Publications by authors named "Liping Zhang"

1,024 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Assessing the impact of meteorological conditions on outpatient visits for childhood respiratory diseases in Urumqi, China.

J Occup Environ Med 2022 Aug 12. Epub 2022 Aug 12.

College of Medical Engineering and Technology, Xinjiang Medical University, Urumqi, China.

Objectives: To explore the impact of meteorological factors on respiratory diseases in children and to provide recommendations to local governments and health agencies to prevent respiratory diseases.

Methods: The exposure-lag effect between meteorological factors and the number of outpatients was investigated by constructing a distributed lag nonlinear model.

Results: Both high and low temperature will increase the risk of respiratory diseases in children, but low temperatures have a stronger effect compared to high temperatures (except for bronchopneumonia). High and low wind speeds can adversely affect respiratory diseases in children.

Conclusions: Temperature and wind speed have an effect on children's respiratory diseases in Urumqi, and this effect has a time lag. Attention should be paid to the impact of adverse weather conditions on children's health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000002640DOI Listing
August 2022

Self-interest is intuitive during opportunity (in)equity: Evidence from multivariate pattern analysis of electroencephalography data.

Neuropsychologia 2022 Aug 4;174:108343. Epub 2022 Aug 4.

Key Laboratory of Cognition and Personality of the Ministry of Education, Southwest University, Chongqing, 400715, China.

Fairness is a remarkable preference for human society, involving both outcome and opportunity equity. Most previous studies have explored whether fairness itself or self-interest is intuitive during outcome (in)equity. However, intuition during outcome (in)equity can be affected by both fairness level and actual payoff. Since opportunity (in)equity is only affected by the fairness level, we explored only intuition during fairness by measuring event-related potential responses to opportunity (in)equity. Participants played a social non-competitive two-person choice game with advantage opportunity inequity (AI), opportunity equity (OE), and disadvantage opportunity inequity (DI). The behavioral results suggested an opportunity inequity bias, with greater feelings of fairness and pleasantness during OE than during AI and DI. However, multivariate pattern analysis of the event-related potential (ERP) data suggested that AI, OE, and DI can be significantly distinguished from each other in relatively early windows overlapping with early positive negativity (EPN), and AI and DI can be significantly further distinguished during a relatively late window overlapping with late positive potential (LPP). Moreover, the conventional ERP analysis found that EPN amplitudes were more negative for AI than for OE and DI, as well as for OE than for DI, suggesting a pleasure bias for increased self-interest. LPP amplitudes were greater for DI than for AI and OE, suggesting enhanced sensitivity to DI. These results suggest that self-interest is intuitive during opportunity (in)equity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2022.108343DOI Listing
August 2022

Effects and Interaction of Meteorological Factors on Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Urumqi, China, 2013-2019.

Front Public Health 2022 14;10:951578. Epub 2022 Jul 14.

College of Medical Engineering and Technology, Xinjiang Medical University, Urumqi, China.

Background: Most existing studies have only investigated the delayed effect of meteorological factors on pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). However, the effect of extreme climate and the interaction between meteorological factors on PTB has been rarely investigated.

Methods: Newly diagonsed PTB cases and meteorological factors in Urumqi in each week between 2013 and 2019 were collected. The lag-exposure-response relationship between meteorological factors and PTB was analyzed using the distributed lag non-linear model (DLNM). The generalized additive model (GAM) was used to visualize the interaction between meteorological factors. Stratified analysis was used to explore the impact of meteorological factors on PTB in different stratification and RERI, AP and SI were used to quantitatively evaluate the interaction between meteorological factors.

Results: A total of 16,793 newly diagnosed PTB cases were documented in Urumqi, China from 2013 to 2019. The median (interquartile range) temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and PTB cases were measured as 11.3°C (-5.0-20.5), 57.7% (50.7-64.2), 4.1m/s (3.4-4.7), and 47 (37-56), respectively. The effects of temperature, relative humidity and wind speed on PTB were non-linear, which were found with the "N"-shaped, "L"-shaped, "N"-shaped distribution, respectively. With the median meteorological factor as a reference, extreme low temperature was found to have a protective effect on PTB. However, extreme high temperature, extreme high relative humidity, and extreme high wind speed were found to increase the risk of PTB and peaked at 31.8°C, 83.2%, and 7.6 m/s respectively. According to the existing monitoring data, no obvious interaction between meteorological factors was found, but low temperature and low humidity (RR = 1.149, 95%CI: 1.003-1.315), low temperature and low wind speed (RR = 1.273, 95%CI: 1.146-1.415) were more likely to cause the high incidence of PTB.

Conclusion: Temperature, relative humidity and wind speed were found to play vital roles in PTB incidence with delayed and non-linear effects. Extreme high temperature, extreme high relative humidity, and extreme high wind speed could increase the risk of PTB. Moreover, low temperature and low humidity, low temperature and low wind speed may increase the incidence of PTB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2022.951578DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9330012PMC
August 2022

ARIMA and ARIMA-ERNN models for prediction of pertussis incidence in mainland China from 2004 to 2021.

BMC Public Health 2022 07 29;22(1):1447. Epub 2022 Jul 29.

School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200032, China.

Objective: To compare an autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model with a model that combines ARIMA with the Elman recurrent neural network (ARIMA-ERNN) in predicting the incidence of pertussis in mainland China.

Background: The incidence of pertussis has increased rapidly in mainland China since 2016, making the disease an increasing public health threat. There is a pressing need for models capable of accurately predicting the incidence of pertussis in order to guide prevention and control measures. We developed and compared two models for predicting pertussis incidence in mainland China.

Methods: Data on the incidence of pertussis in mainland China from 2004 to 2019 were obtained from the official website of the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. An ARIMA model was established using SAS (ver. 9.4) software and an ARIMA-ERNN model was established using MATLAB (ver. R2019a) software. The performances of these models were compared.

Results: From 2004 to 2019, there were 104,837 reported cases of pertussis in mainland China, with an increasing incidence over time. The incidence of pertussis showed obvious seasonal characteristics, with the peak lasting from March to September every year. Compared with the mean squared error (MSE), mean absolute error (MAE), and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) of the ARIMA model, those of the ARIMA-ERNN model were 81.43%, 95.97% and 80.86% lower, respectively, in fitting performance. In terms of prediction performance, the MAE, MSE and MAPE were 37.75%, 56.88% and 43.75% lower, respectively.

Conclusion: The fitting and prediction performances of the ARIMA-ERNN model were better than those of the ARIMA model. This provides theoretical support for the prediction of infectious diseases and should be beneficial to public health decision making.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-022-13872-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9338508PMC
July 2022

Single-Dose Pharmacokinetics of Milvexian in Participants with Normal Renal Function and Participants with Moderate or Severe Renal Impairment.

Clin Pharmacokinet 2022 Jul 30. Epub 2022 Jul 30.

Bristol Myers Squibb, 3401 Princeton Pike, Lawrenceville, NJ, 08648, USA.

Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of moderate or severe renal impairment on the pharmacokinetic (PK) properties of milvexian.

Methods: This open-label, parallel-group study assessed the PK, safety, and tolerability of a single oral 60 mg dose of milvexian in participants with normal renal function (n = 8; estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] ≥ 90 mL/min/1.73 m) and participants with moderate (n = 8; eGFR ≥ 30 to ≤ 59 mL/min/1.73 m) or severe (n = 8; eGFR < 30 mL/min/1.73 m) renal impairment. Regression analysis was performed using linear regression of log-transformed PK parameters versus eGFR.

Results: Milvexian was well tolerated, with no deaths, serious adverse events, or serious bleeding reported. The maximum milvexian concentration (C) was similar for all groups. Based on a regression analysis of milvexian concentration versus eGFR, participants with eGFR values of 30 and 15 mL/min/1.73 m, respectively, had area under the curve (AUC) values that were 41% and 54% greater than in participants with normal renal function. Median time to maximum concentration (T) was similar for the three groups (4.5-5.0 h). The half-life increased for participants with moderate (18.0 h) or severe (17.7 h) renal impairment compared with those with normal renal function (13.8 h).

Conclusion: A single dose of milvexian 60 mg was safe and well tolerated in participants with normal renal function and moderate or severe renal impairment. There was a similar increase in milvexian exposure between the moderate and severe renal groups.

Clinical Trials Registration: This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03196206, first posted 22 June 2017).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40262-022-01150-1DOI Listing
July 2022

The resilient process of the family after diagnosis of childhood chronic illness: a qualitative meta-synthesis.

J Pediatr Nurs 2022 Jul 26. Epub 2022 Jul 26.

School of Nursing, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, China. Electronic address:

Problem: Childhood chronic illness has a serious effect on the whole family. As there is yet little known about how the families adjust to the diagnosis of childhood chronic illness, this qualitative meta-synthesis aims to further our knowledge regarding the resilient process.

Eligibility Criteria: A meta-synthesis review was conducted to explore the resilient process of the family after diagnosis of childhood chronic illness using nine electronic databases PubMed (MEDLINE), Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, SCOPUS, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Wan Fang, CBM, and CNKI from each database's inception to December 31,2020. Snowball sampling and manual search were performed to identify other relevant studies.

Sample: Seventeen qualitative studies met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed into meta-synthesis.

Results: Three key meta-themes were identified across the studies: (a) disintegration and vulnerability: emotional fluctuation and household chaos; (b) adjustment and adaptation: struggle with family needs; (c) recovery and reconstruction: growth and expectation.

Conclusion: Family adjustment to childhood chronic illness presents a complex, multifaceted and dynamic process. Identifying characteristics of family processes provides some practical interventions for families with a chronically ill child.

Implications: There is a need for all health professionals and social care services to be aware of the experience of family adjustment of children diagnosed with chronic illness. The specific intervention targeted at different periods of the family adjustment process is warranted to help families to recover from crises and deal better with challenges.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pedn.2022.07.017DOI Listing
July 2022

NBAS, a gene involved in cytotoxic degranulation, is recurrently mutated in pediatric hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.

J Hematol Oncol 2022 Jul 28;15(1):101. Epub 2022 Jul 28.

Hematology Center, Beijing Key Laboratory of Pediatric Hematology Oncology, National Key Discipline of Pediatrics (Capital Medical University), Key Laboratory of Major Diseases in Children, Ministry of Education, Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, National Center for Children's Health, Beijing, 100045, China.

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), particularly primary HLH (pHLH), is a rare, life-threatening disease. Germline genetic deficiency of 12 known HLH genes impairs cytotoxic degranulation in natural killer (NK) cells or cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and contributes to pHLH development. However, no pathogenic mutations in these HLH genes are found in nearly 10% of HLH patients, despite a strong suspicion of pHLH, suggesting that the underlying genetic basis of HLH is still unclear. To discover novel susceptibility genes, we first selected 13 children with ppHLH (presumed primary HLH patients in the absence of detectable known HLH gene variants) and their parents for initial screening. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) in one trio and whole-exome sequencing (WES) in twelve trios revealed that two ppHLH patients carried biallelic NBAS variants, a gene that is involved in Golgi-to-endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retrograde transport upstream of the degranulation pathway. Additionally, two candidate genes, RAB9B and KLC3, showed a direct relationship with known HLH genes in protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis. We analyzed NBAS, RAB9B, KLC3 and known HLH genes in an independent validation cohort of 224 pediatric HLH patients. Only biallelic NBAS variants were identified in three patients who harbored no pathogenic variants in any of the known HLH genes. Functionally, impaired NK-cell cytotoxicity and degranulation were revealed in both NBAS biallelic variant patients and in an NBAS-deficient NK-cell line. Knockdown of NBAS in an NK-cell line (IMC-1) using short hairpin RNA (shRNA) resulted in loss of lytic granule polarization and a decreased number of cytotoxic vesicles near the Golgi apparatus. According to our findings, NBAS is the second most frequently mutated gene (2.11%) in our HLH cohort after PRF1. NBAS deficiency may contribute to the development of HLH via a dysregulated lytic vesicle transport pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13045-022-01318-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9331571PMC
July 2022

Integrated Analysis of Microarray, Small RNA, and Degradome Datasets Uncovers the Role of MicroRNAs in Temperature-Sensitive Genic Male Sterility in Wheat.

Int J Mol Sci 2022 Jul 22;23(15). Epub 2022 Jul 22.

Institute of Hybrid Wheat, Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, Beijing 100097, China.

Temperature-sensitive genic male sterile (TGMS) line Beijing Sterility 366 (BS366) has been utilized in hybrid breeding for a long time, but the molecular mechanism underlying male sterility remains unclear. Expression arrays, small RNA, and degradome sequencing were used in this study to explore the potential role of miRNA in the cold-induced male sterility of BS366. Microspore observation showed defective cell plates in dyads and tetrads and shrunken microspores at the vacuolated stage. Differential regulation of Golgi vesicle transport, phragmoplast formation, sporopollenin biosynthesis, pollen exine formation, and lipid metabolism were observed between cold and control conditions. Pollen development was significantly represented in the 352 antagonistic miRNA-target pairs in the integrated analysis of miRNA and mRNA profiles. The specific cleavage of and by miR160 and miR393 were found in the cold-treated BS366 degradome, respectively. Thus, the cold-mediated miRNAs impaired cell plate formation through repression of Golgi vesicle transport and phragmoplast formation. The repressed expression of and impaired pollen exine formation. The results of this study will contribute to our understanding of the roles of miRNAs in male sterility in wheat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms23158057DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9332412PMC
July 2022

Preparation and Characterization of Screen-Printed CuS/PEDOT:PSS Hybrid Films for Flexible Thermoelectric Power Generator.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2022 Jul 15;12(14). Epub 2022 Jul 15.

School of Electrical and Control Engineering, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051, China.

In recent years, flexible thermoelectric generators(f-TEG), which can generate electricity by environmental temperature difference and have low cost, have been widely concerned in self-powered energy devices for underground pipe network monitoring. This paper studied the CuS films by screen-printing. The effects of different proportions of p-type CuS/poly 3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene-polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) mixture on the thermoelectric properties of films were studied. The interfacial effect of the two materials, forming a superconducting layer on the surface of CuS, leads to the enhancement of film conductivity with the increase of PEDOT:PSS. In addition, the Seebeck coefficient decreases with the increase of PEDOT:PSS due to the excessive bandgap difference between the two materials. When the content ratio of CuS and PEDOT:PSS was 1:1.2, the prepared film had the optimal thermoelectric performance, with a maximum power factor (PF) of 20.60 μW·m·K. The conductivity reached 75% of the initial value after 1500 bending tests. In addition, a fully printed Te-free f-TEG with a fan-shaped structure by CuS and AgSe was constructed. When the temperature difference (ΔT) was 35 K, the output voltage of the f-TEG was 33.50 mV, and the maximum power was 163.20 nW. Thus, it is envisaged that large thermoelectric output can be obtained by building a multi-layer stacking f-TEG for continuous self-powered monitoring.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano12142430DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9324872PMC
July 2022

Two New Phenylhydrazone Derivatives from the Pearl River Estuary Sediment-Derived sp. SCSIO 40020.

Mar Drugs 2022 Jul 9;20(7). Epub 2022 Jul 9.

Key Laboratory of Tropical Marine Bio-Resources and Ecology, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Marine Materia Medica, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Innovation Academy for South China Sea Ecology and Environmental Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 164 West Xingang Road, Guangzhou 510301, China.

Two new phenylhydrazone derivatives and one new alkaloid, penzonemycins A-B (-) and demethylmycemycin A (), together with three known compounds including an alkaloid () and two sesquiterpenoids (-), were isolated from the sp. SCSIO 40020 obtained from the Pearl River Estuary sediment. Their structures and absolute configurations were assigned by 1D/2D NMR, mass spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. Compound was evaluated in four human cancer cell lines by the SRB method and displayed weak cytotoxicity in three cancer cell lines, with IC values that ranged from 30.44 to 61.92 µM, which were comparable to those of the positive control cisplatin. Bioinformatic analysis of the putative biosynthetic gene cluster indicated a Japp-Klingemann coupling reaction involved in the hydrazone formation of and .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/md20070449DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9323291PMC
July 2022

Short and long-term effects of robot-assisted therapy on upper limb motor function and activity of daily living in patients post-stroke: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

J Neuroeng Rehabil 2022 Jul 21;19(1):76. Epub 2022 Jul 21.

Department of Health Management, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, 76 Linjiang Road, Yuzhong, Chongqing, 400010, China.

Objective: To investigate the effect of robot-assisted therapy (RAT) on upper limb motor control and activity function in poststroke patients compared with that of non-robotic therapy.

Methods: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar and Scopus. Randomized controlled trials published from 2010 to nowadays comparing the effect of RAT and control treatment on upper limb function of poststroke patients aged 18 or older were included. Researchers extracted all relevant data from the included studies, assessed the heterogeneity with inconsistency statistics (I statistics), evaluated the risk of bias of individual studies and performed data analysis.

Result: Forty-six studies were included. Meta-analysis showed that the outcome of the Fugl-Meyer Upper Extremity assessment (FM-UE) (SMD = 0.20, P = 0.001) and activity function post intervention was significantly higher (SMD = 0.32, P < 0.001) in the RAT group than in the control group. Differences in outcomes of the FM-UE and activity function between the RAT group and control group were observed at the end of treatment and were not found at the follow-up. Additionally, the outcomes of the FM-UE (SMD = 0.15, P = 0.005) and activity function (SMD = 0.32, P = 0.002) were significantly different between the RAT and control groups only with a total training time of more than 15 h. Moreover, the differences in outcomes of FM-UE and activity post intervention were not significant when the arm robots were applied to patients with severe impairments (FM-UE: SMD = 0.14, P = 0.08; activity: SMD = 0.21, P = 0.06) or when patients were provided with patient-passive training (FM-UE: SMD = - 0.09, P = 0.85; activity: SMD = 0.70, P = 0.16).

Conclusion: RAT has the significant immediate benefits for motor control and activity function of hemiparetic upper limb in patients after stroke compared with controls, but there is no evidence to support its long-term additional benefits. The superiority of RAT in improving motor control and activity function is limited by the amount of training time and the patients' active participation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12984-022-01058-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9306153PMC
July 2022

Influence of Adenoid Hypertrophy on Malocclusion and Maxillofacial Development in Children.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2022 7;2022:2052359. Epub 2022 Jul 7.

Operating Room, The First Affiliated Hospital of Hunan Traditional Chinese Medical College, Zhuzhou 412000, Hunan Province, China.

Objective: To investigate the effect of adenoid hypertrophy on malocclusion and maxillofacial development in children.

Methods: Total of 102 children with malocclusion or maxillofacial dysplasia admitted to our hospital from March 2017 to June 2020 were selected as the research subjects. All children were divided into a control group (50 cases with adenoid hypertrophy) and an observation group (52 cases without adenoid hypertrophy) according to the presence or absence of adenoid hypertrophy. The incidence of malocclusion was compared between the two groups, and lateral cranial radiographs were taken in both groups to measure and compare the malocclusion angle, jaw angle, and jaw length indexes between the two groups.

Results: The incidence of malocclusion in the observation group (71.15%) was higher than that in the control group (42.00%), and the difference was statistically significant ( < 0.05). The angle between the long axis of the upper central incisor and the nasal root point and the upper alveolar base point (U1-NA), the angle between the long axis of the lower central incisor and the nasal root point and the lower alveolar base point (L1-NB), the angle between mandibular plane and anterior cranial base plane (MP-SN), the angle between the long axis of upper central incisor and anterior cranial base plane (U1-SN), the angle between the long axis of lower central incisor and mandibular plane (L1-MP), the angle of axis, the overall height (N-Me), lower height (ANS-Me), overall height/back height (N-Me/S-Go), and lower height/overall height (ANS-Me/N-Me) values in the observation group were higher than those in the control group, while the mandibular length (Go-Gn) values in the observation group were lower than those in the control group ( < 0.05).

Conclusion: Adenoid hypertrophy can increase the incidence of malocclusion in children and can also increase the steepness and overall height and lower height of the mandible, resulting in the lengthening of the facial shape and the development of the maxillofacial deformity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/2052359DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9283056PMC
July 2022

AIEgens in Solar Energy Utilization: Advances and Opportunities.

Langmuir 2022 Jul 15;38(29):8719-8732. Epub 2022 Jul 15.

School of Science and Engineering, Shenzhen Institute of Aggregate Science and Technology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shenzhen, Guangdong 518172, China.

Solar energy is the most abundant energy resource on earth. Unfortunately, only a very small portion of the solar radiation can be utilized by current light-harvesting materials, thus leading to the poor utilization efficiency of solar energy. In this regard, aggregation-induced emission luminogens (AIEgens) have demonstrated versatile properties that can enhance energy conversion and potentially revolutionize solar utilization systems. AIEgens with great processability can selectively absorb radiation across multiple spectral regions and transform solar energy into longer-wavelength light, heat, or alternative forms of energy. These processes can considerably enhance the solar energy utilization performance by either developing light-harvesting systems based on AIEgens or hybridizing modern light-harvesting systems with AIE technology. In this Perspective, based on material properties, we highlight different functions of AIEgens related to solar light utilization, including sunlight transformation, chemical conversion, and thermal conversion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.2c01036DOI Listing
July 2022

Vagus nerve stimulation promotes the M1-to-M2 transition via inhibition of TLR4/NF-κB in microglial to rescue the reperfusion injury.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2022 Jul 11;31(9):106596. Epub 2022 Jul 11.

Department of Rehabilitation, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, 76 Linjiang Road, Yuzhong District, Chongqing 400010, China. Electronic address:

Objective: To specify the effect of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) on microglial polarization following ischemic-reperfusion and further investigate its underlying mechanism.

Materials And Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into the sham, ischemic reperfusion group (IR), IR+VNS groups. VNS intervention lasting for 1 hour was administered after 30 minutes of occlusion. We analyzed the expression of Arginase 1 (Arg1), the number of M2 microglial in the peri-infarction cortex and assessed the neurological scores at the 1, 3, 7 days after reperfusion to determine the research time point. Then, we assessed polarization status of microglial, the infarct volume, neurological scores, the cellular distribution of Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4), the TLR4-associated pathway protein and the p-NF-κB in microglial at 3 days after reperfusion.

Results: We found that VNS could increase the specific marker of M2 Arg1 and upregulate the M2 microglial after reperfusion, and the increase of Arg1, M2 microglial and the neurological scores was largest at the 3 days after reperfusion. VNS treatment significantly reduced the number and percent of M1, improved the number and percent of M2 and upregulated the M2 to M1 ratio without changing the number of total microglial at the 3 days after reperfusion. Moreover, VNS reduced the infarct volume and neurological deficits. In addition, VNS significantly reduced the microglial-specific TLR4, inhibited the activated TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB pathway following ischemic-reperfusion, and ultimately suppressed the p-NF-κB in microglial.

Conclusion: Our study revealed that VNS can promote the M1-to-M2 phenotype conversion to alleviate inflammatory response and brain injury through inhibition of TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB pathway in microglia following ischemic-reperfusion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2022.106596DOI Listing
July 2022

microRNA-140 Regulates PDGFRα and Is Involved in Adipocyte Differentiation.

Front Mol Biosci 2022 27;9:907148. Epub 2022 Jun 27.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Shanxi Agricultural University, Jinzhong, China.

In recent years, the studies of the role of microRNAs in adipogenesis and adipocyte development and the corresponding molecular mechanisms have received great attention. In this work, we investigated the function of miR-140 in the process of adipogenesis and the molecular pathways involved, and we found that adipogenic treatment promoted the miR-140-5p RNA level in preadipocytes. Over-expression of miR-140-5p in preadipocytes accelerated lipogenesis along with adipogenic differentiation by transcriptional modulation of adipogenesis-linked genes. Meanwhile, silencing endogenous miR-140-5p dampened adipogenesis. Platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRα) was shown to be a miR-140-5p target gene. miR-140-5p over-expression in preadipocyte 3T3-L1 diminished PDGFRα expression, but silencing of miR-140-5p augmented it. In addition, over-expression of PDGFRα suppressed adipogenic differentiation and lipogenesis, while its knockdown enhanced these biological processes of preadipocyte 3T3-L1. Altogether, our current findings reveal that miR-140-5p induces lipogenesis and adipogenic differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells by targeting PDGFRα, therefore regulating adipogenesis. Our research provides molecular targets and a theoretical basis for the treatment of obesity-related metabolic diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmolb.2022.907148DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9271708PMC
June 2022

Modification of Fibronectin by Non-Enzymatic Glycation Impairs K Channel Function in Rat Cerebral Artery Smooth Muscle Cells.

Front Physiol 2022 27;13:871968. Epub 2022 Jun 27.

Dalton Cardiovascular Research Center, Columbia, MO, United States.

Fibronectin (FN) enhances K channel activity by integrin-mediated mechanisms. As vascular smooth muscle (VSM) K channels mediate vasodilation, we hypothesized that modification of fibronectin, via advanced non-enzymatic glycation, would alter signaling of this extracellular matrix protein through these channels. Bovine FN (1 mg/ml) was glycated (gFN) for 5 days using methylglyoxal (50 mM), and albumin was similarly glycated as a non-matrix protein control. VSM cells were isolated from rat cerebral arteries for measurement of macroscopic K channel activity using whole cell patch clamp methodology. Pharmacological inhibitors, iberiotoxin (0.1 μM) and 4-aminopyridine (0.1 mM), were used to identify contributions of large-conductance, Ca-activated, K channels and voltage-gated K channels, respectively. Compared with baseline, native FN enhanced whole cell K current in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas gFN inhibited basal current. Furthermore, native albumin did not enhance basal K current, but the glycated form (gAlb) caused inhibition. gFN was shown to impair both the Kv and BK components of total macroscopic K current. Anti-integrin α5 and β1 antibodies attenuated the effects of both FN and gFN on macroscopic K current at +70 mV. Consistent with an action on BK activity, FN increased, whereas gFN decreased the frequency of spontaneous transient outward current (STOCs). In contrast, gAlb inhibited whole cell K current predominantly through Kv, showing little effect on STOCs. A function-blocking, anti-RAGE antibody partially reversed the inhibitory effects of gFN, suggesting involvement of this receptor. Further, gFN caused production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by isolated VSMCs as revealed by the fluorescent indicator, DHE. Evoked ROS production was attenuated by the RAGE blocking antibody. Collectively, these studies identify ion channel-related mechanisms (integrin and ROS-mediated) by which protein glycation may modify VSMC function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2022.871968DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9272009PMC
June 2022

Variations in Soil Nutrient Dynamics and Bacterial Communities After the Conversion of Forests to Long-Term Tea Monoculture Systems.

Front Microbiol 2022 24;13:896530. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Tea Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou, China.

The soil microbial community is a key indicator to evaluate the soil health and productivities in agricultural ecosystems. Monoculture and conversions of forests to tea plantations have been widely applied in tea plantation globally, but long-term monoculture of tea plantation could lead to soil degradation and yield decline. Understanding how long-term monoculture systems influence the soil health and ecosystem functions in tea plantation is of great importance for soil environment management. In this study, through the comparison of three independent tea plantations across eastern China composed of varying stand ages (from 3 to 90 years after conversion from forest), we found that long-term tea monoculture led to significant increases in soil total organic carbon (TOC) and microbial nitrogen (MBN). Additionally, the structure, function, and co-occurrence network of soil bacterial communities were investigated by pyrosequencing 16S rRNA genes. The pyrosequencing analysis revealed that the structures and functions of soil bacterial communities were significantly affected by different stand ages, but sampling sites and land-use conversion (from forest to tea plantation) had stronger effects than stand age on the diversity and structure of soil bacterial communities. Soil bacterial diversity can be improved with increasing stand ages in tea plantation. Further RDA analysis revealed that the C and N availability improvement in tea plantation soils led to the variation of structure and function in soil bacterial communities. Moreover, co-occurrence network analysis of soil bacterial communities also demonstrated that interactions among soil bacteria taxa were strengthened with increasing stand age. Our findings suggest that long-term monoculture with proper managements could be beneficial to soil ecosystems by increasing the C and N content and strengthening bacterial associations in tea plantations. Overall, this study provides a comprehensive understanding of the impact of land-use change and long-term monoculture stand age on soil environments in tea plantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2022.896530DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9263701PMC
June 2022

Exploring the risk factors of COVID-19 Delta variant in the United States based on Bayesian spatio-temporal analysis.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2022 Jun 25. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

Center for Applied Statistics, School of Statistics, Renmin University of China, Beijing, China.

The transmission of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) epidemic is a global emergency, which is worsened by the genetic mutations of SARS-CoV-2. However, till date, few statistical studies have researched the COVID-19 spread patterns in terms of the variant cases. Hence, this paper aims to explore the associated risk factors of Delta variant, the most contagious strain of COVID-19. The study collected the state-level COVID-19 Delta variant cases in the United States during a 12-week period and included potential environmental, socioeconomic, and public prevention factors as independent variables. Instead of regarding the covariate effects as constant, this paper proposes a flexible Bayesian hierarchical model with spatio-temporally varying coefficients to account for data heterogeneity. The method enables us to cluster the states into distinctive groups based on the temporal trends of the coefficients and simultaneously identify significant risk factors for each cluster. The findings contribute novel insight into the dynamics of covariate effects on the COVID-19 Delta variant over space and time, which could help the government develop targeted prevention measures for vulnerable regions based on the selected risk factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.14623DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9349916PMC
June 2022

The Influence of Knowledge Base on the Dual-Innovation Performance of Firms.

Front Psychol 2022 27;13:879640. Epub 2022 May 27.

College of Business Administration, Huaqiao University, Quanzhou, China.

Dual innovation, which includes exploratory innovation and exploitative innovation, is crucial for firms to obtain a sustainable competitive advantage. The knowledge base of firms greatly influences or even determines the scope, direction, and path of their dual-innovation activities, which drive their innovation process and produce different innovation performances. This study uses data source patents obtained by 285 focal firms in the Chinese new-energy vehicle industry in the period 2015-2020. Five knowledge-base features are selected by analyzing the correlation and multicollinearity, and four different firm clusters are found by using the k-means clustering algorithm. Based on the classification and regression tree (CART) algorithm, we mine the potential decision rules governing the dual-innovation performance of firms. The results show that the exploratory innovation performance of firms in different clusters is mainly affected by two different knowledge-base features. Knowledge-base scale is a key factor affecting the exploitative innovation performance of firms. Firms in different clusters can improve their dual-innovation performance by rationally tuning the combination of knowledge-base features.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2022.879640DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9195518PMC
May 2022

K-Space Data Reconstruction Algorithm-Based MRI Diagnosis and Influencing Factors of Knee Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury.

Contrast Media Mol Imaging 2022 1;2022:1711456. Epub 2022 Jun 1.

Department of Neurorehabilitation, Affiliated Sichuan Provincial Rehabilitation Hospital of Chengdu University of TCM, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan, China.

This study was aimed at investigating the diagnostic value of MRI based on K-space data reconstruction algorithm for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury of knee joint and the influencing factors of ligament injury. 96 patients with ACL injury of knee joint were selected, and they were randomly divided into two groups: group A (arthroscopy) and group B (MRI examination), and another 96 healthy volunteers in the same period were selected as the control group. The test results of each indicator were compared. The results showed that the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of SMASH algorithm was higher than that of sum of squares (SOS) algorithm. In group A, there were 66 positive and 30 negative tests, and in group B, there were 56 positive and 40 negative tests ( < 0.05). The intercondylar fossa width, the intercondylar fossa width index, and the ratio of tibial intercondylar eminence width to intercondylar fossa width in group B were lower than those in the control group ( < 0.05). Compared with the traditional SOS algorithm, SMASH algorithm can improve the image quality, reduce the impact of damage data on the final synthesis image, and improve the image SNR. In clinical work, the ratio of the width of tibial intercondylar eminence to the width of femoral intercondylar fossa can be measured by imaging data to evaluate the matching between tibial intercondylar eminence and femoral intercondylar fossa, so as to evaluate the risk of ACL rupture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/1711456DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9177295PMC
June 2022

Validity Evaluation of the College Student Physical Literacy Questionnaire.

Front Public Health 2022 26;10:856659. Epub 2022 May 26.

Basic Education Research Center, Southwest University, Chongqing, China.

Background: Physical literacy (PL) is an important tool to promote physical activity of individuals, and the level of physical literacy of individuals affects their physical activity behaviors. Currently, the physical fitness of college students in China is a prominent issue, and assessing physical literacy among college students may provide tools and directions to further promote physical fitness and precisely intervene in physical activity behaviors of college students in the future. This study aimed to develop a college student physical literacy questionnaire (CSPLQ) to address the lack of currently available physical literacy assessment tools for Chinese college students. We hoped to collect validity evidence of this questionnaire to measure the validity of the physical literacy self-assessment questionnaire among Chinese university students.

Methods: An initial pool of items was obtained from existing research instruments, literature, and expert advice. An expert review panel evaluated its content. A subsequent validation process reduced the pool of items. We conducted a validation factor analysis of the CSPLQ using structural equation modeling. The relationship between physical literacy and other variables was also examined using correlation analysis.

Results: The item content validity index (ICVI) of CSPLQ was 0.70-0.95. The CSPLQ was composed of a total of 38 items across 3 domains (physical and behavioral domain, affective domain, and cognitive domain) and 7 dimensions (motor skills, motor skills, physical activity, perceptions of healthy living, perceptions of physical activity, motivation to engage in physical activity, and confidence to engage in physical activity). The factor validity of the CSPLQ was determined by significant loading of all items on their expected factors, with good data model fit and good stability between two independent samples were demonstrated. Each subscale had a Cronbach α coefficient >0.9 and was strongly correlated with each other. The correlation coefficients between college students' physical literacy and other variables, including athletic ability, physical condition, physical attractiveness, physical fitness, frequency of physical activity, and length of physical activity, all reached a significance level of < 0.05.

Conclusion: The CSPLQ has sufficient evidence of validity. The development of the instrument showed evidence of validity for the content, response process, internal structure, and relationships with other variables.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2022.856659DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9178231PMC
May 2022

Progress and prospects of electrolyte chemistry of calcium batteries.

Chem Sci 2022 May 20;13(20):5797-5812. Epub 2022 Apr 20.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Utah State University Logan UT USA

The increasing energy storage demand of portable devices, electric vehicles, and scalable energy storage has been driving extensive research for more affordable, more energy dense battery technologies than Li ion batteries. The alkaline earth metal, calcium (Ca), has been considered an attractive anode material to develop the next generation of rechargeable batteries. Herein, the chemical designs, electrochemical performance, and solution and interfacial chemistry of Ca electrolytes are comprehensively reviewed and discussed. In addition, a few recommendations are presented to guide the development and evaluation of Ca electrolytes in future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2sc00267aDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9132056PMC
May 2022

Genome Wide Identification and Characterization of Wheat Genes Reveals Their Roles in Pollen Development and Anther Dehiscence.

Int J Mol Sci 2022 Jun 5;23(11). Epub 2022 Jun 5.

Key Laboratory of Molecular Genetics in Hybrid Wheat, Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Science Research Institute, Beijing 100097, China.

Glycoside hydrolase family 9 (GH9) is a key member of the hydrolase family in the process of cellulose synthesis and hydrolysis, playing important roles in plant growth and development. In this study, we investigated the phenotypic characteristics and gene expression involved in pollen fertility conversion and anther dehiscence from a genomewide level. In total, 74 wheat genes () were identified, which were classified into Class A, Class B and Class C and unevenly distributed on chromosomes. We also investigated the gene duplication and reveled that fragments and tandem repeats contributed to the amplification of . had abundant hormone-responsive elements and light-responsive elements, involving JA-ABA crosstalk to regulate anther development. Ten , which highly expressed stamen tissue, were selected to further validate their function in pollen fertility conversion and anther dehiscence. Based on the cell phenotype and the results of the scanning electron microscope at the anther dehiscence period, we found that seven may target miRNAs, including some known miRNAs (miR164 and miR398), regulate the level of cellulose by light and phytohormone and play important roles in pollen fertility and anther dehiscence. Finally, we proposed a hypothesis model to reveal the regulation pathway of on fertility conversion and anther dehiscence. Our study provides valuable insights into the GH9 family in explaining the male sterility mechanism of the wheat photo-thermo-sensitive genetic male sterile (PTGMS) line and generates useful male sterile resources for improving wheat hybrid breeding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms23116324DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9181332PMC
June 2022

Cadmium Accumulation in the Goat Liver and Kidney Is Partially Promoted by the Upregulation of Metal Transporter Genes.

Animals (Basel) 2022 May 30;12(11). Epub 2022 May 30.

CAS Key Laboratory for Agro-Ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, National Engineering Laboratory for Pollution Control and Waste Utilization in Livestock and Poultry Production, South-Central Experimental Station of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science in Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha 410125, China.

Metal transporters, including divalent metal-ion transporter-1 (DMT1), Zrt-/Irt-like protein 8 and 14 (ZIP8 and ZIP14), and ferroportin-1 (FPN1), reportedly participate in cellular cadmium (Cd) uptake, but those in farm animals remain unclarified. This study aimed to examine the growth, plasma biochemical indices, Cd accumulation, and expression of metal transporter genes in the liver, kidney, and muscle of goats exposed to rice paddies contaminated with different levels of Cd. Twenty-four goats were randomly assigned across three dietary treatments: 0.23, 0.63, and 1.07 mg of Cd/kg of dry matter (DM) for 60 days. The results showed that dietary Cd exposure increased ( < 0.05) both Cd accumulation and the mRNA expressions of metal transporter genes (, , and ) in the liver and kidney but not in the muscle, suggesting dietary Cd exhibited different deposition rates between goat liver, kidney, and muscle. These outcomes suggest that high levels of dietary Cd stimulated the expression of metal transporter genes and thereby enhanced the uptake and accumulation of Cd in the goat liver and kidney. As such, higher Cd concentrations in the liver and kidney observed with Cd diets could be partly explained by upregulation of metal transport genes expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani12111408DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9179383PMC
May 2022

Spatial-Temporal Analysis of Factors Influencing the Median Urine Iodine Concentration of 8-10-year-old Children in Xinjiang, China 25 Years after Implementation of the Salt Iodization Policy.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2022 Jun 6. Epub 2022 Jun 6.

State Key Laboratory of Pathogenesis, Prevention and Treatment of High Incidence Diseases in Central Asia, Xinjiang Medical University, Urumqi, 830011, People's Republic of China.

The iodine status of children has improved and stabilized since China implemented salt iodization measures 25 years ago, but routine monitoring of iodine cannot reflect regional factors that influence the iodine level in children. Therefore, we conducted a regional spatial-temporal analysis of children's median urinary iodine concentration (MUIC) and searched for possible factors that might affect children's iodine levels by mining monitoring data. We analyzed data from Xinjiang collected as part of the "Iodine Deficiency Disease National Monitoring Program" from 2017 to 2020. The study population consisted of 76,268 children who participated in the study. We used global autocorrelation analysis to determine whether the MUIC of children was spatially clustered, local autocorrelation analysis to identify specific clustering areas, local cold and hot spot analysis to verify the reliability of the local autocorrelation results, and a spatial lag model to identify factors affecting the children's MUIC. The MUIC values were 217.70, 227.00, 230.67, and 230.67 µg/L in 2017, 2018, 2019, and 2020, respectively. Global autocorrelation analysis showed that the MUIC of all children in the study was significantly related to region (Z scores all > 1.96, P values all < 0.05) from 2017 to 2020. Partial auto-correlation analysis showed that counties with clusters of high values were mostly concentrated in the southwestern region of Xinjiang, whereas counties with clusters of low values were located in the northern part of Xinjiang. Partial cold spot and hot spot analysis showed the same trend, and there are more overlapping districts and counties in 4 years. Three-dimensional trend analysis indicated that children from the western part of Xinjiang had high levels of urinary iodine. According to spatial lag model, urine iodine concentration level is positively correlated with thyroid volume, average salary, and urbanization rate classification. The MUIC of 8-10-year-old children in Xinjiang was spatially clustered and related to geographic region. Our results show that spatial analysis of survey data combined with geographic technology and public health data can accurately identify areas with abnormal iodine concentrations in children. Additionally, understanding the factors that influence iodine levels in the human population is conducive to improving monitoring methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-022-03307-2DOI Listing
June 2022

-Related Epilepsy: Novel Mutations and Rare Phenotypes.

Front Mol Neurosci 2022 19;15:826183. Epub 2022 May 19.

Department of Neurology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Objectives: To expand the genotypes and phenotypes of sodium voltage-gated channel alpha subunit 1 (SCN1A)-related epilepsy.

Methods: We retrospectively collected the clinical and genetic information of 22 epilepsy patients (10 males, 12 females; mean: 9.2 ± 3.9 years; 3.9-20.3 years) carrying 22 variants of SCN1A. SCN1A mutations were identified by next-generation sequencing.

Results: Twenty-two variants were identified, among which 12 have not yet been reported. The median age at seizure onset was 6 months. Sixteen patients were diagnosed with Dravet syndrome (DS), two with genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus [one evolved into benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS)], one with focal epilepsy, one with atypical childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (ABECTS) and two with unclassified epilepsy. Fourteen patients showed a global developmental delay/intellectual disability (GDD/ID). Slow background activities were observed in one patient and epileptiform discharges were observed in 11 patients during the interictal phase.

Significance: This study enriches the genotypes and phenotypes of SCN1A-related epilepsy. The clinical characteristics of patients with 12 previously unreported variants were described.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnmol.2022.826183DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9162153PMC
May 2022

Exploring Low-Loss Surface Acoustic Wave Devices on Heterogeneous Substrates.

IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control 2022 Aug 29;69(8):2579-2584. Epub 2022 Jul 29.

This article presents shear horizontal surface acoustic wave (SH-SAW) devices with excellent temperature stability and low loss on ultrathin Y42-cut lithium tantalate film on sapphire substrate (LiTaO-on-sapphire, LTOS). The demonstrated resonators exhibit scalable resonances from 1.76 to 3.17 GHz, effective electromechanical coupling coefficients between 5.1% and 7.6%, and quality factors (Bode-Q) between 419 and 3019. The filter with a center frequency of 3.26 GHz features a suppressed spurious passband, a 3-dB fractional bandwidth (FBW) of 3%, and a minimum insertion loss (IL) of 2.39 dB. In addition, coplanar waveguides (CPWs) and SH-SAW resonators built on LTOS and LiTaO-on-insulator (LTOI) substrates were compared over a temperature range of 25 °C-150 °C. Due to the extremely high resistivity of the sapphire and the excellent thermal stability of the LiTaO/sapphire interface, the IL of the CPW and the impedance ratio (in addition to Bode-Q) of the SH-SAW on the LTOS are maintained well even at 150 °C, while those on the LTOI seriously deteriorate. Of these, the impedance attenuation of LTOS-SAW at the antiresonant frequency is only 3.7 dB at 150 °C, whereas that of LTOI-SAW reaches 9.6 dB, demonstrating excellent temperature stability of the LTOS substrate's radio frequency (RF) performance. Overall, the SAW devices on LTOS substrates show great potential for temperature-sensitive and low-loss applications in RF wireless communications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TUFFC.2022.3179699DOI Listing
August 2022

Corrigendum: Multi-Omics and miRNA Interaction Joint Analysis Highlight New Insights Into Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in Peanuts ( L.).

Front Plant Sci 2022 16;13:929085. Epub 2022 May 16.

State Key Laboratory of North China Crop Improvement and Regulation, North China Key Laboratory for Crop Germplasm Resources of Education Ministry, Laboratory of Hebei Provincial Crop Germplasm Resources, Hebei Agricultural University, Baoding, China.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2022.818345.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2022.929085DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9149595PMC
May 2022

Underwater image restoration via Stokes decomposition.

Opt Lett 2022 Jun;47(11):2854-2857

In this Letter, we present a Stokes imaging-based method to restore objects and enhance image contrast in turbid water. In the system, a light source illuminates the objects with two orthometric polarization states; based on a new Stokes decomposition model, the recorded images are converted to Stokes maps and subsequently restored to a clear image, free of reflections and scattered lights. A mathematical model has been developed to explain the Stokes decomposition and how the undesired reflections and scattered lights are rejected. Imaging experiments have been devised and performed on different objects, e.g., metals and plastics, under different turbidities. The results demonstrate enhanced image quality and capability to distinguish polarization differences. This new, to the best of our knowledge, method can be readily applied to practical underwater object detection and potentially realize clear vision in other scattering media.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.457964DOI Listing
June 2022

Function of ceramide transfer protein for biogenesis and sphingolipid composition of extracellular vesicles.

J Extracell Vesicles 2022 06;11(6):e12233

Department of Physiology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA.

The formation of extracellular vesicles (EVs) is induced by the sphingolipid ceramide. How this pathway is regulated is not entirely understood. Here, we report that the ceramide transport protein (CERT) mediates a non-vesicular transport of ceramide between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the multivesicular endosome at contact sites. The process depends on the interaction of CERT's PH domain with PI4P generated by PI4KIIα at endosomes. Furthermore, a complex is formed between the START domain of CERT, which carries ceramide, and the Tsg101 protein, which is part of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT-I). Inhibition of ceramide biosynthesis reduces CERT-Tsg101 complex formation. Overexpression of CERT increases EV secretion while its inhibition reduces EV formation and the concentration of ceramides and sphingomyelins in EVs. In conclusion, we discovered a function of CERT in regulating the sphingolipid composition and biogenesis of EVs, which links ceramide to the ESCRT-dependent pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jev2.12233DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9156972PMC
June 2022
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