Publications by authors named "Lisa C Iacono"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Population pharmacokinetic analysis of topotecan in pediatric cancer patients.

Clin Cancer Res 2007 Nov;13(22 Pt 1):6703-11

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, 332 North Lauderdale, Memphis, TN 38105, USA.

Purpose: To characterize the population pharmacokinetics of topotecan lactone in children with cancer and identify covariates related to topotecan disposition.

Patients And Methods: The study population consisted of 162 children in seven clinical trials receiving single agent topotecan as a 30-min infusion. A population approach via nonlinear mixed effects modeling was used to conduct the analysis.

Results: A two-compartment model was fit to topotecan lactone plasma concentrations (n = 1874), and large pharmacokinetic variability was observed among studies, among individuals, and within individuals. We conducted a covariate analysis using demographics, biochemical data, trial effects, and concomitant drugs. The most significant covariate was body surface area, which explained 54% of the interindividual variability for topotecan systemic clearance. Interoccasion variability was considerable in both clearance and volume (20% and 22%, respectively), but was less than interindividual variability in both variables. Other covariates related to clearance were concomitant phenytoin, calculated glomerular filtration rate, and age (<0.5 years). Including them in the model reduced the interindividual variability for topotecan clearance by an additional 48% relative to the body surface area-normalized model. The full covariate model explained 76% and 50% of interindividual variability in topotecan clearance and volume, respectively.

Conclusions: We developed a descriptive and robust population pharmacokinetic model which identified patient covariates that account for topotecan disposition in pediatric patients. Additionally, dosing topotecan based on the covariate model led to a more accurate and precise estimation topotecan systemic exposure compared with a fixed dosing approach, and could be a tool to assist clinicians to individualize topotecan dosing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-07-1376DOI Listing
November 2007

Using plasma topotecan pharmacokinetics to estimate topotecan exposure in cerebrospinal fluid of children with medulloblastoma.

Neuro Oncol 2006 Apr 3;8(2):89-95. Epub 2006 Feb 3.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, 332 North Lauderdale, Memphis TN 38105-2794, USA.

The purpose of this study was to estimate ventricular cerebrospinal fluid (vCSF) topotecan lactone (TPT) exposures in pediatric medulloblastoma patients from plasma concentration-time data by using a pharmacokinetic (PK) model. We studied children with high-risk medulloblastoma who received pharmacokinetically guided TPT (target plasma area under the concentration-time curve [AUC], 120-160 ng/ml-h) and obtained serial vCSF samples to assess TPT exposure. Population pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by using linear mixed-effects modeling via the two-stage approach. We simulated TPT vCSF exposure duration at plasma TPT AUC values of 120 to 200 ng/ml-h and determined percentages of studies meeting or exceeding the vCSF exposure duration threshold (EDT) of 1 ng/ml for 8 h. We then used bootstrap methods to estimate variability in vCSF EDT. Eighteen PK studies were conducted in six patients (median age, 4.8 years). In these patients, seven of nine studies attaining target plasma TPT AUC achieved the vCSF EDT. Given a plasma TPT AUC of 120 ng/ml-h, the median percentage of results meeting or exceeding EDT was 78% (95% CI, 61%-100%). One patient (four studies) with tumor blockage of CSF flow, which can alter CSF pharmacokinetics, was removed, and the bootstrap analysis was repeated. In this subset, a median 93% (95% CI, 79%-100%) of studies achieved vCSF EDT. Increasing plasma TPT AUC values resulted in increased ability to achieve vCSF EDT. We demonstrated that a plasma PK model could estimate vCSF TPT concentrations. Further, our results indicate that the TPT vCSF EDT can be achieved in more than 80% of studies targeted to a plasma TPT AUC of 120 ng/ml-h.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1215/15228517-2005-004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1871944PMC
April 2006

Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of intravenous epoetin alfa in children with cancer.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2006 Oct;47(5):572-9

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA.

Background: Epoetin alfa (EPO, PROCRIT) pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics were evaluated in children with malignant solid tumors receiving chemotherapy.

Procedure: Children initially received IV EPO 600 IU/kg (max dose 40,000 IU) or placebo once weekly for 16 weeks. Dose was increased to 900 IU/kg (max dose 60,000 IU) for patients not achieving a 1 g/dl increase in hemoglobin by study week 3 or 4. Serial PK samples were collected for 24 hr after the first study dose, and after the 10th or 11th dose. Serum EPO concentrations were analyzed using an ELISA assay, and pharmacokinetics were evaluated using compartmental methods.

Results: Twelve children participated; six (median age 15.2 years; range 9.3-18.6 years) were randomized to receive EPO. All children required dosage increases to 900 IU/kg due to no response. The median (range) apparent EPO AUC0-24 and clearance (CL) were 67.1 IU/ml.hr (13.8-102.6) and 0.26 L/hr/m2 (0.19-1.08), respectively. After the 10th or 11th EPO dose in four of these six EPO patients, the median (range) apparent AUC0-24 and CL of EPO was 126.5 IU/ml.hr (107.3-161.1) and 0.21 L/hr/m2 (0.15-0.25), respectively. No significant correlations were observed between pharmacokinetic parameters and pharmacodynamic effects.

Conclusions: EPO disposition in our patients was similar to other pediatric patient populations or adults receiving IV EPO. Interesting but insignificant trends were noted in pharmacodynamic effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.20685DOI Listing
October 2006

Temozolomide after radiotherapy for newly diagnosed high-grade glioma and unfavorable low-grade glioma in children.

J Neurooncol 2006 Feb;76(3):313-9

Department of Hematology-Oncology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN, USA.

Chemotherapy is commonly used in the treatment of children with high-grade glioma, although its usefulness is uncertain. We conducted a multi-institutional study to evaluate the efficacy of temozolomide given after radiotherapy in children with newly diagnosed high-grade glioma and unfavorable low-grade glioma (gliomatosis cerebri or bithalamic involvement). Optional window therapy of intravenous irinotecan (10 doses of 20 mg/m2 per cycle x 2) was given over 6 weeks. The 5-day schedule of temozolomide (200 mg/m2 per day) started 4 weeks after the completion of radiotherapy and continued for a total of 6 cycles. Thirty-one eligible patients (median age: 12.3 years) participated. Tumors most commonly involved cerebral hemispheres (n = 13, 42%) and thalamus (n = 14, 45%). Whereas six patients underwent radical resection, the remainder had limited surgery, including biopsy (n = 14, 45%). The predominant histologic diagnoses were glioblastoma multiforme (n = 15, 48%) and anaplastic astrocytoma (n = 10, 32%). Two patients had bithalamic grade II astrocytoma. Twenty-seven patients received radiotherapy (median dose: 59.4 Gy), including craniospinal irradiation in 3 because of leptomeningeal spread. Four patients did not receive radiotherapy in this study because of consent withdrawn (n = 2), toxicity during window therapy (n = 1), or at the physician's discretion (n = 1). Twenty-three patients received 112 cycles of temozolomide therapy. The 2-year progression-free and overall survival estimates were 11 +/- 5% and 21 +/- 7%, respectively. Although the heterogeneity of prognostic factors in our patients made assessment of treatment outcome more difficult, the addition of 6 cycles of temozolomide after radiotherapy did not seem to alter the poor outcome of these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11060-005-7409-5DOI Listing
February 2006

Phase I and pharmacokinetic study of gefitinib in children with refractory solid tumors: a Children's Oncology Group Study.

J Clin Oncol 2005 Sep;23(25):6172-80

Department of Hematology-Oncology, Mail Stop 260, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, 332 N Lauderdale, Memphis, TN 38105-2794, USA.

Purpose: Epidermal growth factor receptor is expressed in pediatric malignant solid tumors. We conducted a phase I trial of gefitinib, an epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, in children with refractory solid tumors.

Patients And Methods: Gefitinib (150, 300, 400, or 500 mg/m2) was administered orally to cohorts of three to six patients once daily continuously until disease progression or significant toxicity. Pharmacokinetic studies were performed during course one (day 1 through 28).

Results: Of the 25 enrolled patients, 19 (median age, 15 years) were fully evaluable for toxicity and received 54 courses. Dose-limiting toxicity was rash in two patients treated with 500 mg/m2 and elevated ALT and AST in one patient treated with 400 mg/m2. The maximum-tolerated dose was 400 mg/m2/d. The most frequent non-dose-limiting toxicities were grade 1 or 2 dry skin, anemia, diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting. One patient with Ewing's sarcoma had a partial response. Disease stabilized for 8 to > or = 60 weeks in two patients with Wilms' tumor and two with brainstem glioma (one exophytic). At 400 mg/m2, the median peak gefitinib plasma concentration was 2.2 microg/mL (range, 1.2 to 3.6 microg/mL) and occurred at a median of 2.3 hours (range, 2.0 to 8.3 hours) after drug administration. The median apparent clearance and median half-life were 14.8 L/h/m2 (range, 3.8 to 24.8 L/h/m2) and 11.7 hours (range, 5.6 to 22.8 hours), respectively. Gefitinib systemic exposures were comparable with those associated with antitumor activity in adults.

Conclusion: Oral gefitinib is well tolerated in children. Development of the drug in combination with cytotoxic chemotherapy will be pursued.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2005.11.429DOI Listing
September 2005

Development and validation of limited sampling models for topotecan lactone pharmacokinetic studies in children.

Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2006 Apr 27;57(4):475-82. Epub 2005 Jul 27.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105, USA.

Purpose: To develop and validate a pharmacokinetic limited sampling model (LSM) for intravenous and oral topotecan pharmacokinetic studies in children.

Methods: Topotecan lactone concentration-time data from five trials were used to develop and validate LSM for intravenous and oral topotecan. Based on full sampling from one intravenous study (30 patients; 195 studies), a LSM for intravenous topotecan was determined using a modification of the D-optimality algorithm. For oral topotecan we used full sampling data from one oral topotecan study (27 patients; 47 studies) to develop an LSM. Accuracy and bias of each LSM were determined relative to the full sampling method. Predictive performance of the LSM was validated using additional data and Monte-Carlo simulations based on these data.

Results: LSM for intravenous topotecan includes: 5 min, 1.5, and 2.5 h after the end of the 30 min infusion. The median accuracy (absolute predicted error) and bias (predicted error) are < or =8% and < or =6.1%, respectively. For oral topotecan, the optimal LSM includes: 15 min, 1.5, and 6 h. The median accuracy and bias are 6% and 4%, respectively.

Conclusions: Our results indicate that the optimal sampling times for the intravenous LSM for topotecan in children consist of: predose, and 5 min, 1.5, and 2.5 h after the end of infusion. For oral topotecan the sample times are predose, 15 min, 1.5, and 6 h after dose administration. These LSM are invaluable to children receiving topotecan because it minimizes inconvenience and blood collection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00280-005-0062-zDOI Listing
April 2006

Development of a pharmacokinetic limited sampling model for temozolomide and its active metabolite MTIC.

Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2005 May 26;55(5):433-8. Epub 2005 Jan 26.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, 332 N. Lauderdale, Memphis, TN 38105, USA.

Purpose: To develop a pharmacokinetic limited sampling model (LSM) for temozolomide and its metabolite MTIC in infants and children.

Methods: LSMs consisting of either two or four samples were determined using a modification of the D-optimality algorithm. This accounted for prior distribution of temozolomide and MTIC pharmacokinetic parameters based on full pharmacokinetic sampling from 38 patients with 120 pharmacokinetic studies (dosage range 145-200 mg/m(2) per day orally). Accuracy and bias of each LSM were determined relative to the full sampling method. We also assessed the predictive performance of the LSMs using Monte-Carlo simulations.

Results: The four strategies generated from the D-optimality algorithm were as follows: LSM 1=0.25, 1.25, and 3 h; LSM 2=0.25, 1.25, and 6 h; LSM 3=0.25, 0.5, 1.25, and 3 h; LSM 4=0.25, 0.5, 1.25, and 6 h. LSM 2 demonstrated the best combination of low bias [0.1% (-8.9%, 11%) and 11% (4.3%, 15%)] and high accuracy [-1.0% (-12%, 24%) and 14% (7.9%, 37%)] for temozolomide clearance and MTIC AUC, respectively. Furthermore, adding a fourth sample (e.g., LSM 4) did not substantially decrease the bias or increase the accuracy for temozolomide clearance or MTIC AUC. Results from Monte-Carlo simulations also revealed that LSM 2 had the best combination of lowest bias (0.1+/-6.1% and -0.8+/-6.5%), and the highest accuracy (4.5+/-4.1% and 5.0+/-4.3%) for temozolomide clearance and MTIC apparent clearance, respectively.

Conclusions: Using data derived from our population analysis, the sampling times for a limited sample pharmacokinetic model for temozolomide and MTIC in children are prior to the temozolomide dose, and 15 min, 1.25 h and 6 h after the dose.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00280-004-0896-9DOI Listing
May 2005

Topotecan disposition in an anephric child.

J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2004 Sep;26(9):596-600

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA.

Although limited data are available about topotecan disposition in patients with renal insufficiency, nothing has been reported in anephric patients. The objective of this report is to characterize topotecan disposition in an anephric child with Wilms tumor, both on and off hemodialysis. The patient received topotecan and cyclophosphamide for four cycles; topotecan was administered daily for 5 days, with hemodialysis on the second and fourth day. Therapy was well tolerated, with grade 3 thrombocytopenia and grade 2 neutropenia noted after cycle four. The median topotecan lactone clearance was 15.5 L/h/m off hemodialysis and 18.7 L/h/m on hemodialysis. Topotecan clearance was minimally affected by hemodialysis and was similar to that observed in children without renal failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.mph.0000137368.27242.caDOI Listing
September 2004

Topoisomerase I interactive agents.

Cancer Chemother Biol Response Modif 2003 ;21:69-101

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105, USA.

Increased insight into the mechanism of interaction of topoisomerase I interactive agents will maximize the therapeutic index and enhance the development of additional agents. Preclinical studies designed to elucidate mechanisms by which the topoisomerase I interactive agents induce cell death will be essential. The role of ABC transporters in resistance to topoisomerase I interactive agents has been recently appreciated and future studies should be directed at circumventing this resistance. The results of preclinical studies must be translated into the design of clinical trials so that these agents can be used rationally. In this regard results of preclinical studies have clearly pointed to the enhanced antitumor activity from protracted dosing of topoisomerase I interactive agents and results of clinical trials are now supporting these preclinical findings. Finally, investigators are trying to understand better the mechanism(s) of the dose-limiting toxicities observed with the currently available topoisomerase I interactive agents in an effort to enable the optimal dosing of these agents. Even though the first priority must be to determine the therapeutic potential of the currently available agents, it is reassuring to know that other topoisomerase I interactive agents are currently under development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0921-4410(03)21004-8DOI Listing
September 2004

Results of a phase II upfront window of pharmacokinetically guided topotecan in high-risk medulloblastoma and supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor.

J Clin Oncol 2004 Aug;22(16):3357-65

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, 332 N Lauderdale, Memphis, TN 38105-2794, USA.

Purpose: To assess the antitumor efficacy of pharmacokinetically guided topotecan dosing in previously untreated patients with medulloblastoma and supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors, and to evaluate plasma and CSF disposition of topotecan in these patients.

Patients And Methods: After maximal surgical resection, 44 children with previously untreated high-risk medulloblastoma were enrolled, of which 36 were assessable for response. The topotecan window consisted of two cycles, administered initially as a 30-minute infusion daily for 5 days, lasting 6 weeks. Pharmacokinetic studies were conducted on day 1 to attain a topotecan lactone area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) of 120 to 160 ng/mL.h. After 10 patients were enrolled, the infusion was modified to 4 hours, with dosage individualization.

Results: Of 36 assessable patients, four patients (11.1%) had a complete response and six (16.6%) showed a partial response, and disease was stable in 17 patients (47.2%). Toxicity was mostly hematologic, with only one patient experiencing treatment delay. The target plasma AUC was achieved in 24 of 32 studies (75%) in the 30-minute infusion group, and in 58 of 93 studies (62%) in the 4-hour infusion group. The desired CSF topotecan exposure was achieved in seven of eight pharmacokinetic studies when the topotecan plasma AUC was within target range.

Conclusion: Topotecan is an effective agent against pediatric medulloblastoma in patients who have received no therapy other than surgery. Pharmacokinetically guided dosing achieved the target plasma AUC in the majority of patients. This drug warrants testing as part of standard postradiation chemotherapeutic regimens. Furthermore, these results emphasize the importance of translational research in drug development, which in this case identified an effective drug.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2004.10.103DOI Listing
August 2004

Phase I and pharmacokinetic study of topotecan administered orally once daily for 5 days for 2 consecutive weeks to pediatric patients with refractory solid tumors.

J Clin Oncol 2004 Mar;22(5):829-37

Department of Hematology-Oncology, Mail Stop 260, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, 332 N Lauderdale, Memphis, TN 38105-2794, USA.

Purpose: We conducted a phase I trial of the injectable formulation of topotecan given orally once daily for 5 days for 2 consecutive weeks (qd x 5 x 2) in pediatric patients with refractory solid tumors.

Patients And Methods: Cohorts of two to six patients received oral topotecan at 0.8, 1.1, 1.4, 1.8, and 2.3 mg/m(2)/d every 28 days for a maximum of six courses. Twenty patients (median age, 10.6 years) received a total of 51 courses. Eight patients received topotecan capsules during course 2 only.

Results: Dose-limiting toxicity occurred at 2.3 mg/m(2)/d and consisted of prolonged grade 4 neutropenia (n = 2), grade 3 stomatitis as a result of radiation recall (n = 1), grade 3 hemorrhage (epistaxis) in the presence of grade 4 thrombocytopenia (n = 1), and grade 3 diarrhea in the presence of Clostridium difficile infection (n = 1). Dose-limiting, prolonged grade 4 neutropenia and thrombocytopenia occurred in one patient at 1.4 mg/m(2)/d. Infrequent toxicities were mild nausea, vomiting, elevated liver ALT or AST, and rash. The maximum-tolerated dosage was 1.8 mg/m(2)/d; the mean (+/- standard deviation) area under the plasma concentration-time curve for topotecan lactone at this dosage was 20.9 +/- 8.4 ng/mL. h. The population mean (+/- standard error) oral bioavailability of the injectable formulation was 0.27 +/- 0.03; that of capsules was 0.36 +/- 0.06 (P =.16). Disease stabilized in nine of 19 assessable patients for 1.5 to 6 months.

Conclusion: Oral topotecan (1.8 mg/m(2)/d) on a qd x 5 x 2 schedule is well tolerated and warrants additional testing in pediatric patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2004.07.110DOI Listing
March 2004

Phase I trial of temozolomide and protracted irinotecan in pediatric patients with refractory solid tumors.

Clin Cancer Res 2004 Feb;10(3):840-8

Division of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, University of Utah (Primary Children's Medical Center), Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.

Purpose: The purpose is to estimate the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) of temozolomide and irinotecan given on a protracted schedule in 28-day courses to pediatric patients with refractory solid tumors.

Experimental Design: Twelve heavily pretreated patients received 56 courses of oral temozolomide at 100 mg/m(2)/day for 5 days combined with i.v. irinotecan given daily for 5 days for 2 consecutive weeks at either 10 mg/m(2)/day (n = 6) or 15 mg/m(2)/day (n = 6). We assessed toxicity, the pharmacokinetics of temozolomide and irinotecan, and the DNA repair phenotype in tumor samples.

Results: Two patients experienced dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) at the higher dose level; one had grade 4 diarrhea, whereas the other had bacteremia with grade 2 neutropenia. In contrast, no patient receiving temozolomide and 10 mg/m(2)/day irinotecan experienced DLT. Myelosuppression was minimal and noncumulative. No pharmacokinetic interaction was observed. Drug metabolite exposures at the MTD were similar to exposures previously associated with single-agent antitumor activity. One complete response, two partial responses, and one minor response were observed in Ewing's sarcoma and neuroblastoma patients previously treated with stem cell transplant. Responding patients had low or absent O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase expression in tumor tissue.

Conclusions: The MTD using this schedule was temozolomide (100 mg/m(2)/day) and irinotecan (10 mg/m(2)/day), with DLT being diarrhea and infection. Drug clearance was similar to single-agent values, and clinically relevant SN-38 lactone and MTIC exposures were achieved at the MTD. As predicted by xenograft models, this combination and schedule appears to be tolerable and active in pediatric solid tumors. Evaluation of a 21-day schedule is planned.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.ccr-03-0175DOI Listing
February 2004

The importance of pharmacokinetic limited sampling models for childhood cancer drug development.

Clin Cancer Res 2003 Nov;9(14):5068-77

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA.

Since the development of effective chemotherapy for children with cancer, it has been recognized that the response of children to apparently identical therapy, both in terms of efficacy and toxicity, can vary widely. Our understanding of the interindividual differences in drug metabolism and disposition as significant determinants of drug response continues to evolve. An increasing area of clinical investigation is focused on studies to gain a better understanding of the variability in critical drug metabolic and elimination pathways and how this variability translates into varied pharmacological effects. Analyzing how drug metabolism and elimination are affected by patient characteristics such as age, sex, race, organ function, drug interactions, and, perhaps most importantly, genetic polymorphisms, is now a routine component of drug development studies. Recent advances in analytical methodologies, computer hardware, and pharmacokinetic software have improved our ability to conduct studies of the disposition of anticancer drugs in larger, more representative pediatric cancer populations. Along with advances in pharmacogenetics, the advances made in the conduct of pharmacokinetic studies in children with cancer have enabled establishment of sophisticated phenotype-genotype correlations, which may ultimately improve care. However, unique challenges and limitations remain that complicate the performance of pharmacokinetic studies in the child with cancer. This review addresses the need to perform pharmacokinetic studies throughout the drug development process in pediatric oncology patients, methods used to develop and validate limited sampling models, and selected examples of limited sampling models used in pharmacokinetic studies in children with cancer.
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November 2003

Determination of plasma topotecan and its metabolite N-desmethyl topotecan as both lactone and total form by reversed-phase liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2003 Feb;784(2):225-32

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, 332 N. Lauderdale, 38105, Memphis, TN, USA.

Topotecan (TPT) undergoes hepatic N-demethylation forming N-desmethyl topotecan (NDS). To evaluate the effect of drug-drug interactions on NDS disposition in children receiving TPT we developed and validated a sensitive and specific HPLC-fluorescence detection method for lactone and total (lactone plus carboxylate) TPT and NDS. Deproteinized plasma is vortexed, centrifuged, and the methanolic extract diluted with water for the lactone form of NDS and TPT or diluted with 1.5% phosphoric acid for NDS and TPT total. A 100 microL sample is injected onto a Varian ChromGuard RP column attached to an Agilent SB-C(18) reversed-phase analytical column held at 50 degrees C. The mobile phase (flow-rate, 0.8 mL/min) consists of methanol-aqueous buffer (27:73, v/v) (75 mM potassium phosphate and 0.2% triethylamine, pH 6.5). TPT and NDS were detected with excitation and emission wavelengths set at 376 and 530 nm, respectively. The standard curves for both forms of TPT ranged from 0.25 to 80 ng/mL, and for NDS ranged from 0.10 to 8.0 ng/mL. Within-day and between-day precision (% RSD) was
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s1570-0232(02)00798-5DOI Listing
February 2003