Publications by authors named "Liping Wang"

1,301 Publications

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Surgical interventions for management of benign parotid tumors: A systematic review and network meta-analysis.

Head Neck 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Key Laboratory of Oral Medicine, Guangzhou Institute of Oral Disease, Stomatology Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

The impact of the extent of parotid surgery on postoperative complications has long been considered a topic of controversy. The aim of the current network meta-analysis (NMA) is to answer the following questions: (1) Does the extent of surgical resection of benign parotid tumors increase the risk of postoperative complications? (2) What is the best surgical intervention for treatment of benign parotid tumors that can provide an acceptable balance between tumor recurrence rate and other postoperative complications? A comprehensive search on PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Cochrane library was conducted to identify the eligible studies. The outcome was the incidence of tumor recurrence, facial nerve weakness (temporary [TFW] or permanent [PFP]), Frey's syndrome (FS), sialocele, and salivary fistula. The Bayesian network meta-analysis (NMA) accompanied by a random effect model and 95% credible intervals (CrI) were calculated using the GeMTC R package. Forty-four studies with a total of 7841 participants were included in the current NMA comparing five surgical interventions, namely enucleation, extracapsular dissection (ECD), partial superficial parotidectomy (PSP), superficial parotidectomy (SP), and total parotidectomy (TP). Enucleation showed the highest recurrence rate compared to ECD, SPS, SP, and TP. No statistical differences were observed concerning the recurrence rate when ECD, PSP, SP, and TP were compared together. There was an increased incidence of TFW and FS with the increase in the extent of parotid resection, while no significant difference was found when comparing enucleation with ECD and PSP. SP showed the highest incidence of PFP, and salivary fistula compared to ECD, PSP, and TP. The tumor recurrence rates in enucleation, ECD, PSP, SP, and TP were 14.3%, 3.6%, 3.7%, 2.8%, and 1.4%, respectively. The current NMA demonstrated that the risk of TFW and FS increases with the increase in the extent of parotid resection and that ECD and PSP can be considered the treatment of choice for benign parotid tumors, as both provide an acceptable balance between the incidence of tumor recurrence and facial nerve dysfunction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hed.26813DOI Listing
July 2021

High-Density Three-Dimensional Network of Covalently Linked Nitric Oxide Donors to Achieve Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Surfaces.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jul 19;13(29):33745-33755. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Centre for Antimicrobial Bioengineering, School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 62 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637459, Singapore.

Bacterial colonization on biomedical devices often leads to biofilms that are recalcitrant to antibiotic treatment and the leading cause of hospital-acquired infections. We have invented a novel pretreatment chemistry for device surfaces to produce a high-density three-dimensional (3-D) network of covalently linked S-nitrosothiol (RSNO), which is a nitric oxide (NO) donor. Poly(polyethylene glycol-hydroxyl-terminated) (i.e., PPEG-OH) brushes were grafted from an ozone-pretreated polyurethane (PU) surface. The high-density hydroxyl groups on the dangling PPEG-OH brushes then underwent condensation with a mercapto-silane (i.e., MPS, mercaptopropyl trimethoxysilane) followed by S-nitrosylation to produce a 3-D network of NO-releasing RSNO to form the PU/PPEG-OH-MPS-NO coating. This 3-D coating produces NO flux of up to 7 nmol/(cm min), which is nearly 3 orders of magnitude higher than the picomole/(cm min) levels of other NO-releasing biomedical implants previously reported. The covalent immobilization of RSNO avoids donor leaching and reduces the risks of cytotoxicity arising from leachable RSNO. Our coated PU surfaces display good biocompatibility and exhibit excellent antibiofilm formation activity (up to 99.99%) against a broad spectrum of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Further, the high-density RSNO achieves nearly 99% and 99.9% reduction of () and methicillin-resistant (MRSA) in a murine subcutaneous implantation infection model. Our surface chemistry to create high NO payload without NO-donor leaching can be applied to many biomedical devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c00340DOI Listing
July 2021

Enhancing degradation of atrazine by Fe-phenol modified biochar/ferrate(VI) under alkaline conditions: Analysis of the mechanism and intermediate products.

Chemosphere 2021 Jul 4;285:131399. Epub 2021 Jul 4.

School of Environmental and Safety Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou, 213164, China; Changzhou University Huaide College, Jingjiang, 214500, China. Electronic address:

In this study, Fe-phenol modified biochar was prepared to enhance atrazine (AT) degradation by ferrate (Fe(VI)) under alkaline conditions, and the properties, mechanism and transformation pathways were extensively investigated. Degradation experiments showed that Fe-phenol modified biochar was more beneficial for improving the oxidation capacity of Fe(VI) than unmodified biochar, and the biochar with a molar ratio of Fe to phenol of 0.1:5 (BC-2) showed the best promoting effect, and more than 94% of AT was removed at pH = 8 within 30 min. Moreover, the rate of oxidation (k) of AT by Fe(VI) increased 1.86 to 4.11 times by the addition of BC-2 in the studied pH range. Fe(Ⅴ)/Fe(Ⅳ) and ·OH were the main active oxidizing species for AT degradation in the Fe(VI)/BC-2 group and contributed to 70% and 24%, respectively, of degradation. The formation of ·OH and Fe(Ⅴ)/Fe(Ⅳ) was mainly due to the persistent free radicals and reducing groups on the surface of BC-2. AT was oxidized to 12 intermediate products in the Fe(VI)/BC-2 group through 5 pathways: alkyl hydroxylation, dealkylation, dichlorination, hydroxylation, alkyl dehydrogenation and dichlorination. Compared with those of the initial solution, the total organic carbon content and toxicity after the reaction decreased by 32.8% and 19.02%, respectively. Therefore, the combination of Fe-phenol modified biochar and Fe(VI) could be a promising method for AT removal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.131399DOI Listing
July 2021

Mycotoxins: An Overview of Toxicity, Metabolism, and Analysis in Food.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Jul 12;69(28):7817-7830. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

College of Life Science, Yantai University, Yantai, Shandong 264005, People's Republic of China.

The genus is widely distributed in the environment. Numerous species of the genus can produce a variety of toxic secondary metabolites, called mycotoxins. In this review, natural occurrence, toxicity, metabolism, and analytical methods are introduced. The contamination of these toxins in foodstuffs is ubiquitous, and most of these metabolites present genotoxic and cytotoxic effects. Moreover, toxins are mainly hydroxylated to catechol metabolites and combined with sulfate and glucuronic acid in arrays. A more detailed summary of the metabolism of toxins is presented in this work. To effectively detect and determine the mycotoxins in food, analytical methods with high sensitivity and good accuracy are also reviewed. This review will guide the formulation of maximum residue limit standards in the future, covering both toxicity and metabolic mechanism of toxins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.1c03007DOI Listing
July 2021

Microplastic pollution characteristic in surface water and freshwater fish of Gehu Lake, China.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jul 10. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

School of Environmental & Safety Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou, 213164, Jiangsu, China.

Much more attention has been poured into microplastic pollution in freshwater systems recently. In the present study, the pollution of microplastics (MPs) in surface water and freshwater fish (crucian carp, etc.) were investigated from Gehu Lake, which is the second largest lake in southern Jiangsu after Taihu Lake. The result manifested that the average abundance of MPs was respectively 6.33±2.67 n/L for surface water and 10.7 items per individual for freshwater fish. The distribution of MPs in Gehu Lake varied from place to place, with the highest abundance of MPs was observed in the two estuaries of the eastern part of the lake. It was speculated that topographical factors and human factors were the main factors affecting the abundance and distribution of MPs. Transparent fibers were the main type of MPs in water samples, accounting for 69.70% of all detected particles. Meanwhile, most of the MPs ingested by freshwater fish were fibers, and the main colors were transparent and blue. In addition, the dominant size of the MPs was between 0.1 to 0.5 mm in water and fish samples. Moreover, PES, man-made fiber, and PP were the dominant polymer types in the surface water and fish samples. The results of this investigation can provide basic data for the research and management of MPs in freshwater systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-15338-8DOI Listing
July 2021

The role of conformational epitopes in the evolutionary divergence of enterovirus D68 clades: A bioinformatics-based study.

Infect Genet Evol 2021 Jul 7;93:104992. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Pathological and Physiological Technology, School of Medicine, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211, China. Electronic address:

Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68), as one of the major pathogens of paediatric respiratory disease, has been widely spread in the population in recent years. As the basis of virus antigenicity, antigenic epitopes are essential to monitoring the transformation of virus antigenicity. However, there is a lack of systematic studies on the antigenic epitopes of EV-D68. In this study, a bioinformatics-based prediction algorithm for human enteroviruses was used to predict the conformational epitopes of EV-D68. The prediction results showed that the conformational epitopes of EV-D68 were clustered into three sites: site 1, site 2, and site 3. Site 1 was located in the "north rim" region of the canyon near the fivefold axis; site 2 was located in the "puff" region near the twofold axis; and site 3 consisted of two parts, one in the "knob" region on the south rim of the canyon and the other in the threefold axis region. The predicted epitopes overlapped highly with the binding regions of four reported monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), indicating that the predictions were highly reliable. Phylogenetic analysis showed that amino acid mutations in the epitopes of the VP1 BC loop, DE loop, C-terminus, and VP2 EF loop played a crucial role in the evolutionary divergence of EV-D68 clades/subclades and epidemics. This finding indicated that the VP1 BC loop, DE loop, C-terminus, and VP2 EF loop were the most important epitopes of EV-D68. Research on the epitopes of EV-D68 will contribute to outbreak surveillance and to the development of diagnostic reagents and recombinant vaccines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2021.104992DOI Listing
July 2021

Displaying epitope B and epitope 7 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus on virus like particles of porcine circovirus type 2 provides partial protection to pigs.

J Vet Med Sci 2021 Jul 7. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

College of Life Science, Yangtze University.

The Cap of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) can be assembled into virus like particles (VLPs) in vitro that have multiple loops located on the particle surface. This would make it a good vehicle for displaying exogenous proteins or epitopes. We derived two epitopes, epitope B (EpB, SHIQLIYNL) and epitope 7 (Ep7, QWGRL) from Gp5 of the highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV). We replaced the core region of Loop CD (LPPGGGSN) and the carboxyl terminus (KDPPL) of PCV2 Cap, respectively, to construct a bi-epitope chimeric PCV2 Cap. Its immunogenicity and protective effects were evaluated as one PRRSV subunit vaccine. The chimeric PCV2 Cap was soluble, efficiently expressed in an Escherichia coli expression system, and could be self-assembled into chimeric virus like particles (cVLPs) with a diameter of 12-15 nm. Western blotting confirmed that the cVLPs could be specifically recognized by anti-PCV2, anti-EpB and anti-Ep7 antibodies. The cVLPs vaccine could alleviate the clinical symptoms and reduce the viral loads after HP-PRRSV challenge in 100-120 days old pigs. These data suggest that the cVLPs vaccine could provide pigs with partial protection against homologous PRRSV strains, and it provides a new design for additional PRRSV subunit vaccines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1292/jvms.20-0543DOI Listing
July 2021

Mental compression of spatial sequences in human working memory using numerical and geometrical primitives.

Neuron 2021 Jun 30. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Cognitive Neuroimaging Unit, CEA, INSERM, Université Paris-Saclay, NeuroSpin Center, 91191 Gif/Yvette, France; Collège de France, Université Paris Sciences Lettres (PSL), 11 Place Marcelin Berthelot, 75005 Paris, France. Electronic address:

How does the human brain store sequences of spatial locations? We propose that each sequence is internally compressed using an abstract, language-like code that captures its numerical and geometrical regularities. We exposed participants to spatial sequences of fixed length but variable regularity while their brain activity was recorded using magneto-encephalography. Using multivariate decoders, each successive location could be decoded from brain signals, and upcoming locations were anticipated prior to their actual onset. Crucially, sequences with lower complexity, defined as the minimal description length provided by the formal language, led to lower error rates and to increased anticipations. Furthermore, neural codes specific to the numerical and geometrical primitives of the postulated language could be detected, both in isolation and within the sequences. These results suggest that the human brain detects sequence regularities at multiple nested levels and uses them to compress long sequences in working memory.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2021.06.009DOI Listing
June 2021

Establishing a Stable Anode-Electrolyte Interface in Mg Batteries by Electrolyte Additive.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jul 6;13(28):33123-33132. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Helmholtz Institute Ulm (HIU) Electrochemical Energy Storage, Helmholtzstraße 11, D-89081 Ulm, Germany.

Simple magnesium salts with high electrochemical and chemical stability and adequate ionic conductivity represent a new-generation electrolyte for magnesium (Mg) batteries. Similar to other Mg electrolytes, the simple-salt electrolyte also suffers from high charge-transfer resistance on the Mg surface due to the adsorbed species in the solution. In the current study, we built a model Mg cell system with the Mg[B(hfip)]/DME electrolyte and Chevrel phase MoS cathode, to demonstrate the effect of such anode-electrolyte interfacial properties on the full-cell performance. It was found that the cell required additional activation cycles to achieve its maximal capacity. The activation process is mainly attributed to the conditioning of the anode-electrolyte interface, which could be boosted by introducing an additive amount of Mg(BH) to the Mg[B(hfip)]/DME electrolyte. Electrochemical and spectroscopic analyses revealed that the Mg(BH) additive helps to remove the native oxide layer and promotes the formation of a solid electrolyte interphase layer on Mg. As a result, the full cell with the additive-containing electrolyte delivered a stable capacity from the second cycle onward. Further battery tests showed a reversible cycling for 600 cycles and an excellent rate capability, indicating good compatibility of the Mg(BH) additive. The current study not only provides fundamental insights into the interfacial phenomena in Mg batteries but also highlights the facile tunability of the simple-salt Mg electrolytes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c08476DOI Listing
July 2021

A General Approach to Design Dual Ratiometric Fluorescent and Photoacoustic Probe for Quantitatively Visualizing Tumor Hypoxia Levels in Vivo.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Jul 6. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Guangxi Normal University, School of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, CHINA.

Development of ratiometric imaging techniques to quantitatively measure hypoxia levels in vivo is essential in predicting the effectiveness of cancer treatments and diagnostics. With complementary advantages of near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF) and photoacoustic (PA) imaging, NIRF/PA dual-ratiometric probes are imperative for precisely visualizing tumor hypoxia levels. However, because the absorbed excitation energy is fixed in a single chromophore, its NIRF and PA effects are always competitive, which greatly thwarts the development of NIRF/PA dual-ratiometric probes. Herein, for the first time, we describe an energy balance strategy between fluorescence and photoacoustic effects by sulfur substitution to transform existing hemicyanine dyes (Cy) into optimized NIRF/PA dual ratiometric scaffolds. Based on this optimized scaffold, we reported the first dual-ratio response of nitroreductase probe AS-Cy-NO 2 which allows quantitative visualization of tumor hypoxia in vivo . AS-Cy-NO 2 , composed of a new NIRF/PA scaffold thioxanthene-hemicyanine (AS-Cy) and a 4-nitrobenzene moiety, showed a 10-fold ratiometric NIRF enhancement (I 773 /I 733 ) and 2.4-fold ratiometric PA enhancement (PA 730 /PA 670 ) upon activation by a biomarker (nitroreductase, NTR) associated with tumor hypoxia. Moreover, the dual ratiometric NIRF/PA imaging accurately quantified hypoxia extent with high sensitivity and high imaging depth in xenograft breast cancer models. More importantly, the 3D maximal intensity projection (MIP) PA images of the probe can precisely differentiate the highly heterogeneous oxygen distribution in solid tumor. Thus, this study not only presents the first dual ratiometric NIRF and PA probe for quantitatively and precisely monitoring of tumor hypoxia levels but also provides a promising NIRF/PA scaffold that may be generalized for applying in dual ratiometric imaging of other disease-relevant biomarkers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202107076DOI Listing
July 2021

Uric acid played a role in the association between gender and deep vein thrombosis in patients with stroke.

Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, 325000, China. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: Gender-specific differences were found in serum uric acid (SUA) levels and the risk of isolated distal deep vein thrombosis (IDDVT). This study aimed to explore the association among gender, SUA, and IDDVT in stroke patients.

Methods And Results: Finally, 3404 patients were recruited and divided into two groups: IDDVT (n = 1233) and Non-IDDVT (n = 2171) groups. Propensity score matching (PSM) was conducted to match the patients. Binary logistic regression was adopted to explore the association between SUA and IDDVT, with the SUA divided into quartiles. After PSM, 975 patients were included in each group. Non-IDDVT group had a larger proportion of male than IDDVT group (64.9% vs. 52.7%, p < 0.001). Moreover, males showed higher SUA levels than females (316.7 ± 102.1 vs. 261.8 ± 94.0 μmol/L, t = 12.1, p < 0.001). The highest quartile of SUA (≥346 μmol/L) showed a lower risk of IDDVT (OR = 0.629, p = 0.001), while the lowest quartile (≤225 μmol/L) showed a higher risk of IDDVT (OR = 1.361, p = 0.022).

Conclusion: In patients with stroke, SUA played a protective role in IDDVT. Females had a higher risk of IDDVT, which may be owing to the lower SUA levels than males. In clinical practice, more attention should be paid to the risk of IDDVT in females, especially those with lower SUA levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.numecd.2021.05.032DOI Listing
June 2021

Complete genome sequence of a denitrifying bacterium Halomonas sp. SS10-MC5 isolated from hydrothermal vent of Indian Ocean.

Mar Genomics 2021 Aug 15;58:100849. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

School of Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, China; Key Laboratory of Marine Genetic Resources, Third Institute of Oceanography, Ministry of Natural Resources; State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Marine Genetic Resources; Fujian Key Laboratory of Marine Genetic Resources, Xiamen 361005, PR China; Laboratory for Marine Biology and Biotechnology, Pilot National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao, China. Electronic address:

A denitrifying bacterium Halomonas sp. SS10-MC5, was isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimney sample of the Indian Ocean. Here we described the complete genome of strain SS10-MC5 which has one circular chromosome of 4,441,120 bp with a mean G + C content of 66.12 mol%. The complete genome harbors 4094 predicted protein-encoding genes, 65 tRNA genes as well as four 16S-23S-5S rRNA operons. Genes involved in denitrification, assimilation, PHA synthesis, stress response, and so on, were identified in this genome. These metabolic features and related genes revealed genetic basis for the adaptation to the marine environment, which help to further understand its adaptive evolution and ecological role in submarine hydrothermal environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.margen.2021.100849DOI Listing
August 2021

Characterization and Transcriptome Analysis of a Long-Chain -Alkane-Degrading Strain SW-1.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 06 11;18(12). Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Key Laboratory of Resources Biology and Biotechnology in Western China, School of Life Sciences, Northwest University, Ministry of Education, Xi'an 710069, China.

Strain sw-1, isolated from 7619-m seawater of the Mariana Trench, was identified as by 16S rRNA gene and whole-genome sequencing. sw-1 was able to efficiently utilize long-chain -alkanes (C-C), but not short- and medium-chain -alkanes (C-C). The degradation rate of C was 91.25%, followed by C, C, C, C, and C with the degradation rates of 89.30%, 84.03%, 80.29%, 30.29%, and 13.37%, respectively. To investigate the degradation mechanisms of -alkanes for this strain, the genome and the transcriptome analyses were performed. Four key alkane hydroxylase genes (, , , and ) were identified in the genome. Transcriptomes of strain sw-1 grown in C or CHCOONa (NaAc) as the sole carbon source were compared. The transcriptional levels of and , respectively, increased 78.28- and 3.51-fold in C compared with NaAc, while and did not show obvious change. The expression levels of other genes involved in the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, permeases, membrane proteins, and sulfur metabolism were also upregulated, and they might be involved in -alkane uptake. Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) confirmed that expression was significantly induced by C, C, and C, and induction extent by C and C was higher than that with C Furthermore, expression was only induced by C, and expression was not induced by any of -alkanes. In addition, sw-1 could grow with 0%-3% NaCl or 8 out of 10 kinds of the tested heavy metals and degrade -alkanes at 15 °C. Taken together, these results provide comprehensive insights into the degradation of long-chain -alkanes by isolated from the deep ocean environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18126365DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8296198PMC
June 2021

An Integrative Transcriptomic and Methylation Approach for Identifying Differentially Expressed Circular RNAs Associated with DNA Methylation Change.

Biomedicines 2021 Jun 8;9(6). Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Center for Precision Health, School of Biomedical Informatics, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

Recently, accumulating evidence has supported that circular RNA (circRNA) plays important roles in tumorigenesis by regulating gene expression at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Expression of circRNAs can be epigenetically silenced by DNA methylation; however, the underlying regulatory mechanisms of circRNAs by DNA methylation remains largely unknown. We explored this regulation in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using genome-wide DNA methylation and RNA sequencing data of the primary tumor and matched adjacent normal tissues from 20 HCC patients. Our pipeline identified 1012 upregulated and 747 downregulated circRNAs (collectively referred to as differentially expressed circRNAs, or DE circRNAs) from HCC RNA-seq data. Among them, 329 DE circRNAs covered differentially methylated sites (adjusted -value < 0.05, |ΔM| > 0.5) in circRNAs' interior and/or flanking regions. Interestingly, the corresponding parental genes of 46 upregulated and 31 downregulated circRNAs did not show significant expression change in the HCC tumor versus normal samples. Importantly, 34 of the 77 DE circRNAs (44.2%) had significant correlation with DNA methylation change in HCC (Spearman's rank-order correlation, -value < 0.05), suggesting that aberrant DNA methylation might regulate circular RNA expression in HCC. Our study revealed genome-wide differential circRNA expression in HCC. The significant correlation with DNA methylation change suggested that epigenetic regulation might act on both mRNA and circRNA expression. The specific regulation in HCC and general view in other cancer or disease requires further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9060657DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8227141PMC
June 2021

Semiconductor-based selective emitter with a sharp cutoff for thermophotovoltaic energy conversion.

Opt Lett 2021 Jul;46(13):3163-3166

A semiconductor emitter can possibly achieve a sharp cutoff wavelength due to its intrinsic bandgap absorption and almost zero sub-bandgap emission without doping. A germanium-wafer-based selective emitter with front-side antireflection and backside metal coating is studied here for thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion. Optical simulation predicts the spectral emittance above 0.9 in the wavelengths from 1 to 1.85 µm and below 0.2 in the sub-bandgap range with a sharp cutoff around the bandgap, indicating superior spectral selectivity behavior. This is confirmed by excellent agreement with indirectly measured spectral emittance of the fabricated Ge-based selective emitter sample. Furthermore, the TPV efficiency by pairing the Ge-based selective emitter with a GaSb cell is theoretically analyzed at different temperatures. This Letter facilitates the development of the semiconductor-based selective emitters for enhancing TPV performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.428215DOI Listing
July 2021

PD-1 Affects the Immunosuppressive Function of Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells in Human Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

Front Immunol 2021 14;12:680055. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Biotherapy Center and Cancer Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

Background: There is increasing evidence that group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) play an essential role in allergy and parasitic infection. However, the role of ILC2s in human lung cancer remains unclear.

Methods: ILC2s from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from healthy donors (HDs) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, and NSCLC tumor tissues were analyzed multicolor flow cytometry. ILC2s or CD14 cells were sorted by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. qPCR and flow cytometry were performed to assess the gene and protein expression of the indicated molecules. M1-like and M2-like macrophages were induced from CD14 monocytes .

Results: ILC2s were significantly more enriched in PBMCs and tumor tissues from NSCLC patients than in HDs. After screening for the main immune checkpoint molecules, we found that PD-1 was upregulated in ILC2s in NSCLC patients. Functionally, PD-1 ILC2s from tumor tissues expressed higher levels of IL-4 and IL-13 regarding both mRNA and protein levels than PD-1 ILC2s. Furthermore, PD-1 ILC2s robustly boosted M2-like macrophage polarization , by secreting IL-4 and IL-13, while neutralization of IL-4 and IL-13 by antibodies abrogated M2-like macrophage polarization.

Conclusion: ILC2s are enriched in NSCLC patients and upregulate PD-1 expression. Upregulation of PD-1 facilitates the immunosuppressive function of ILC2s. PD-1 ILC2s enhance M2-like macrophage polarization by secreting IL-4 and IL-13. PD-1 acts as a positive regulator of the immunosuppressive function of ILC2s in human NSCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.680055DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8237944PMC
June 2021

ROS-Eliminating Carboxymethyl Chitosan Hydrogel to Enhance Burn Wound-Healing Efficacy.

Front Pharmacol 2021 14;12:679580. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Center for Orthopaedic Surgery, Department of Orthopaedic Trauma, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Overexpression of reactive oxygen species (ROS) can lead to chronic inflammation, which limits skin wound healing. Therefore, it is of great significance to develop materials that can locally control the adverse reactions caused by excessive ROS. In this research, an ROS-sensitive hydrogel with strong free radical scavenging ability was prepared by introducing the thione (Tk) group into carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCTS) hydrogel. CMCTS hydrogel was cross-linked by NH-Tk-NH agent and loaded curcumin (Cur), which possessed favorable nontoxicity, water absorption, mechanical property, biodegradability, drug release behavior, the M2 phenotype, and inflammatory factor regulating the capacity of macrophages. It is worth noting that [email protected] hydrogel can significantly inhibit oxidative damage of human fibroblasts in the HO-induced microenvironment and protect their viability by reducing the production of intracellular ROS. , ROS-removing hydrogel effectively accelerated the process of wound healing and possessed good regenerative properties, including hair follicle formation, promotion of new blood vessel formation, and highly orderly arrangement of collagen fibers in the full-thickness skin burn defect rat model. Hence, we expect that the [email protected] hydrogel could be used for wound treatment and tissue regeneration due to the ability to scavenge excess ROS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.679580DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8238405PMC
June 2021

Apple SERRATE negatively mediates drought resistance by regulating MdMYB88 and MdMYB124 and microRNA biogenesis.

Hortic Res 2020 Jul 1;7(1):98. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas/Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Apple, College of Horticulture, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, 712100, Shaanxi, PR China.

The function of serrate (SE) in miRNA biogenesis in Arabidopsis is well elucidated, whereas its role in plant drought resistance is largely unknown. In this study, we report that MdSE acts as a negative regulator of apple (Malus × domestica) drought resistance by regulating the expression levels of MdMYB88 and MdMYB124 and miRNAs, including mdm-miR156, mdm-miR166, mdm-miR172, mdm-miR319, and mdm-miR399. MdSE interacts with MdMYB88 and MdMYB124, two positive regulators of apple drought resistance. MdSE decreases the transcript and protein levels of MdMYB88 and MdMYB124, which directly regulate the expression of MdNCED3, a key enzyme in abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis. Furthermore, MdSE is enriched in the same region of the MdNECD3 promoter where MdMYB88/MdMYB124 binds. Consistently, MdSE RNAi transgenic plants are more sensitive to ABA-induced stomatal closure, whereas MdSE OE plants are less sensitive. In addition, under drought stress, MdSE is responsible for the biogenesis of mdm-miR399, a negative regulator of drought resistance, and negatively regulates miRNAs, including mdm-miR156, mdm-miR166, mdm-miR172, and mdm-miR319, which are positive regulators of drought resistance. Taken together, by revealing the negative role of MdSE, our results broaden our understanding of the apple drought response and provide a candidate gene for apple drought improvement through molecular breeding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41438-020-0320-6DOI Listing
July 2020

Amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation may be an early predictor of delayed motor development due to neonatal hyperbilirubinemia: a fMRI study.

Transl Pediatr 2021 May;10(5):1271-1284

Department of Neonatology, Children' Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Background: Acute bilirubin encephalopathy or kernicterus is the worst consequence of brain damage caused by the elevation of total unbound serum bilirubin (TSB) in neonates. The present study aimed to visualize the characteristic brain regions of neonates with hyperbilirubinemia (HB) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and to measure the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) values.

Methods: This was a prospective cohort study, which included newborns with HB who were hospitalized at the Children's Hospital of Fudan University. The control group included neonates admitted with neonatal simple wet lung or pneumonia without neurological disease or brain injury. Newborns were divided into a severe hyperbilirubinemia group (SHB), moderate HB group, and control group based on TSB levels. The newborns completed routine MRI combined with fMRI scans and brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs) during their hospitalization.

Results: A total of 251 newborns were included in this study. There were 45 patients in the SHB group, 65 in the HB group, and 141 in the control group. The average ALFF value in the basal ganglia region in the SHB group was the highest, which was greater than that in the HB and control groups (P<0.001). The ALFF increased with an increase in TSB concentration. Based on the results of the Bayley Scales of infant development assessment, we further found that the most significant difference in ALFF remained in the basal ganglia region between newborns with motor development scores above 70 (including 70) and below 70. Correlation analysis revealed a strong negative correlation between motor development scores and ALFF (r=-0.691, P<0.001). When ALFF alone was used to predict motor development, the sensitivity was 89%. When ALFF was combined with TSB and BEAP results, the area under the ROC curve was the largest (AUC =0.85). The sensitivity and specificity of the model were 67.86% and 90.77%, respectively.

Conclusions: The ALFF value may be able to serve as an early imaging biomarker and has a greater sensitivity than TSB or BAEP results in predicting long-term motor development (18 m) in HB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/tp-20-447DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8192981PMC
May 2021

Single-cell RNA-seq describes the transcriptome landscape and identifies critical transcription factors in the leaf blade of the allotetraploid peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

Plant Biotechnol J 2021 Jun 26. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, South China Peanut Sub-Center of National Center of Oilseed Crops Improvement, Crops Research Institute, Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China.

Single-cell RNA-seq (scRNA-seq) has been highlighted as a powerful tool for the description of human cell transcriptome, but the technology has not been broadly applied in plant cells. Herein, we describe the successful development of a robust protoplast cell isolation system in the peanut leaf. A total of 6,815 single cells were divided into eight cell clusters based on reported marker genes by applying scRNA-seq. Further, a pseudo-time analysis was used to describe the developmental trajectory and interaction network of transcription factors (TFs) of distinct cell types during leaf growth. The trajectory enabled re-investigation of the primordium-driven development processes of the mesophyll and epidermis. These results suggest that palisade cells likely differentiate into spongy cells, while the epidermal cells originated earlier than the primordium. Subsequently, the developed method integrated multiple technologies to efficiently validate the scRNA-seq result in a homogenous cell population. The expression levels of several TFs were strongly correlated with epidermal ontogeny in accordance with obtained scRNA-seq values. Additionally, peanut AHL23 (AT-HOOK MOTIF NUCLEAR LOCALIZED PROTEIN 23), which is localized in nucleus, promoted leaf growth when ectopically expressed in Arabidopsis by modulating the phytohormone pathway. Together, our study displays that application of scRNA-seq can provide new hypotheses regarding cell differentiation in the leaf blade of Arachis hypogaea. We believe that this approach will enable significant advances in the functional study of leaf blade cells in the allotetraploid peanut and other plant species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pbi.13656DOI Listing
June 2021

The Immune Atlas of Human Deciduas With Unexplained Recurrent Pregnancy Loss.

Front Immunol 2021 7;12:689019. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Shenzhen Xenotransplantation Medical Engineering Research and Development Center, Institute of Translational Medicine, First Affiliated Hospital of Shenzhen University, Shenzhen Second People's Hospital, Shenzhen, China.

Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is a common fertility problem that affects 1%-2% of couples all over the world. Despite exciting discoveries regarding the important roles of the decidual natural killer cell (dNK) and regulatory T cell in pregnancy, the immune heterogeneity in patients with unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss (URPL) remains elusive. Here, we profiled the transcriptomes of 13,953 CD45 cells from three normal and three URPL deciduas. Based on our data, the cellular composition revealed three major populations of immune cells including dNK cell, T cell, and macrophage, and four minor populations including monocytes, dendritic cell (DC), mast cell, and B cell. Especially, we identified a subpopulation of CSF1+ CD59+ KIRs-expressing dNK cells in normal deciduas, while the proportion of this subpopulation was decreased in URPL deciduas. We also identified a small subpopulation of activated dDCs that were accumulated mainly in URPL deciduas. Furthermore, our data revealed that in decidua at early pregnancy, CD8 T cells exhibited cytotoxic properties. The decidual macrophages expressed high levels of both M1 and M2 feature genes, which made them unique to the conventional M1/M2 classification. Our single-cell data revealed the immune heterogeneity in decidua and the potentially pathogenic immune variations in URPL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.689019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8218877PMC
June 2021

Fluorinated Carbons as Rechargeable Li-Ion Battery Cathodes in the Voltage Window of 0.5-4.8 V.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jul 24;13(26):30576-30582. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

School of Materials and Energy, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 611731, China.

Fluorinated carbon (CF) cathodes have the highest theoretical energy density among lithium primary batteries. However, it is still a huge challenge to be reversible. Here, CF is proposed as a high-performance cathode material for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries in the extended voltage window of 0.5-4.8 V. Specifically, the fluorinated graphite CF exhibits an initial specific discharge capacity of 1382 mAh g (2362 Wh kg) and a specific discharge capacity of 782 mAh g at the 2nd cycle and maintains a specific discharge capacity of 543 mAh g (508 Wh kg) after the 20th cycle. This rechargeable behavior is associated with the conversion of CF to LiF + C (>1.5 V) and then to LiFC (0.5-1.5 V) during the initial discharge process; LiFC is reversible to LiF + C in the following charge-discharge process (0.5-4.8 V). By extending the voltage window, CF cathodes can show new electrochemical behaviors. Our research has provided new Li-free cathode materials for rechargeable batteries and insights for improving the performance of a Li/CF secondary battery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c05332DOI Listing
July 2021

Insights into the effect of human civilization on Malus evolution and domestication.

Plant Biotechnol J 2021 Jun 23. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, College of Horticulture, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, China.

The evolutionary history of the Malus genus has not been well studied. In the current study, we presented genetic evidence on the origin of the Malus genus based on genome sequencing of 297 Malus accessions, revealing the genetic relationship between wild species and cultivated apples. Our results demonstrated that North American and East Asian wild species are closer to the outgroup (pear) than Central Asian species, and hybrid species including natural (separated before the Pleistocene, about 2.5 Mya) and artificial hybrids (including ornamental trees and rootstocks) are between East and Central Asian wild species. Introgressions from M. sylvestris in cultivated apples appeared to be more extensive than those from M. sieversii, whose genetic background flowed westward across Eurasia and eastward to wild species including M. prunifolia, M. × asiatica, M. × micromalus, and M. × robust. Our results suggested that the loss of ancestral gene flow from M. sieversii in cultivated apples accompanied the movement of European traders around the world since the Age of Discovery. Natural SNP variations showed that cultivated apples had higher nucleotide diversity than wild species and more unique SNPs than other apple groups. An apple ERECTA-like gene that underwent selection during domestication on 15 chromosome was identified as a likely major determinant of fruit length and diameter, and an NB-ARC domain-containing gene was found to strongly affect anthocyanin accumulation using a genome-wide association approach. Our results provide new insights into the origin and domestication of apples and will be useful in new breeding programmes and efforts to increase fruit crop productivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pbi.13648DOI Listing
June 2021

Caveolin-1 facilitates cell migration by upregulating nuclear receptor 4A2/retinoid X receptor α-mediated β-galactoside α2,6-sialyltransferase I expression in human hepatocarcinoma cells.

Int J Biochem Cell Biol 2021 Aug 19;137:106027. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

School of Life and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Dalian University of Technology, Panjin, China. Electronic address:

It has been reported that caveolin-1 (Cav-1) acts as a tumor promoter in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Our previous studies showed that Cav-1 promoted mouse hepatocarcinoma cell adhesion to fibronectin by upregulating β-galactoside α2,6-sialyltransferase I (ST6Gal-I) expression. However, the detailed mechanism by which Cav-1 regulates ST6Gal-I is not fully understood. In this study, we found that the expression levels of Cav-1 and ST6Gal-I were increased in HCC tissues and correlated with poor prognosis. Cav-1 upregulated ST6Gal-I expression to promote the migration and invasion of HCC cells by inducing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Importantly, the binding of the transcription factor nuclear receptor 4A2/retinoid X receptor alpha (NR4A2/RXRα) to the -550/-200 region of the ST6GAL1 promoter was critical for Cav-1-induced ST6GAL1 gene expression. Furthermore, Cav-1 expression activated the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/AKT/mTOR) signaling pathway, followed by upregulation of NR4A2 expression and phosphorylation of RXRα, which facilitated the complex of NR4A2 and phosphorylated RXRα forming and binding to the ST6GAL1 promoter region to induce its transcription. Finally, in the diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced HCC murine model, the expression levels of NR4A2, p-RXRα, ST6Gal-I, and α2,6-linked sialic acid decreased in parallel in Cav-1 mice compared with Cav-1 mice, which was consistent with the above in vitro results. These findings provide insight into the mechanism of ST6GAL1 gene transcription mediated by Cav-1, which may lead to the development of novel therapeutic strategies targeting metastasis in HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocel.2021.106027DOI Listing
August 2021

The transfer mechanism of pollution industry in China under multi-factor combination model-based on the perspective of industry, location, and environment.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Finance and Economics College, Jimei University, Xiamen, 361021, China.

With the development of industry transfer, the increasing attention of all government levels has been paid to the sustainable development of ecological environment. To highlight the effect of environmental factors on pollution industry transfer, a triangle model with various combination scenarios of industry, location, and environmental factors is adopted to empirically study the transfer mechanism of China's pollution industry according to the panel data of 30 provinces from 2000 to 2018. The obtained results indicate that (1) industrial advantage is the primary factor of improving the transfer of pollution industry in China; especially, the significance of location and environmental indicators is significantly lower than that of industrial indicators. (2) With the increasing promotion of regional coordination strategy and ecological civilization construction, the attraction of location factors to industry transfer is decreasing, and the inhibition of environmental factors to pollution industry is increasing. (3) In addition, it is worth noting that China's pollution industry has not been in "innovation highland" but "environmental depression," which indicates that the phenomenon of "pollution haven hypothesis" is probable in the industry transfer of China. The paper suggests that reasonable industry transfer should be adopted by all government levels to promote industrial transformation and upgrading with considering the environmental capacity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-14643-6DOI Listing
June 2021

The population structure, antimicrobial resistance, and pathogenicity of Streptococcus suis cps31.

Vet Microbiol 2021 Aug 12;259:109149. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

MOE Joint International Research Laboratory of Animal Health and Food Safety, College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, 210095, China; Key Lab of Animal Bacteriology, Ministry of Agriculture, Nanjing, 210095, China; OIE Reference Lab for Swine Streptococcosis, Nanjing, 210095, China. Electronic address:

Streptococcus suis is a zoonotic pathogen that can cause invasive infections in humans and pigs. The S. suis cps31 strains (SS31) were frequently isolated from healthy or diseased pigs and one human infection case caused by SS31 was reported in Thailand in 2015. However, except for a few epidemiologic studies, little information is available for SS31. To characterize SS31, a total of 75 SS31 strains were analyzed, including 52 strains that were isolated from healthy or diseased pigs and 23 strains whose information was accessed from NCBI. The MLST analysis showed that SS31 exhibited high heterogeneity. The phylogenetic analysis and minimum core-genome (MCG) classification revealed that 75 strains were clustered into 3 lineages. Strains from NCBI mainly at Lineage 2 belong to MCG7-3, and most of strains from China at Lineage 3 belong to MCG7-2. This finding indicated that their evolutionary path was different. All SS31 strains were resistant to more than three classes of antimicrobial agents, and major antimicrobial resistance genes for strains from Lineage 3 were carried by prophages. This observation is different from the previous observation that integrative conjugative elements and integrative and mobilizable elements are major vehicles of antimicrobial resistance genes for S. suis. In addition to strains isolated from diseased pigs, seven of 47 strains isolated from clinically healthy pigs were also pathogenic in a zebrafish infection model. These findings reveal unique characteristics of SS31 and contribute to establishing public health surveillance for SS31 and clarifying the diversity of S. suis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2021.109149DOI Listing
August 2021

Reduced Firing of Nucleus Accumbens Parvalbumin Interneurons Impairs Risk Avoidance in DISC1 Transgenic Mice.

Neurosci Bull 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Brain Connectome and Behavior, CAS Key Laboratory of Brain Connectome and Manipulation, the Brain Cognition and Brain Disease Institute, Shenzhen-Hong Kong Institute of Brain Science-Shenzhen Fundamental Research Institutions, Shenzhen Institute of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 518055, Shenzhen, China.

A strong animal survival instinct is to approach objects and situations that are of benefit and to avoid risk. In humans, a large proportion of mental disorders are accompanied by impairments in risk avoidance. One of the most important genes involved in mental disorders is disrupted-in-schizophrenia-1 (DISC1), and animal models in which this gene has some level of dysfunction show emotion-related impairments. However, it is not known whether DISC1 mouse models have an impairment in avoiding potential risks. In the present study, we used DISC1-N terminal truncation (DISC1-N) mice to investigate risk avoidance and found that these mice were impaired in risk avoidance on the elevated plus maze (EPM) and showed reduced social preference in a three-chamber social interaction test. Following EPM tests, c-Fos expression levels indicated that the nucleus accumbens (NAc) was associated with risk-avoidance behavior in DISC1-N mice. In addition, in vivo electrophysiological recordings following tamoxifen administration showed that the firing rates of fast-spiking neurons (FS) in the NAc were significantly lower in DISC1-N mice than in wild-type (WT) mice. In addition, in vitro patch clamp recording revealed that the frequency of action potentials stimulated by current injection was lower in parvalbumin (PV) neurons in the NAc of DISC1-N mice than in WT controls. The impairment of risk avoidance in DISC1-N mice was rescued using optogenetic tools that activated NAc neurons. Finally, inhibition of the activity of NAc neurons in PV-Cre mice mimicked the risk-avoidance impairment found in DISC1-N mice during tests on the elevated zero maze. Taken together, our findings confirm an impairment in risk avoidance in DISC1-N mice and suggest that reduced excitability of NAc neurons is responsible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12264-021-00731-7DOI Listing
June 2021

Design method for an off-axis reflective anamorphic optical system with aberration balance and constraint control.

Appl Opt 2021 Jun;60(16):4557-4566

This paper proposes a design method for an off-axis reflective anamorphic optical system (ORAOS). This method first applies vector aberration theory to establish a mathematical model to balance the aberration of an ORAOS. It then builds the error function of structural parameters and constraints through spatial ray tracing and grouping design. Next, it introduces automatic adjustment of weight factors for dynamic balance of aberrations and constraints. A particle swarm simulated annealing algorithm is used to iteratively calculate the initial structure of the ORAOS. Finally, we use an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithographic projection objective with off-axis six-reflective anamorphic mirrors (${\beta _x} = 1/4,{\beta _y} = 1/8$) as an example to verify the effectiveness of this method. We obtain an EUV lithographic anamorphic objective with a numerical aperture of 0.55 and a root mean square wavefront error better than $1/30\lambda$ (${\hat{\text I}}\gg\, = 13.5\;{\rm nm}$).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.427713DOI Listing
June 2021

Assessment of the UV/Chlorine Process in the Disinfection of : Efficiency and Mechanism.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 07 17;55(13):9221-9230. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution Control and Remediation Technology, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275, P. R. China.

UV irradiation and chlorination have been widely used for water disinfection. However, there are some limitations, such as the risk of generating viable but nonculturable bacteria and bacteria reactivation when using UV irradiation or chlorination alone. This study comprehensively evaluated the feasibility of the UV/chlorine process in drinking water disinfection, and was selected as the target microorganism. The number of culturable cells was effectively reduced by more than 5 orders of magnitude (5-log) after UV, chlorine, and UV/chlorine treatments. However, intact and VBNC cells were detected at 10 to 10 cells/mL after UV and chlorine treatments, whereas they were undetectable after UV/chlorine treatment due to the primary contribution of reactive chlorine species (Cl, Cl, and ClO). After UV/chlorine treatment, the metabolic activity determined using single cell Raman spectroscopy was much lower than that after UV. The level of toxic gene in decreased by more than 99% after UV/chlorine treatment. Importantly, bacterial dark reactivation was completely suppressed by UV/chlorine treatment but not UV or chlorination. This study suggests that the UV/chlorine treatment can completely damage bacteria and is promising for pathogen inactivation to overcome the limitations of UV and chlorine treatments alone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.1c00645DOI Listing
July 2021

A Retrospective Study on Using a Novel Single Needle Cone Puncture Approach for the Iodine-125 Seed Brachytherapy in Treating Patients With Thoracic Malignancy.

Front Oncol 2021 31;11:640131. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Oncology, Tianjin Beichen Hospital, Tianjin, China.

Background: Patients with progressive thoracic malignancy characterized by large irregular tumors with necrosis and life-threatening symptoms lack effective treatments. We set out to develop a single needle cone puncture method for the Iodine-125 seed (SNCP-I) brachytherapy, and aim to report the initial results.

Methods: 294 patients with advanced thoracic malignancy were treated with local SNCP-I brachytherapy between March 2009 and July 2020, followed by thorough evaluation of clinical outcome, overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS) and procedure-related complications after treatment.

Results: The overall response rate (ORR) among the treated patients was 81.0% (238/294). Life-threatening symptoms due to tumor oppression, hemoptysis and large irregular tumor with necrosis were successfully alleviated after the SNCP-I treatment with a remission rate at 91% to 94%. The median OS and PFS were 13.6 months and 5.8 months, respectively. Procedure-related side effects including pneumothorax (32/294), blood-stained sputum (8/294), subcutaneous emphysema (10/294), puncture site bleeding (16/294) and chest pain (6/294) were observed. Patients who were able to follow with chemotherapy or immunotherapy experienced extended OS and PFS, as compared with patients who opted to receive hospice care (16.5 months Vs. 11.2 months). Further pathological and immunological analysis showed that SNCP-I induced tumor lymphocytes infiltration and long-term tumor necrosis.

Conclusion: SNCP-I brachytherapy effectively eliminates life-threatening symptoms due to local tumor oppression, hemoptysis and large irregular and necrotic tumors in patients with unresectable chest malignancy and significantly induces local tumor regression. SNCP-I brachytherapy combines with chemotherapy significantly prolong OS and PFS compare with SNCP-I brachytherapy alone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.640131DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8200774PMC
May 2021
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