Publications by authors named "Lisa Fornaresio"

9 Publications

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Staffing in a Level 1 Trauma Center: Quantifying Capacity for Preparedness.

Disaster Med Public Health Prep 2021 Sep 15:1-7. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Division of Cardiovascular and Thoracic Anesthesiology, Department of Anesthesiology, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, USA.

Objective: We sought to determine who is involved in the care of a trauma patient.

Methods: We recorded hospital personnel involved in 24 adult Priority 1 trauma patient admissions for 12 h or until patient demise. Hospital personnel were delineated by professional background and role.

Results: We cataloged 19 males and 5 females with a median age of 50-y-old (interquartile range [IQR], 35.5-67.5). The average number of hospital personnel involved was 79.71 (standard deviation, 17.62; standard error 3.6). A median of 51.2% (IQR, 43.4%-59.8%) of personnel were first involved within hour 1. More personnel were involved in direct versus indirect care (median 54.5 [IQR, 47.5-67.0] vs 25.0 [IQR, 22.0-30.5]; P < 0.0001). Median number of health-care professionals and auxiliary staff were 74.5 (IQR, 63.5-90.5) and 6.0 (IQR, 5.0-7.0), respectively. More personnel were first involved in hospital locations external to the emergency department (median, 53.0 [IQR, 41.5-63.0] vs 27.5 [IQR, 24.0-30.0]; P < 0.0001). No differences existed in total personnel by Injury Severity Score (P = 0.1266), day (P = 0.7270), or time of admission (P = 0.2098).

Conclusions: A large number of hospital personnel with varying job responsibilities respond to severe trauma. These data may guide hospital staffing and disaster preparedness policies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/dmp.2021.269DOI Listing
September 2021

The long-term safety and efficacy of concomitant Cox maze procedures for atrial fibrillation in patients without mitral valve disease.

J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2019 04 22;157(4):1505-1514. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Cardiovascular Surgery, Washington Adventist Hospital, Takoma Park, Md.

Objective: Newly published guidelines made the highest level recommendation for surgical treatment for atrial fibrillation. However, the number of patients without a mitral valve procedure with atrial fibrillation who are treated with concomitant surgical ablation is still low (15%-25%), because surgeons are reluctant to perform procedures in patients who would not otherwise require left atriotomy. The purpose of this study was to compare the outcomes of concomitant Cox maze with and without mitral valve procedures.

Methods: Patients who underwent concomitant Cox maze procedures were prospectively followed since September 2005. Of the 711 patients, 238 did not receive mitral valve surgery. Propensity score matching was conducted to balance preoperative characteristics between patients with and without mitral valve procedures (164/group after matching).

Results: Before matching, patients in the mitral valve group were younger (65 vs 67 years, P = .047) and had higher euroSCORE II (European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation; 3.2% vs 2.6%, P = .002), larger mean left atrial size (5.3 vs 4.8 cm, P < .001), and shorter median atrial fibrillation duration (19 vs 25 months, P = .064). Early outcomes were similar for the matched groups. Cumulative 5-year freedom from stroke did not differ between matched mitral valve and non-mitral valve groups (96.1% vs 96.6%, P = .667). At each time point, the proportion in sinus rhythm off antiarrhythmic medications was similar for the matched groups, including 5 years after surgery (68% vs 63%, P = .492).

Conclusions: The Cox maze procedure is safe and effective with comparable outcomes when performed concomitant to mitral valve or non-mitral valve surgery. Surgeons should base the decision to perform surgical ablation procedures on atrial fibrillation pathophysiology and the benefit to patients, not on the type of concomitant procedure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtcvs.2018.09.131DOI Listing
April 2019

The use of del Nido cardioplegia in adult cardiac surgery: A prospective randomized trial.

J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2018 03 13;155(3):1011-1018. Epub 2017 Nov 13.

The Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC.

Objectives: The del Nido cardioplegia solution has been used extensively in congenital heart surgery for more than 20 years and more recently for adults. This randomized controlled trial examined whether expanding this technique to adult cardiac surgery confers benefits in surgical workflow and clinical outcome compared with blood-based cardioplegia.

Methods: Adult first-time coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), valve, or CABG/valve surgery patients requiring cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) were randomized to del Nido cardioplegia (n = 48) or whole blood cardioplegia (n = 41). Primary outcomes assessed myocardial preservation. Troponin I was measured at baseline, 2 hours after CPB termination, 12 and 24 hours after cardiovascular intensive care unit admission. Alpha was set at P < .001.

Results: Preoperative characteristics were similar between groups, including age, Society of Thoracic Surgeons risk score, CABG, and valve procedures. There was no significant difference on CPB time (97 vs 103 minutes; P = .288) or crossclamp time (70 vs 83 minutes; P = .018). The del Nido group showed higher return to spontaneous rhythm (97.7% vs 81.6%; P = .023) and fewer patients required inotropic support (65.1% vs 84.2%; P = .050), but did not reach statistical significance. Incidence of Society of Thoracic Surgeons-defined morbidity was low, with no strokes, myocardial infarctions, renal failure, or operative deaths. For del Nido group patients, troponin levels did not increase as much as for control patients (P = .040), but statistical significance was not reached.

Conclusions: Evidence from this study suggests del Nido cardioplegia use in routine adult cases may be safe, result in comparable clinical outcomes, and streamline surgical workflow. The trend for troponin should be investigated further because it may suggest superior myocardial protection with the del Nido solution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtcvs.2017.09.146DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5929134PMC
March 2018

Long-term outcome following concomitant mitral valve surgery and Cox maze procedure for atrial fibrillation.

J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2018 03 14;155(3):983-994. Epub 2017 Nov 14.

West Virginia University Heart and Vascular Institute, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WVa.

Objective: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with increased early and long-term morbidity/mortality following valve surgery. This study examined long-term influence of concomitant full Cox maze (CM) and mitral valve procedures on freedom from atrial arrhythmia and stroke.

Methods: This sample comprised patients who underwent CM with a mitral valve procedure (N = 473). Data on rhythm, medication status, and clinical events captured according to Heart Rhythm Society guidelines at 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months and yearly thereafter up to 7 years.

Results: Mean age was 65 years, mean left atrium size was 5.3 cm, and 15% had paroxysmal AF. Perioperative stroke occurred in 2 patients (0.4%) and operative mortality was 2.7% (n = 13). Return to sinus rhythm regardless of antiarrhythmic drugs at 1, 5, and 7 years was 90%, 80%, and 66%. Sinus rhythm off antiarrhythmic drugs at 1, 5, and 7 years was 83%, 69%, and 55%. Freedom from embolic stroke at 7 years was 96.6% (0.4 strokes per 100 patient-years) with a majority of patients off anticoagulation medication. Greater odds of atrial arrhythmia recurrence during 7 years was associated with longer AF duration (odds ratio [OR], 1.07; P = .001), whereas lower odds were associated with cryothermal energy only (OR, 0.64; P = .045) and greater surgeon experience (OR, 0.98; P = .025).

Conclusions: This study suggests that the addition of CM to mitral valve procedures, even with a high degree of complexity, did not increase operative risk. In long-term follow-up, the CM procedure demonstrated acceptable rhythm success, reduced AF burden, and remarkably low stroke rate. Individual surgeon experience and training may notably influence long-term surgical ablation for AF success.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtcvs.2017.09.147DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5933444PMC
March 2018

Does Surgical Ablation Energy Source Affect Long-Term Success of the Concomitant Cox Maze Procedure?

Ann Thorac Surg 2017 Jul 1;104(1):29-35. Epub 2017 Jun 1.

Department of Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia.

Background: The Cox maze (CM) procedure is routinely performed using surgical ablation technology. Reports are scarce on long-term outcomes of CM, especially for a large series of patients. This study examined the potential impact of surgical ablation energy source on safety and long-term efficacy of concomitant CM procedures.

Methods: The study sample consisted of 709 concomitant CM-treated patients operated on with cryothermal energy only (group 1; n = 386) or combination of cryothermal and bipolar radiofrequency (group 2; n = 323). Data were collected prospectively on perioperative outcomes, rhythm status, survival, and clinical events. Propensity score matching conducted by energy source resulted in 298 patients per group.

Results: Perioperative outcomes included stroke (n = 4), reoperation for bleeding (n = 23), renal failure requiring temporary dialysis (n = 18), readmissions before 30 days (n = 86), and operative death before 30 days (n = 16; ratio of observed to expected mortality [O/E ratio], 0.50). Independent predictors for 1-year and 5-year rhythm success were a shorter history of atrial fibrillation (1-year odds ratio [OR], 0.93, p = 0.001; 5-year OR, 0.93, p = 0.042) and cryothermia alone (1-year OR=1.77, p = 0.020; 5-year OR = 2.29, p = 0.009). After matching, group 1 had significantly higher sinus rhythm without antiarrhythmic drugs at 6 months (79% vs 70%; p = 0.016), 36 months (81% vs 69%; p = 0.010), and 60 months (75% vs 57%; p = 0.008). Stroke incidence was lower for group 1 (0.7% vs 3%; p = 0.033), with no difference in major bleeding (10% vs 11%; p = 0.597). Groups had similar survival rates (log rank, 0.6; p = 0.452).

Conclusions: Concomitant CM procedures performed with cryothermal energy alone or combined with bipolar radiofrequency ablation are safe and exceedingly effective. The association of cryothermal energy alone with higher rates of sinus rhythm and stroke reduction should be investigated further.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.athoracsur.2017.04.004DOI Listing
July 2017

The impact of a multidisciplinary blood conservation protocol on patient outcomes and cost after cardiac surgery.

J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2017 03 16;153(3):597-605.e1. Epub 2016 Nov 16.

Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WVa.

Objective: Although associations between transfusion and inferior outcomes have been documented, there is a lack of blood transfusion standardization in cardiac surgery. At the Inova Heart and Vascular Institute, a multidisciplinary, criterion-driven algorithm for transfusion management was implemented. We examined the effect of our blood conservation protocol on transfusion rates and outcomes after cardiac surgery and on stability of transfusion over time.

Methods: Patients undergoing first-time cardiac surgery from 2006 (full year before protocol) were compared with those in 2009 (after protocol) and propensity score matched to improve balance. Data were prospectively collected. Stability of transfusion incidence also was compared (2005-2006 vs 2008-2014).

Results: After matching, 890 patients from each year were included. Use of blood products decreased from 54% in 2006 to 25% in 2009 (P < .001). Patients in 2009 had a lower incidence of postoperative renal failure (2.6% vs 4%, P = .04), reoperations for bleeding (2% vs 4%, P = .004), and readmissions at less than 30 days (6% vs 12%, P < .001). No differences were found for operative mortality, deep sternal wound infection, or permanent strokes. Patients in 2009 had greater improvement in physical (P = .001) and mental (P = .02) quality of life than patients in 2006. Reduction of blood products led to significant cost savings for packed erythrocytes (P < .001) and platelets (P < .001). After protocol implementation, transfusion incidence remained 30% or less, with less than 28% in most years.

Conclusions: A multidisciplinary blood conservation program can significantly control blood transfusion rates, improve outcomes, and be sustained over time. Efforts are needed to implement evidence-based protocols to standardize and decrease blood use in cardiac surgery to improve outcomes and reduce cost.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtcvs.2016.10.083DOI Listing
March 2017

The Dilemma of Blood Transfusion: Strict or Liberal?

Innovations (Phila) 2016 May-Jun;11(3):155-6

From Cardiac Surgery, Inova Heart and Vascular Institute, Falls Church, VA USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/IMI.0000000000000284DOI Listing
May 2017

Health-Related Quality of Life After Minimally Invasive Cardiac Surgery.

Innovations (Phila) 2016 Mar-Apr;11(2):128-33

From the Inova Heart and Vascular Institute, Falls Church, VA USA.

Objective: Factors influencing health-related quality of life (HRQL) after minimally invasive cardiac surgery have not been well described. We examined the trajectory of HRQL after minimally invasive cardiac surgery and the role of perioperative factors and rhythm on HRQL changes.

Methods: Patients underwent minimally invasive surgical ablation for atrial fibrillation and/or valve surgery (n = 235). Health-related quality of life (SF-12) and clinical status were assessed preoperatively and postoperatively.

Results: Physical summary HRQL (F = 36.2, P < 0.001) and mental summary HRQL (F = 3.2, P = 0.047) improved significantly by 12 months after surgery. Improvement on HRQL peaked at 6 months and plateaued between 6 and 12 months. Physical HRQL was similar to age-based normal values before surgery (P = 0.66) and surpassed norms by 6 months after surgery (P < 0.001). Younger age (r = -0.15, P = 0.02) and lower EuroSCORE II (r = -0.19, P = 0.003) correlated with greater HRQL improvements by 6 months. Only lower EuroSCORE II (r = -0.14, P = 0.04) correlated with greater HRQL improvement by 12 months. Length of stay and major morbidity were not related to HRQL improvement. In surgical ablation patients, restoration of stable sinus rhythm throughout the first 12 months was associated with greater physical HRQL improvement by 6 months compared with patients who had atrial arrhythmia recurrences (change, 5.0 vs. -1.0, P = 0.02).

Conclusions: Health-related quality of life improved significantly after minimally invasive cardiac surgery. These improvements were influenced by age, operative risk, symptoms, and rhythm status. Even patients with HRQL in a normal range before surgery can experience improved HRQL after surgery. Minimally invasive cardiac surgery can offer decreased postoperative complications and also improved HRQL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/IMI.0000000000000255DOI Listing
May 2017

Development of the Cardiac Surgery Patient Expectations Questionnaire (C-SPEQ).

Qual Life Res 2016 08 16;25(8):2077-86. Epub 2016 Feb 16.

Cardiac Surgery Research, Inova Heart and Vascular Institute, 3300 Gallows Road, Suite 3100, Falls Church, VA, 22042, USA.

Purpose: Some variability in recovery and outcomes after cardiac surgery may be influenced by psychosocial aspects not routinely captured. Preliminary evidence suggests patient expectations impact health status, but there is no specific measure of expectations for cardiac surgery. The purpose of this study was to adapt an expectations scale to cardiac surgery and assess the psychometric properties of the scale.

Methods: Before surgery, 93 patients awaiting non-emergent cardiac surgery completed questionnaires, including the adapted Cardiac Surgery Patient Expectations Questionnaire (C-SPEQ). At 1 year after surgery, 68 patients completed questionnaires.

Results: Mean C-SPEQ score was 39.4 ± 9.02, and scores were normally distributed (Cronbach's alpha = 0.86). Higher score indicated negative expectations. Higher presurgery C-SPEQ score was correlated with greater depression (r = 0.32, p = 0.01) and perceived stress (r = 0.36, p = 0.003), but not state anxiety (r = 0.18, p = 0.14), at one-year post-surgery. Higher C-SPEQ was associated with longer recovery time (B = 0.14, p = 0.006) and lower physical HRQL after surgery (B = -0.31, p = 0.005). Higher C-SPEQ was not related to greater odds for perioperative complications (OR 1.01, p = 0.68) or readmissions <30 days (OR 1.05, p = 0.31). C-SPEQ score was not related to survival.

Conclusions: Adaptation of an expectations questionnaire to cardiac surgery patients was successful with acceptable reliability and validity. Negative expectations had a detrimental impact on recovery and HRQL following cardiac surgery but were not related to clinical outcomes. Although focus is mainly on improving clinical outcomes, there are opportunities to improve non-clinical aspects of the patient experience. Presurgical education might better prepare patients, reduce negative expectations, and improve psychosocial outcomes after cardiac surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11136-016-1243-4DOI Listing
August 2016
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