marked and ongoing inflammatory reactivity with concomitant neuronal damage. These findings are suggestive of neuronal insult as a result of external factors, rather than some type of developmental mishap. Various xenobiotics have been suggested as possible causes of this pathology. In a recent review, the top ten environmental compounds suspected of causing autism and learning disabilities were listed and they included: lead, methyl-mercury, polychorinated biphenyls, organophosphate pesticides, organochlorine pesticides, endocrine disruptors, automotive exhaust, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and perfluorinated compounds. This current review, however, will focus specifically on mercury exposure and ASD by conducting a comprehensive literature search of original studies in humans that examine the potential relationship between mercury and ASD, categorizing, summarizing, and discussing the published research that addresses this topic. This review found 91 studies that examine the potential relationship between mercury and ASD from 1999 to February 2016. Of these studies, the vast majority (74%) suggest that mercury is a risk factor for ASD, revealing both direct and indirect effects. The preponderance of the evidence indicates that mercury exposure is causal and/or contributory in ASD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtemb.2016.06.002DOI Listing
September 2016

Thimerosal-Preserved Hepatitis B Vaccine and Hyperkinetic Syndrome of Childhood.

Brain Sci 2016 Mar 15;6(1). Epub 2016 Mar 15.

Institute of Chronic Illnesses, Inc., Silver Spring, MD 20905, USA.

(1) BACKGROUND: Hyperkinetic syndrome of childhood (HKSoC) is an International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9) category in which the majority of the children are also diagnosed under the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR), where the umbrella term is "Attention-Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders". The diagnostic criteria for HKSoC are developmentally inappropriate inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Some studies have implicated mercury (Hg) exposure as a risk factor. (2) METHODS: This hypothesis testing study; using the Vaccine Safety Datalink; assessed the toxicological effects of bolus exposure to organic-Hg from Thimerosal-containing vaccines (TCVs) by examining the relationship between Thimerosal-preserved hepatitis B vaccines (TM-HepB) given at varying levels and at specific intervals in the first six months after birth and the risk of a child being diagnosed with HKSoC. (3) RESULTS: Children diagnosed with HKSoC were significantly more likely to be exposed to increased organic-Hg from TM-HepB doses given within the first month (odds ratio = 1.45; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.30-1.62); within the first two months (odds ratio = 1.43; 95% CI = 1.28-1.59); and within the first six months (odds ratio = 4.51; 95% CI = 3.04-6.71) than controls. (4) CONCLUSION: The results indicate that increasing organic-Hg exposure from TCVs heightens the risk of a HKSoC diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci6010009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4810179PMC
March 2016

Relevance of Neuroinflammation and Encephalitis in Autism.

Front Cell Neurosci 2015 19;9:519. Epub 2016 Jan 19.

Institute of Chronic Illnesses, Inc., Silver Spring MD, USA.

In recent years, many studies indicate that children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis have brain pathology suggestive of ongoing neuroinflammation or encephalitis in different regions of their brains. Evidence of neuroinflammation or encephalitis in ASD includes: microglial and astrocytic activation, a unique and elevated proinflammatory profile of cytokines, and aberrant expression of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells. A conservative estimate based on the research suggests that at least 69% of individuals with an ASD diagnosis have microglial activation or neuroinflammation. Encephalitis, which is defined as inflammation of the brain, is medical diagnosis code G04.90 in the International Classification of Disease, 10th revision; however, children with an ASD diagnosis are not generally assessed for a possible medical diagnosis of encephalitis. This is unfortunate because if a child with ASD has neuroinflammation, then treating the underlying brain inflammation could lead to improved outcomes. The purpose of this review of the literature is to examine the evidence of neuroinflammation/encephalitis in those with an ASD diagnosis and to address how a medical diagnosis of encephalitis, when appropriate, could benefit these children by driving more immediate and targeted treatments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fncel.2015.00519DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4717322PMC
February 2016

A Prospective Longitudinal Assessment of Medical Records for Diagnostic Substitution among Subjects Diagnosed with a Pervasive Developmental Disorder in the United States.

Front Pediatr 2015 12;3:85. Epub 2015 Oct 12.

The Institute of Chronic Illnesses, Inc , Silver Spring, MD , USA.

Background: Previously, investigators suggested that diagnostic substitution from other diagnoses, e.g., mental retardation (MR) and/or cerebral palsy (CP) to pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) is a driving factor behind increases in autism. This study evaluated potential diagnostic substitution among subjects diagnosed with PDD vs. MR or CP by examining birth characteristic overlap.

Methods: SAS(®) and StatsDirect software examined medical records for subjects within the Vaccine Safety Datalink database who were Health Maintenance Organization-enrolled from birth until diagnosed with an International Classification of Disease, 9th revision (ICD-9) outcome of PDD (299.xx, n = 84), CP (343.xx, n = 300), or MR (317.xx, 318.xx, or 319.xx, n = 51).

Results: Subjects with PDD had significantly (p < 0.01) increased: male/female ratio (PDD = 5.5 vs. CP = 1.5 or MR = 1.3), mean age of initial diagnosis in years (PDD = 3.13 vs. CP = 1.09 or MR = 1.62), mean gestational age in weeks at birth (PDD = 38.73 vs. CP = 36.20 or MR = 34.84), mean birth weight in grams (PDD = 3,368 vs. CP = 2,767 or MR = 2,406), and mean Appearance-Pulse-Grimace-Activity-Respiration scores at 1 min (PDD = 7.82 vs. CP = 6.37 or MR = 6.76) and 5 min (PDD = 8.77 vs. CP = 7.92 or MR = 8.04), as compared to subjects diagnosed with CP or MR.

Conclusion: This study suggests diagnostic substitution cannot fully explain increased PDD prevalence during the 1990s within the United States.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2015.00085DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4600915PMC
November 2015

A longitudinal cohort study of the relationship between Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccination and specific delays in development in the United States: Assessment of attributable risk and lifetime care costs.

J Epidemiol Glob Health 2016 06 9;6(2):105-18. Epub 2015 Jul 9.

Institute of Chronic Illnesses, Inc, Silver Spring, MD, USA.

Epidemiological evidence suggests a link between mercury (Hg) exposure from Thimerosal-containing vaccines and specific delays in development. A hypothesis-testing longitudinal cohort study (n=49,835) using medical records in the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) was undertaken to evaluate the relationship between exposure to Hg from Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccines (T-HBVs) administered at specific intervals in the first 6months of life and specific delays in development [International Classification of Disease, 9th revision (ICD-9): 315.xx] among children born between 1991 and 1994 and continuously enrolled from birth for at least 5.81years. Infants receiving increased Hg doses from T-HBVs administered within the first month, the first 2months, and the first 6months of life were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with specific delays in development than infants receiving no Hg doses from T-HBVs. During the decade in which T-HBVs were routinely recommended and administered to US infants (1991-2001), an estimated 0.5-1million additional US children were diagnosed with specific delays in development as a consequence of 25μg or 37.5μg organic Hg from T-HBVs administered within the first 6months of life. The resulting lifetime costs to the United States may exceed $1 trillion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jegh.2015.06.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7320444PMC
June 2016

Thimerosal exposure and increased risk for diagnosed tic disorder in the United States: a case-control study.

Interdiscip Toxicol 2015 Jun;8(2):68-76

Institute of Chronic Illnesses, Inc., 14 Redgate Ct, Silver Spring, MD, USA.

A hypothesis testing, case-control study evaluated automated medical records for exposure to organic-Hg from Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccines (TM-HepB) administered at specific intervals in the first six-months-of-life among cases diagnosed with a tic disorder (TD) or cerebral degeneration (CD) (an outcome not biologically plausibly linked to TM exposure) in comparison to controls; both cases and controls were continuously enrolled from birth (born from 1991-2000) within the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) database. TD cases were significantly more likely than controls to have received increased organic-Hg from TM-HepB administered within the first month-of-life (odds ratio (OR)=1.59, p<0.00001), first two-months-of-life (OR=1.59, p<0.00001), and first six-months-of-life (OR=2.97, p<0.00001). Male TD cases were significantly more likely than male controls to have received increased organic-Hg from TM-HepB administered within the first month-of-life (OR =1.65, p<0.0001), first two-months-of-life (OR=1.64, p<0.0001), and first six months-of-life (OR=2.47, p<0.05), where as female TD were significantly more likely than female controls to have received increased organic-Hg from TM-HepB administered within the first six-months-of-life (OR=4.97, p<0.05). By contrast, CD cases were no more likely than controls to have received increased organic-Hg exposure from TM-HepB administered at any period studied within the first six-months-of-life. Although routine childhood vaccination is considered an important public health tool to combat infectious diseases, the present study associates increasing organic-Hg exposure from TM-HepB and the subsequent risk of a TD diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/intox-2015-0011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4961900PMC
June 2015

Thimerosal: clinical, epidemiologic and biochemical studies.

Clin Chim Acta 2015 Apr 21;444:212-20. Epub 2015 Feb 21.

Institute of Chronic Illnesses, Inc., 14 Redgate Ct., Silver Spring, MD 20905, USA. Electronic address:

Introduction: Thimerosal (or Thiomersal) is a trade name for an organomercurial compound (sodium ethyl-mercury (Hg) thiosalicylate) that is 49.55% Hg by weight, which rapidly decomposes in aqueous saline solutions into ethyl-Hg hydroxide and ethyl-Hg chloride. Developed in 1927, it has been and is still being used as a preservative in some cosmetics, topical pharmaceuticals, and biological drug products, including vaccines. Concerns have been voiced about its use because it is toxic to human cells. Although it is banned in several countries, it continues to be added to some vaccines in the United States and many vaccines in the developing world.

Discussion: This critical review focuses on the clinical, epidemiological, and biochemical studies of adverse effects from Thimerosal in developing humans. This review will include research that examines fetal, infant, and childhood death; birth defects; neurodevelopmental testing deficits in children; and neurodevelopmental disorders (attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder, tic disorder, and specific developmental delays). The review will also look at the research that examined the outcomes of acute accidental ethyl-Hg poisoning in humans. The studies that examine the underlying biochemical insights into the neuronal cellular damage will also be explored.

Conclusion: The culmination of the research that examines the effects of Thimerosal in humans indicates that it is a poison at minute levels with a plethora of deleterious consequences, even at the levels currently administered in vaccines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cca.2015.02.030DOI Listing
April 2015

Thimerosal: clinical, epidemiologic and biochemical studies.

Clin Chim Acta 2015 Apr 21;444:212-20. Epub 2015 Feb 21.

Institute of Chronic Illnesses, Inc., 14 Redgate Ct., Silver Spring, MD 20905, USA. Electronic address:

Introduction: Thimerosal (or Thiomersal) is a trade name for an organomercurial compound (sodium ethyl-mercury (Hg) thiosalicylate) that is 49.55% Hg by weight, which rapidly decomposes in aqueous saline solutions into ethyl-Hg hydroxide and ethyl-Hg chloride. Developed in 1927, it has been and is still being used as a preservative in some cosmetics, topical pharmaceuticals, and biological drug products, including vaccines. Concerns have been voiced about its use because it is toxic to human cells. Although it is banned in several countries, it continues to be added to some vaccines in the United States and many vaccines in the developing world.

Discussion: This critical review focuses on the clinical, epidemiological, and biochemical studies of adverse effects from Thimerosal in developing humans. This review will include research that examines fetal, infant, and childhood death; birth defects; neurodevelopmental testing deficits in children; and neurodevelopmental disorders (attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder, tic disorder, and specific developmental delays). The review will also look at the research that examined the outcomes of acute accidental ethyl-Hg poisoning in humans. The studies that examine the underlying biochemical insights into the neuronal cellular damage will also be explored.

Conclusion: The culmination of the research that examines the effects of Thimerosal in humans indicates that it is a poison at minute levels with a plethora of deleterious consequences, even at the levels currently administered in vaccines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cca.2015.02.030DOI Listing
April 2015

Shared Brain Connectivity Issues, Symptoms, and Comorbidities in Autism Spectrum Disorder, Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, and Tourette Syndrome.

Brain Connect 2015 Aug 14;5(6):321-35. Epub 2015 Apr 14.

1 Institute of Chronic Illnesses, Inc. , Silver Spring, Maryland.

The prevalence of neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and Tourette syndrome (TS), has increased over the past two decades. Currently, about one in six children in the United States is diagnosed as having a neurodevelopmental disorder. Evidence suggests that ASD, ADHD, and TS have similar neuropathology, which includes long-range underconnectivity and short-range overconnectivity. They also share similar symptomatology with considerable overlap in their core and associated symptoms and a frequent overlap in their comorbid conditions. Consequently, it is apparent that ASD, ADHD, and TS diagnoses belong to a broader spectrum of neurodevelopmental illness. Biologically, long-range underconnectivity and short-range overconnectivity are plausibly related to neuronal insult (e.g., neurotoxicity, neuroinflammation, excitotoxicity, sustained microglial activation, proinflammatory cytokines, toxic exposure, and oxidative stress). Therefore, these disorders may a share a similar etiology. The main purpose of this review is to critically examine the evidence that ASD, ADHD, and TS belong to a broader spectrum of neurodevelopmental illness, an abnormal connectivity spectrum disorder, which results from neural long-range underconnectivity and short-range overconnectivity. The review also discusses the possible reasons for these neuropathological connectivity findings. In addition, this review examines the role and issue of axonal injury and regeneration in order to better understand the neuropathophysiological interplay between short- and long-range axons in connectivity issues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/brain.2014.0324DOI Listing
August 2015

Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccination and the risk for diagnosed specific delays in development in the United States: a case-control study in the vaccine safety datalink.

N Am J Med Sci 2014 Oct;6(10):519-31

Institute of Chronic Illnesses, Inc, Silver Spring, Maryland, USA.

Background: Within the first 3 years of life, the brain develops rapidly. Its development is characterized by critical developmental periods for speech, vision, hearing, language, balance, etc.; and alteration in any of the processes occurring in those critical periods can lead to specific delays in development.

Aims: The present study evaluated the potential toxic effects of organic-mercury exposure from Thimerosal (49.55% mercury by weight) in childhood vaccines and its hypothesized possible relationship with specific delays in development.

Materials And Methods: A hypothesis testing case-control study was undertaken to evaluate the relationship between exposure to Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccines administered at specific intervals in the first 6 months among cases diagnosed with specific delays in development and controls born between 1991-2000, utilizing data in the Vaccine Safety Datalink database.

Results: Cases were significantly more likely than controls to have received increased organic-mercury from Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccine administered in the first, second, and sixth month of life.

Conclusion: Though routine childhood vaccination may be an important public health tool to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with infectious diseases, the present study supports an association between increasing organic-mercury exposure from Thimerosal-containing childhood vaccines and the subsequent risk of specific delays in development among males and females.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1947-2714.143284DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4215490PMC
October 2014

A case-control study evaluating the relationship between thimerosal-containing haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine administration and the risk for a pervasive developmental disorder diagnosis in the United States.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2015 Feb 11;163(1-2):28-38. Epub 2014 Nov 11.

The Institute of Chronic Illnesses, Inc, 14 Redgate Ct, Silver Spring, MD, 20905, USA.

Thimerosal is an organic mercury (Hg)-containing compound (49.55 % Hg by weight) historically added to many multi-dose vials of vaccine as a preservative. A hypothesis testing case-control study evaluated automated medical records in the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) for organic Hg exposure from Thimerosal in Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)-containing vaccines administered at specific times within the first 15 months of life among subjects diagnosed with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) (n = 534) in comparison to controls. The generally accepted biologically non-plausible linkage between Thimerosal exposure and subsequent diagnosis of febrile seizure (n = 5886) was examined as a control outcome. Cases diagnosed with PDD received significantly more organic Hg within the first 6 months of life (odds ratio (OR) = 1.97, p < 0.001) and first 15 months of life (OR = 3.94, p < 0.0001) than controls, whereas cases diagnosed with febrile seizure were no more likely than controls to have received increased organic Hg. On a per microgram of organic Hg basis, cases diagnosed with a PDD in comparison to controls were at significantly greater odds (OR = 1.0197, p < 0.0001) of receiving increasing organic Hg exposure within the first 15 months of life, whereas cases diagnosed febrile seizure were no more likely than controls (OR = 0.999, p > 0.20) to have received increasing organic Hg exposure within the first 15 months of life. Routine childhood vaccination is an important public health tool to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with infectious diseases, but the present study provides new epidemiological evidence of a significant relationship between increasing organic Hg exposure from Thimerosal-containing vaccines and the subsequent risk of PDD diagnosis in males and females.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-014-0169-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4297306PMC
February 2015

A dose-response relationship between organic mercury exposure from thimerosal-containing vaccines and neurodevelopmental disorders.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2014 Sep 5;11(9):9156-70. Epub 2014 Sep 5.

Institute of Chronic Illnesses, Inc., 14 Redgate Ct., Silver Spring, MD 20905, USA.

A hypothesis testing case-control study evaluated concerns about the toxic effects of organic-mercury (Hg) exposure from thimerosal-containing (49.55% Hg by weight) vaccines on the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders (NDs). Automated medical records were examined to identify cases and controls enrolled from their date-of-birth (1991-2000) in the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) project. ND cases were diagnosed with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD), specific developmental delay, tic disorder or hyperkinetic syndrome of childhood. In addition, putative non-thimerosal-related outcomes of febrile seizure, failure to thrive and cerebral degenerations were examined. The cumulative total dose of Hg exposure from thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccine (T-HBV) administered within the first six months of life was calculated. On a per microgram of organic-Hg basis, PDD (odds ratio (OR) = 1.054), specific developmental delay (OR = 1.035), tic disorder (OR = 1.034) and hyperkinetic syndrome of childhood (OR = 1.05) cases were significantly more likely than controls to receive increased organic-Hg exposure. By contrast, none of the non-thimerosal related outcomes were significantly more likely than the controls to have received increased organic-Hg exposure. Routine childhood vaccination may be an important public health tool to reduce infectious disease-associated morbidity/mortality, but the present study significantly associates organic-Hg exposure from T-HBV with an increased risk of an ND diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph110909156DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4199012PMC
September 2014

An Evaluation of the Effect of Increasing Parental Age on the Phenotypic Severity of Autism Spectrum Disorder.

J Child Neurol 2014 Aug 27. Epub 2014 Aug 27.

The Institute of Chronic Illnesses, Inc, Silver Spring, MD, USA

It was recently postulated that because increased genetic load and increased parental age are both purportedly associated with the risk to develop an autism spectrum disorder, there must be a linkage between increasing genetic load and increasing parental age in autism spectrum disorder pathogenesis. The present study examined the hypothesis that if increased genetic load from increasing paternal age is important to autism spectrum disorder pathogenesis, then there should be a significant relationship between increasing parental age and increasing autism spectrum disorder phenotypic severity. Outpatient clinical records were retrospectively examined to identify a consecutive cohort of subjects diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (n = 351). Increasing autism spectrum disorder phenotypic severity was found not to be associated with increasing maternal/paternal age. The present study failed to support the hypothesis that increasing parental age was associated with increasing autism spectrum disorder phenotypic severity, but future studies should examine the relationship between genetic mutations in subjects diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder and increasing parental age.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0883073814541478DOI Listing
August 2014

Thimerosal as discrimination: vaccine disparity in the UN Minamata Convention on mercury.

Indian J Med Ethics 2014 Oct-Dec;11(4):206-18. Epub 2014 Apr 11.

CoMeD, Inc, Silver Spring, MD; Institute of Chronic Illnesses, Inc, Silver Spring, MD United States.

When addressing toxins, one unmistakable parallel exists between biology and politics: developing children and developing nations are those most vulnerable to toxic exposures. This disturbing parallel is the subject of this critical review, which examines the use and distribution of the mercury (Hg)-based compound, thimerosal, in vaccines. Developed in 1927, thimerosal is 49.55% Hg by weight and breaks down in the body into ethyl-Hg chloride, ethyl-Hg hydroxide and sodium thiosalicylate. Since the early 1930s, there has been evidence indicating that thimerosal poses a hazard to the health of human beings and is ineffective as an antimicrobial agent. While children in the developed and predominantly western nations receive doses of mostly no-thimerosal and reduced-thimerosal vaccines, children in the developing nations receive many doses of several unreduced thimerosal-containing vaccines (TCVs). Thus, thimerosal has continued to be a part of the global vaccine supply and its acceptability as a component of vaccine formulations remained unchallenged until 2010, when the United Nations (UN), through the UN Environment Programme, began negotiations to write the global, legally binding Minamata Convention on Hg. During the negotiations, TCVs were dropped from the list of Hg-containing products to be regulated. Consequently, a double standard in vaccine safety, which previously existed due to ignorance and economic reasons, has now been institutionalised as global policy. Ultimately, the Minamata Convention on Hg has sanctioned the inequitable distribution of thimerosal by specifically exempting TCVs from regulation, condoning a two-tier standard of vaccine safety: a predominantly no-thimerosal and reduced-thimerosal standard for developed nations and a predominantly thimerosal-containing one for developing nations. This disparity must now be evaluated urgently as a potential form of institutionalised discrimination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.20529/IJME.2014.054DOI Listing
June 2016

New science challenges old notion that mercury dental amalgam is safe.

Biometals 2014 Feb 14;27(1):19-24. Epub 2014 Jan 14.

International Academy of Oral Medicine and Toxicology, ChampionsGate, FL, 33896, USA,

Mercury dental amalgam has a long history of ostensibly safe use despite its continuous release of mercury vapor. Two key studies known as the Children's Amalgam Trials are widely cited as evidence of safety. However, four recent reanalyses of one of these trials now suggest harm, particularly to boys with common genetic variants. These and other studies suggest that susceptibility to mercury toxicity differs among individuals based on multiple genes, not all of which have been identified. These studies further suggest that the levels of exposure to mercury vapor from dental amalgams may be unsafe for certain subpopulations. Moreover, a simple comparison of typical exposures versus regulatory safety standards suggests that many people receive unsafe exposures. Chronic mercury toxicity is especially insidious because symptoms are variable and nonspecific, diagnostic tests are often misunderstood, and treatments are speculative at best. Throughout the world, efforts are underway to phase down or eliminate the use of mercury dental amalgam.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10534-013-9700-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3905169PMC
February 2014

A two-phase study evaluating the relationship between Thimerosal-containing vaccine administration and the risk for an autism spectrum disorder diagnosis in the United States.

Transl Neurodegener 2013 Dec 19;2(1):25. Epub 2013 Dec 19.

The Institute of Chronic Illnesses Inc, 14 Redgate Ct, Silver Spring, MD, USA.

Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is defined by standardized criteria of qualitative impairments in social interaction, qualitative impairments in communication, and restricted and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, and activities. A significant number of children diagnosed with ASD suffer a loss of previously-acquired skills, which is suggestive of neurodegeneration or a type of progressive encephalopathy with an etiological pathogenic basis occurring after birth. To date, the etiology of ASD remains under debate, however, many studies suggest toxicity, especially from mercury (Hg), in individuals diagnosed with an ASD. The present study evaluated concerns about the toxic effects of organic-Hg exposure from Thimerosal (49.55% Hg by weight) in childhood vaccines by conducting a two-phased (hypothesis generating/hypothesis testing) study with documented exposure to varying levels of Thimerosal from vaccinations.

Methods: A hypothesis generating cohort study was undertaken to evaluate the relationship between exposure to organic-Hg from a Thimerosal-containing Diphtheria-Tetanus-acellular-Pertussis (DTaP) vaccine in comparison to a Thimerosal-free DTaP vaccine administered, from 1998 through 2000, for the risk of ASD as reported in the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) database (phase I). A hypothesis testing case-control study was undertaken to evaluate the relationship between organic-Hg exposure from Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccines administered at specific intervals in the first six months of life among cases diagnosed with an ASD and controls born between 1991 through 1999 in the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) database (phase II).

Results: In phase I, it was observed that there was a significantly increased risk ratio for the incidence of ASD reported following the Thimerosal-containing DTaP vaccine in comparison to the Thimerosal-free DTaP vaccine. In phase II, it was observed that cases diagnosed with an ASD were significantly more likely than controls to receive increased organic-Hg from Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccine administered within the first, second, and sixth month of life.

Conclusions: Routine childhood vaccination is an important public health tool to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with infectious diseases, but the present study provides new epidemiological evidence supporting an association between increasing organic-Hg exposure from Thimerosal-containing childhood vaccines and the subsequent risk of an ASD diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/2047-9158-2-25DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3878266PMC
December 2013

Thimerosal exposure and the role of sulfation chemistry and thiol availability in autism.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2013 Aug 20;10(8):3771-800. Epub 2013 Aug 20.

Institute of Chronic Illnesses, Inc., Silver Spring, MD 20905, USA.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurological disorder in which a significant number of the children experience a developmental regression characterized by a loss of previously acquired skills and abilities. Typically reported are losses of verbal, nonverbal, and social abilities. Several recent studies suggest that children diagnosed with an ASD have abnormal sulfation chemistry, limited thiol availability, and decreased glutathione (GSH) reserve capacity, resulting in a compromised oxidation/reduction (redox) and detoxification capacity. Research indicates that the availability of thiols, particularly GSH, can influence the effects of thimerosal (TM) and other mercury (Hg) compounds. TM is an organomercurial compound (49.55% Hg by weight) that has been, and continues to be, used as a preservative in many childhood vaccines, particularly in developing countries. Thiol-modulating mechanisms affecting the cytotoxicity of TM have been identified. Importantly, the emergence of ASD symptoms post-6 months of age temporally follows the administration of many childhood vaccines. The purpose of the present critical review is provide mechanistic insight regarding how limited thiol availability, abnormal sulfation chemistry, and decreased GSH reserve capacity in children with an ASD could make them more susceptible to the toxic effects of TM routinely administered as part of mandated childhood immunization schedules.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph10083771DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3774468PMC
August 2013

Evidence of neurodegeneration in autism spectrum disorder.

Transl Neurodegener 2013 Aug 8;2(1):17. Epub 2013 Aug 8.

Institute of Chronic Illnesses, Incorporation, Silver Spring, MD, USA.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurological disorder in which a significant number of children experience a developmental regression characterized by a loss of previously-acquired skills and abilities. Loss of neurological function in ASD, as observed in affected children who have regressed, can be explained as neurodegeneration. Although there is research evidence of neurodegeneration or progressive encephalopathy in ASD, the issue of neurodegeneration in ASD is still under debate. Evidence of neurodegeneration in the brain in ASD includes: (1) neuronal cell loss, (2) activated microglia and astrocytes, (3) proinflammatory cytokines, (4) oxidative stress, and (5) elevated 8-oxo-guanosine levels. The evidence from this review suggests that neurodegeneration underlies the loss of neurological function in children with ASD who have experienced regression and loss of previously acquired skills and abilities, and that research into treatments to address the issue of neurodegeneration in ASD are warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/2047-9158-2-17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3751488PMC
August 2013

Hair toxic metal concentrations and autism spectrum disorder severity in young children.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2012 Dec 6;9(12):4486-97. Epub 2012 Dec 6.

Institute of Chronic Illnesses, Silver Spring, MD 20905, USA.

Previous studies have found a higher body-burden of toxic metals, particularly mercury (Hg), among subjects diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in comparison to neurotypical controls. Moreover, Hg body-burden was associated with ASD severity. This cross-sectional study examined the potential correlation between hair toxic metal concentrations and ASD severity in a prospective cohort of participants diagnosed with moderate to severe ASD. The Institutional Review Board at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas (Dallas, TX) approved the present study. Qualifying study participants (n = 18) were evaluated for ASD severity using the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) and quantitatively for arsenic, Hg, cadmium, lead, chromium, cobalt, nickel, aluminum, tin, uranium, and manganese using hair toxic element testing by Doctor's Data (a CLIA-approved laboratory). CARS scoring and hair toxic element testing were blinded to one another. Increasing hair Hg concentrations significantly correlated with increased ASD severity. In contrast, no significant correlations were observed between any other of the hair toxic metals examined and ASD severity. This study helps to provide additional mechanistic support for Hg in the etiology of ASD severity, and is supported by an increasing number of recent critical reviews that provide biological plausibility for the role of Hg exposure in the pathogenesis of ASDs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph9124486DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3546773PMC
December 2012

Are ASD and ADHD a Continuum? A Comparison of Pathophysiological Similarities Between the Disorders.

J Atten Disord 2015 Sep 16;19(9):805-27. Epub 2012 Oct 16.

Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA.

Objective: The objective of this study was to review and compare the similarities between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and ADHD with regard to symptomatology, neurological deficits, metabolic and endocrine-related conditions, and brain pathology.

Method: A comprehensive review of the relevant research literature was carried out.

Results: A number of important similarities between ASD and ADHD were identified, including recent increases in prevalence, male-biased incidence, shared involvement of sensory processing, motor and impulse control, abnormal patterns of neural connectivity, and sleep disturbances. Studies suggest involvement of androgen metabolism, impaired methylation, and heavy metal toxicity as possible contributing factors for both disorders.

Conclusion: ASD and ADHD share a number of features and pathophysiological conditions, which suggests that the two disorders may be a continuum and have a common origin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1087054712459886DOI Listing
September 2015

Evidence of parallels between mercury intoxication and the brain pathology in autism.

Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars) 2012 ;72(2):113-53

Institute of Chronic Illnesses, Inc., Silver Spring, MD, USA.

The purpose of this review is to examine the parallels between the effects mercury intoxication on the brain and the brain pathology found in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This review finds evidence of many parallels between the two, including: (1) microtubule degeneration, specifically large, long-range axon degeneration with subsequent abortive axonal sprouting (short, thin axons); (2) dentritic overgrowth; (3) neuroinflammation; (4) microglial/astrocytic activation; (5) brain immune response activation; (6) elevated glial fibrillary acidic protein; (7) oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation; (8) decreased reduced glutathione levels and elevated oxidized glutathione; (9) mitochondrial dysfunction; (10) disruption in calcium homeostasis and signaling; (11) inhibition of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) activity; (12) disruption of GABAergic and glutamatergic homeostasis; (13) inhibition of IGF-1 and methionine synthase activity; (14) impairment in methylation; (15) vascular endothelial cell dysfunction and pathological changes of the blood vessels; (16) decreased cerebral/cerebellar blood flow; (17) increased amyloid precursor protein; (18) loss of granule and Purkinje neurons in the cerebellum; (19) increased pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in the brain (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-8); and (20) aberrant nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kappaB). This review also discusses the ability of mercury to potentiate and work synergistically with other toxins and pathogens in a way that may contribute to the brain pathology in ASD. The evidence suggests that mercury may be either causal or contributory in the brain pathology in ASD, possibly working synergistically with other toxic compounds or pathogens to produce the brain pathology observed in those diagnosed with an ASD.
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November 2012

An evaluation of the role and treatment of elevated male hormones in autism spectrum disorders.

Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars) 2012 ;72(1):1-17

The Institute of Chronic Illnesses, Inc., Silver Spring, MD, USA.

Autism, Asperger's syndrome (AS), and pervasive developmental disorder - not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) compose the overall diagnostic category of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Subjects diagnosed with an ASD have a male:female ratio of 4:1, and among subjects diagnosed with AS the male:female ratio is as high as 9:1. The purpose of this study was to examine evidence of the association between hyperandrogenism and autistic traits (ATs) among subjects diagnosed with an ASD, and to evaluate the effectiveness of anti-androgen therapy as a means to help treat ATs in subjects diagnosed with an ASD. Evidence of hyperandrogenism in subjects diagnosed with an ASD is supported by multiple studies in the areas of psychological framework, brain pathology, tissue culture, and pre- and postnatal androgen levels. Data from subjects diagnosed with other conditions associated with elevated androgens reveals many of these individuals have ATs. Finally, in a placebo-controlled trial of testosterone administration to neurotypical subjects, testosterone was found to increase ATs. In addition, a controlled trial of human transsexuals revealed a significant increase in ATs in female-to-male transsexuals and a decrease in ATs in male-to-female transsexuals. Data from multiple animals and human clinical trials suggest that antiandrogen medications have the ability to significantly reduce ATs in patients diagnosed with an ASD. In light of the robust association between hyperandrogenism and ASD, it is recommended subjects diagnosed with an ASD should undergo routine screening for elevated androgens, and appropriate treatment should be initiated for those with elevated androgens.
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August 2012

The temporal relationship between RotaTeq immunization and intussusception adverse events in the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS).

Med Sci Monit 2012 Feb;18(2):PH12-17

Institute of Chronic Illnesses, Inc., Silver Spring, MD, USA.

Background: In August of 2006, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended RotaTeq for routine vaccination of US infants. The hypothesis tested in the present study is that rotavirus vaccines are associated with an increased risk of intussusception adverse events (AEs) characterized by an onset in a biologically plausible a priori identified temporal period post-vaccination (days 3 to 7).

Material/methods: The Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) updated as of December 28, 2010 was analyzed.

Results: Following RotaTeq vaccination, a significantly (p<0.001) higher percentage of AEs were classified as serious, permanently disabling, resulted in hospitalizations, or were life-threatening among intussusception AEs in comparison to the total AE reports (removing intussusception AE reports) submitted to VAERS. A significantly greater portion of intussusception AEs in comparison to the portion of total AE reports (removing intussusception AE reports) were reported to VAERS in the onset interval from 3 to 7 days post-RotaTeq vaccination than within the onset interval from 1 to 2 days post-RotaTeq vaccination (78.7% vs. 29.1%, risk ratio=2.7, 95% CI=2.4-3.0, p<0.0001). It was assumed in our onset time-trend analyses of the distribution of AEs following Rota-Teq vaccination that the AE's should be equally likely to be reported with an onset time for each day, from 1 to 9 days post-vaccination or, alternatively, should follow similar daily proportions as observed for total AEs reports (removing intussusception AE reports). Results of this onset time-trend analyses of the distribution of intussusception AEs reported to VAERS following Rota-Teq vaccination revealed significant differences (p<0.001) from our expectations. Consistent and similarly remarkable trends were observed for intussusception AE reports associated with RotaShield vaccine.

Conclusions: The present study significantly associates RotaTeq vaccination with intussusception AEs.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3560585PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/msm.882470DOI Listing
February 2012

RotaTeq vaccine adverse events and policy considerations.

Med Sci Monit 2008 Mar;14(3):PH9-16

The Institute of Chronic Illnesses, Inc., Silver Spring, MD, USA.

Background: Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe gastroenteritis in children <5 years-old worldwide. On February 3, 2006, the US Food and Drug Administration licensed RotaTeq (Merck and Co.), a bioengineered combination of five human-bovine hybridized reassortment rotaviruses. In August of 2006, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommended RotaTeq for routine vaccination of US infants administered orally at the ages 2, 4, and 6 months.

Material/methods: An evaluation of data reported to VAERS following the first five quarters of post-marketing surveillance of RotaTeq was undertaken. Trends in adverse events reported following RotaTeq and cost-effectiveness calculations of RotaTeq in the context of the disease burden of rotavirus in the US were examined.

Results: From February 3, 2006 through July 31, 2007, a total of 160 (of the 165 reported) intussusception and 11 (of the 16 reported) Kawasaki disease adverse event reports were identified when RotaTeq was administered or co-administered with other vaccines. Time-trend analyses showed that there were significant increases in the total number of intussusception and Kawasaki disease adverse events entered into VAERS in comparison to previous years.

Conclusions: These observations, coupled with limited rotavirus disease burden, cost-effectiveness, and potential contact viral transmission concerns, raise serious questions regarding the use of RotaTeq in the US. Healthcare providers should diligently report adverse events following RotaTeq vaccination to VAERS, and those who have experienced a vaccine-associated adverse event should be made aware that they may be eligible for compensation from the no-fault National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program (NVICP).
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March 2008

A review of Thimerosal (Merthiolate) and its ethylmercury breakdown product: specific historical considerations regarding safety and effectiveness.

J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev 2007 Dec;10(8):575-96

The Institute of Chronic Illnesses, Inc., Silver Spring, Maryland, USA.

Thimerosal (Merthiolate) is an ethylmercury-containing pharmaceutical compound that is 49.55% mercury and that was developed in 1927. Thimerosal has been marketed as an antimicrobial agent in a range of products, including topical antiseptic solutions and antiseptic ointments for treating cuts, nasal sprays, eye solutions, vaginal spermicides, diaper rash treatments, and perhaps most importantly as a preservative in vaccines and other injectable biological products, including Rho(D)-immune globulin preparations, despite evidence, dating to the early 1930s, indicating Thimerosal to be potentially hazardous to humans and ineffective as an antimicrobial agent. Despite this, Thimerosal was not scrutinized as part of U.S. pharmaceutical products until the 1980s, when the U.S. Food and Drug Administration finally recognized its demonstrated ineffectiveness and toxicity in topical pharmaceutical products, and began to eliminate it from these. Ironically, while Thimerosal was being eliminated from topicals, it was becoming more and more ubiquitous in the recommended immunization schedule for infants and pregnant women. Furthermore, Thimerosal continues to be administered, as part of mandated immunizations and other pharmaceutical products, in the United States and globally. The ubiquitous and largely unchecked place of Thimerosal in pharmaceuticals, therefore, represents a medical crisis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10937400701389875DOI Listing
December 2007