Publications by authors named "Ling-Bo Kong"

24 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Co-administration of obeticholic acid and simvastatin protects against high-fat diet-induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in mice.

Exp Ther Med 2021 Aug 3;22(2):830. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

The Key Laboratory of Hepatic Fibrosis Mechanisms of Chronic Liver Diseases in Hebei Province, Department of Traditional and Western Medical Hepatology, The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050051, P.R. China.

Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) has no approved therapy. The farnesoid X nuclear receptor (FXR) agonist obeticholic acid (OCA) has shown promise as a drug for NASH, but can adversely affect plasma lipid profiles. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effects and underlying mechanisms of OCA in combination with simvastatin (SIM) in a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced model of NASH. C57BL/6J mice were fed with a HFD for 16 weeks to establish the NASH model. The mice were randomly divided into the following five groups: HFD, HFD + OCA, HFD + SIM, HFD + OCA + SIM and control. After 16 weeks, the mice were sacrificed under anesthesia. The ratios of liver weight to body weight (Lw/Bw) and of abdominal adipose tissue weight to body weight were calculated. Serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein were measured. Liver sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The protein levels of FXR, small heterodimeric partner (SHP) and cytochrome P450 family 7 subfamily A member 1 (CYP7A1) in the liver were detected by western blotting, while the mRNA levels of FXR, SHP, CYP7A1, bile salt export pump, interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 (SREBP1) and fatty acid synthase (FASN) were examined by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The administration of OCA with or without SIM reduced the liver inflammation score compared with those of the HFD and HFD + SIM groups, with no significant difference between the HFD + OCA and HFD + OCA + SIM groups. The steatosis score followed similar trends to the inflammation score. In HFD-fed mice, OCA combined with SIM prevented body weight gain compared with that in HFD and HFD + OCA groups, and reduced the Lw/Bw ratio compared with that in the HFD and HFD + SIM groups. In addition to preventing HFD-induced increases of ALT and AST, the combination of OCA and SIM reduced the mRNA levels of IL-6, TNF-α, SREBP1 and FASN. On the basis of these results, it may be concluded that the strategy of combining OCA with SIM represents an effective pharmacotherapy for NASH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2021.10262DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8200799PMC
August 2021

Chinese Herbal Medicine Xingnaojing Injection for Acute Ischemic Stroke: An Overview of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses.

Front Pharmacol 2021 18;12:659408. Epub 2021 May 18.

Centre for Evidence Based Chinese Medicine, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, China.

Xingnaojing injection (XNJ) is the only Chinese herbal injection approved for both intracerebral hemorrhage and ischemic stroke (IS) first-aid on ambulances in China; many systematic reviews (SRs) and meta-analyses (MAs) of XNJ on stroke have been published. The purpose of this research was to evaluate and summarize the current evidence on XNJ for IS. A comprehensive search was conducted for SRs and MAs of XNJ on IS in seven databases up to January 1, 2021. Two authors independently identified SRs and MAs, extracted data, assessed the quality of the included SRs and MAs using the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews 2 (AMSTAR 2), and assessed quality of evidence using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE). A total of 10 SRs met the inclusion criteria. The quality of included SRs using AMSTAR 2 was critically low as the critical items were poorly reported. Only 10% of SRs reported 50% of the 16 items, while the remaining 90% SRs reported just less than half of the items on AMSTAR 2. For GRADE, 7 (35%) of outcomes had low-quality evidence, 10 (50%) with very low, and 3 (15%) with moderate quality evidence. Very low to low quality of evidence indicated XNJ plus conventional therapy (CT) alleviated the neurological deficits of acute IS. Moderate-quality evidence showed XNJ plus CT reduced mortality when compared to Danshen injection plus CT, and very low-quality evidence showed XNJ plus CT could not improve the degree of coma, while low-quality evidence indicated the opposite. Mild adverse events in the CT group were less than those in the XNJ plus CT group, and there were no serious adverse events, but there was no statistical difference between the two groups. The included 10 SRs indicated that XNJ was used for acute IS, but only four SRs (40%) reported the course of disease. XNJ appears to be effective and safe for acute IS in improving the neurological deficits, but the evidence is not robust enough. However, whether administering XNJ immediately after or within 24 h of IS is best remains unknown due to the lack of data. Well-designed large-scale randomized controlled trials with measurable outcomes are required in future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.659408DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8167030PMC
May 2021

[Screening of key genes and pathways of ischemic stroke and prediction of traditional Chinese medicines based on bioinformatics].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2021 Apr;46(7):1803-1812

Department of Neurology, Dongzhimen Hospital, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine Beijing 100700, China Institute for Brain Disorders, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine Bejing 100700, China.

The aim of this paper was to explore the key genes and pathogenesis of ischemic stroke(IS) by bioinformatics, and predict the potential traditional Chinese medicines for IS. Based on the gene-chip raw data set of GSE22255 from National Center of Biotechnology Information(NCBI), the article enrolled in 20 patients with ischemic stroke and 20 sex-and age-matched controls, and differentially expressed genes(DEGs) were screened based on R language software. The DAVID tool and R language software were used to perform gene ontology(GO) biological process enrichment analysis and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and gnomes(KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis. The DEGs were imported into STRING to construct a protein-protein interaction network, and the Molecular Complexity Module(MCODE) plug-in of Cytoscape software was used to visualize and analyze the key functional modules. Moreover, the core genes and the medical ontology information retrieval platform(Coremine Medical) were mapped to each other to screen the traditional Chinese medicines and construct drug-active ingredient-target network. Compared with healthy controls, 14 DEGs were obtained, of which 12 genes were up-regulated and 2 genes were down-regulated. DEGs were mainly involved in immune response, inflammatory process, signal transduction, and cell proliferation regulation. The interleukin-17(IL-17), nuclear factor kappaB(NF-κB), tumor necrosis factor(TNF), nucleotide binding oligomerization domain(NOD)-like receptor and other signaling pathways were involved in KEGG pathway enrichment analysis. The key modules of the DEGs-encoding protein interaction network mainly focused on 7 genes of TNF, JUN, recombinant immediate early response 3(IER3), recombinant early growth response protein 1(EGR1), prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2(PTGS2), C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 8(CXCL8) and C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 2(CXCL2), which were involved in biological processes widely such as neuroinflammation and immunity. TNF and JUN were the key nodes in this module, which might become potential biological markers for diagnosis and prognosis evaluation of IS. The potential traditional Chinese medicines for the treatment of IS includes Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Croci Stigma, Scutellariae Radix, and Cannabis Fructus. The occurrence of stroke was the result of multiple factors. Dysregulation of genes and pathways related to immune regulation and inflammation may be the key link for the development of IS. This study provided research direction and theoretical basis for further exploring the mechanism of action of traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of IS and searching for potential drug targets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20210218.401DOI Listing
April 2021

CD14 monocytes and CD163 macrophages correlate with the severity of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C.

Exp Ther Med 2020 Dec 15;20(6):228. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Department of Traditional and Western Medical Hepatology, The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050051, P.R. China.

Hepatic fibrosis is a crucial pathological process involved in the development of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and may progress to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Activated peripheral blood monocytes and intrahepatic macrophages further promote hepatic fibrogenesis by releasing proinflammatory and profibrogenic cytokines. The present study aimed to investigate the role of peripheral CD14 monocytes and intrahepatic CD163 macrophages in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-associated liver fibrosis and clarify whether serum soluble CD163 (sCD163) may serve as a fibrosis marker in patients with CHC. A total of 87 patients with CHC and 20 healthy controls were recruited. Serum sCD163 levels were measured by ELISA. Frequencies of peripheral CD14 monocytes and inflammatory cytokines expressed by CD14 monocytes were analyzed by flow cytometry. The degree of fibrosis in human liver biopsies was graded using the Metavir scoring system and patients were stratified into two groups based on those results (F<2 vs. F≥2). Hepatic expression of CD163 was examined by immunohistochemical staining. The diagnostic values of sCD163, aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (APRI), fibrosis 4 score (FIB-4) and the aspartate aminotransferase to alanine aminotransferase ratio (AAR) in significant fibrosis (F≥2) were evaluated and compared using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The results indicated that the serum sCD163 levels and the frequency of CD14 monocytes were significantly higher in the patients than that in the controls and positively correlated with liver fibrosis. The level of serum sCD163 was consistent with hepatic CD163 expression in the liver sections from patients. The frequencies of interleukin (IL)-8- and tumor necrosis factor-α-expressing monocytes were increased and that of IL-10-expressing monocytes was decreased in the patients. The area under the ROC curve (AUROC) for sCD163, APRI, FIB-4 and AAR was 0.876, 0.785, 0.825 and 0.488, respectively, and the AUROC for sCD163 was significantly higher than those for APRI and AAR. In conclusion, sCD163 may serve as a novel marker for assessing the degree of liver fibrosis in HCV-infected patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2020.9358DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7604741PMC
December 2020

Calibration, Compensation and Accuracy Analysis of Circular Grating Used in Single Gimbal Control Moment Gyroscope.

Sensors (Basel) 2020 Mar 6;20(5). Epub 2020 Mar 6.

Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130033, China.

The accuracy of the circular grating is the key point for control precision of the single gimbal control moment gyroscope servo system used in civilian micro-agile satellites. Instead of using the multi reading heads to eliminate eccentricity errors, an algorithm compensation method based on a calibration experiment using a single reading head was proposed to realize a low-cost and high accuracy angular position measurement. Moreover, the traditional hardware compensation method using double reading heads was also developed for comparison. Firstly, the single gimbal control moment gyroscope system of satellites was introduced. Then, the errors caused by the installation of the reading head were studied and the mathematic models of these errors were developed. In order to construct the compensation function, a calibration experiment using the autocollimator and 24-sided prism was performed. Comparison of angle error compensation using the algorithm and hardware method was presented, and results showed that the algorithm compensation method proposed by this paper achieved the same accuracy level as the hardware method. Finally, the proposed method was further verified through a control system simulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s20051458DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7085521PMC
March 2020

LncRNA-ATB/microRNA-200a/β-catenin regulatory axis involved in the progression of HCV-related hepatic fibrosis.

Gene 2017 Jun 14;618:1-7. Epub 2017 Mar 14.

Department of Traditional and Western Medical Hepatology, Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, 050051 Shijiazhuang, China. Electronic address:

Objective(s): Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs)-activated by transforming growth factor beta (lncRNA-ATB) is known to be involved in the invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma by regulating target genes of miR-200a. However, the role and molecular mechanisms of lncRNA-ATB/miR-200a in HCV-related liver fibrosis remains unclear. In this study, we examined the expression of lncRNA-ATB/miR-200a, and their target gene β-Catenin in liver tissues of HCV patients and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) to elucidate the possible role of lncRNA-ATB/miR-200a axis in HSC activation and development of liver fibrosis.

Materials And Methods: Liver tissues were obtained by biopsy or surgery from eighteen HCV patients with severe liver fibrosis and six healthy subjects (control). Conditioned media (CM) from cultured HepG2-CORE cells (HepG2 cells stably expressing HCV core protein) were used to treat LX-2 cells. The binding sites between lncRNA-ATB/miR-200a and β-catenin were predicted and then verified by a dual luciferase reporter assay. The effect of lncRNA-ATB/miR-200a/β-catenin on HSC activation was assessed by examining the expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and collagen type 1 alpha 1 (Col1A1) in HSCs. Further, the regulatory role of lncRNA-ATB on HSC activation and miR-200a/β-catenin expression was assessed by using siRNA-mediated knockdown of lncRNA-ATB.

Results: LncRNA-ATB was up-regulated in fibrotic liver tissues and activated LX-2 cells treated with CM from HepG2-CORE cells. Dual luciferase reporter assays confirmed that lncRNA-ATB contained common binding sites for miR-200a and β-catenin. Decreased expression of miR-200a and increased expression of β-catenin were observed in liver tissues of patients with HCV-related hepatic fibrosis and activated HSCs. Knockdown of lncRNA-ATB could down-regulate β-catenin expression by up-regulating the endogenous miR-200a and suppress the activation of LX-2 cells.

Conclusion: LncRNA-ATB/miR-200a/β-catenin regulatory axis likely contributed to the development of liver fibrosis in HCV patients. Knockdown of lncRNA-ATB might be a novel therapeutic target for HCV-related liver fibrosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2017.03.008DOI Listing
June 2017

Tim-3 suppression combined with TLR3 activation enhances antiviral immune response in patients with chronic HCV infection.

J Int Med Res 2016 Aug 21;44(4):806-16. Epub 2016 Jun 21.

Department of Liver Disease, Bethune International Peace Hospital, Shijiazhuang, China.

Objective: To investigate the regulation mechanism of T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-3 (Tim-3) combined with toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) or TLR4 on antiviral immune and inflammatory response in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection.

Methods: Patients with chronic HCV infection and healthy control subjects were recruited. Patients received interferon (IFN)-α based therapy. Plasma galectin-9 (Gal-9) was quantitated. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were cultured with TLR3 or TLR4 agonists, alone or in combination with Tim-3 antagonist. Levels of IFN-α, TNF-α, and 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase (2'-5'OAS), myxovirus resistance protein A (MxA) and suppressor of cytokine 1 (SOCS1) RNA in PBMC cultures were evaluated.

Results: Plasma Gal-9 levels were increased in patients (n = 52) compared with controls (n = 20) and significantly declined at treatment week 12 and 24 weeks post-treatment. IFN-α, 2'-5'OAS, MxA, TNF-α and SOCS1 were upregulated by TLR3 and TLR4 agonists. TNF-α and SOCS1 levels were suppressed by the addition of Tim-3 antagonist.

Conclusions: Tim-3 blockade in combination with TLR activation induces the expression of antiviral molecules without a significant increase in TNF-α or SOCS1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0300060516647548DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5536634PMC
August 2016

A Patient With Primary Biliary Cirrhosis Accompanied by Wilson's Disease.

Hepat Mon 2016 Feb 16;16(2):e29077. Epub 2016 Feb 16.

Department of Traditional and Western Medical Hepatology, Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, China.

Introduction: Both primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and Wilson's disease (WD) can cause copper retention in the liver, which is an important factor for liver cellular damage. Copper chelation may preserve liver cell function. It is challenging to distinguish WD from copper accumulation in patients with PBC. There have been few case reports of PBC co-occurrence with WD.

Case Presentation: Here we report a case of PBC with WD in a 55-year-old Chinese male. In addition to the typical pathological characteristics of PBC and a large number of copper depositions in the liver, the patient showed WD ATP7B gene mutations.

Conclusions: Co-occurrence of PBC with WD is rare, which can cause diffusely intrahepatic copper deposition. Early liver biopsy and genetic testing are necessary for the diagnosis. The combination of ursodeoxycholic acid with zinc and sodium dimercaptopropane sulfonate is effective.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/hepatmon.29077DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4851830PMC
February 2016

Individualized treatment strategies and predictors of virological response for chronic hepatitis C: a multicenter prospective study from China.

Int J Clin Exp Med 2015 15;8(9):14871-84. Epub 2015 Sep 15.

Department of Traditional and Western Medical Hepatology, Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University Shijiazhuang, China.

Combination therapy comprising pegylated interferon-alpha (PegIFNα) and ribavirin (RBV) has been the standard of care for the chronic hepatitis C patients for more than a decade. Recently, direct antiviral agents show better efficacy, tolerance, and shorter treatment duration. However, the prohibitive costs of the regimens limit their use in developing countries where most of the HCV infection exists. Optimizing the treatment and understanding the host- and virus-factors associated with viral clearance were necessary for individualizing therapy to maximize sustained virologic response. To explore individualized antiviral strategies with PegIFNα-2a/IFNα-2b plus ribavirin for CHC patients, and to clarify predictive factors for virological response. A cohort of 314 patients were included in this open-label, prospective clinical trial, which received individualized doses of PegIFNα-2a or IFNα-2b combined with RBV according to body weight, disease status and complications, with the duration of 44 weeks after HCV RNA undetectable. All the IL-28B (rs8099917), IL-17A (rs8193036), IL-17B (rs2275913) and PD-1.1 SNPs were genotyped using the TaqMan system. The sustained virological response (SVR) in PegIFNα-2a group was significantly higher than that in IFNα-2b (85.8% vs 75.0%, P = 0.034), especially in HCV genotype 1 (84.0% vs 64.3%, P = 0.022). However, no significant differences were found in rapid virological response (RVR), complete early virological response (cEVR) and SVR between PegIFNα-2a and IFNα-2b according to different doses, respectively. The genotype frequency of IL-28B TT in patients with cEVR, SVR was higher than that in non-responsed patients (93.8% vs 78.1%, χ(2) = 7.827, P = 0.005; 95.9% vs 80.4%, χ(2) = 9.394, P = 0.002). No significant correlation between the genotype distribution of IL-17A, IL-17B and PD-1.1 with virological response. Individualized regimens of PegIFNα-2a/RBV and IFNα-2b/RBV could achieve satisfied virological response in Chinese HCV patients. The IL-28B (rs8099917) TT genotype is a clinical usefully marker for cEVR and SVR.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4658858PMC
December 2015

Effect of Qiguiyin Decoction on multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in rats.

Chin J Integr Med 2015 Dec 30;21(12):916-21. Epub 2015 Sep 30.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Dongzhimen Hospital Affiliated to Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, 100700, China.

Objective: To investigate the effect of Qiguiyin Decoction, QGYD) on multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats.

Methods: A pseudomonal infection model in SD rats was established by injecting multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa intraperitoneally. Infected rats were randomized into four groups treated with Pure water, QGYD, ceftazidime, or combined QGYD and ceftazidime. Blood samples were obtained from the abdominal aorta. Serum was then collected and analyzed by peptide array for immune responsiveness to multidrug-resistant beta-lactamase proteins, including Verona integronen-coded metallo-beta-lactamase 1 (VIM-1), Sao Paulo metallo-beta-lactamase 1 (SPM-1), and Temoniera (TEMs). Blood levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-4 (IL-4), and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

Results: QGYD enhanced antibody reactivity against VIM-1 [epitopes 7-11 and 36-40] and TEM-1 [epitopes 26-27, 52-55, and 66-70]. QGYD treatment restored the compromised antibody reactivity against VIM-1 [epitopes 53-54 and 56-58] and SPM-1 [epitopes 16-19 and 82-85] following pseudomonal infection. Serum levels of IL-1β and Th1/Th2 in the rats were significantly elevated following pseudomonal infection (P<0.05 orP<0.01). In contrast, QGYD and combination QGYD and ceftazidime treatment restored the elevated serum IL-1β and Th1/Th2 levels to normal (P>0.05).

Conclusions: QGYD improves the immune response to pseudomonal infection in rats by stimulating the production of protective antibodies against drug-resistant proteins VIM-1, SPM-1, and TEM-1. In addition, it protects the immune system and maintains immune responsiveness by restoring IL-1β and Th1/Th2 levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11655-015-2089-2DOI Listing
December 2015

Dichlorvos induced autoimmune hepatitis: a case report and review of literature.

Hepat Mon 2015 Apr 30;15(4):e25469. Epub 2015 Apr 30.

Department of Traditional and Western Medical Hepatology, Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, China.

Introduction: Drug-induced liver injury is a frequent cause of hepatic dysfunction. Several drugs have been identified to cause autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). Environmental chemicals are capable of triggering a certain degree of liver injury. However, toxin induced AIH is rare.

Case Presentation: We reported a woman with chronic (long-term) exposures to dichlorvos, which resulted in liver injury and cirrhosis. She was diagnosed after a second liver biopsy, which was correlated with laboratory findings. At the same time, she experienced hepatic cortical blindness during her first admission.

Conclusions: Chronic (long-term) exposures to dichlorvos can lead to AIH. A detailed inquiry of medical history and liver biopsy are necessary for the diagnosis of toxin-induced AIH. Corticosteroid therapy is associated with favorable evolution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/hepatmon.25469DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4449892PMC
April 2015

Regulatory phenotype, PD-1 and TLR3 expression in T cells and monocytes from HCV patients undergoing antiviral therapy: a randomized clinical trial.

PLoS One 2014 7;9(4):e93620. Epub 2014 Apr 7.

Institute of Digestive Disease and Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, State Key Laboratory of Digestive Disease, Li Ka Shing Institute of Health Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

Background & Aims: The cellular immunity has a profound impact on the status of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. However, the response of cellular immunity on the virological response in patients with antiviral treatment remains largely unclear. We aimed to clarify the response of peripheral T cells and monocytes in chronic hepatitis C patients with antiviral treatment.

Methods: Patients with chronic hepatitis C were treated either with interferon alpha-2b plus ribavirin (n = 37) or with pegylated interferon alpha-2a plus ribavirin (n = 33) for up to 24 weeks. Frequencies of peripheral regulatory T-cells (Tregs), programmed death-1 (PD-1) expressing CD4+ T-cells or CD8+ T-cells and toll-like receptor (TLR) 3 expressing CD14+ monocytes were evaluated by flow cytometry in patients at baseline, 12 and 24 weeks following treatment and in 20 healthy controls.

Results: Frequencies of Tregs, PD-1 and TLR3 expressing cells were higher in patients than those in control subjects (P<0.05). Patients with complete early virological response (cEVR) showed lower Tregs, PD-1 expressing CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells than those without cEVR at 12 weeks (P<0.05). Patients with low TLR3 expressing CD14+ monocytes at baseline had a high rate of cEVR (P<0.05).

Conclusions: Low peripheral TLR3 expressing CD14+ monocytes at baseline could serve as a predictor for cEVR of antiviral therapy in chronic HCV-infected patients. The cEVR rates were significantly increased in the patients with reduced circulating Tregs, PD-1 expressing CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells.

Trial Registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR10001090.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0093620PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3977904PMC
June 2015

MiR-568 inhibits the activation and function of CD4⁺ T cells and Treg cells by targeting NFAT5.

Int Immunol 2014 May 19;26(5):269-81. Epub 2013 Dec 19.

State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology, Department of Immunology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032, China.

CD4(+) T cells play critical roles in orchestrating adaptive immune responses. Their activation and proliferation are critical steps that occur before they execute their biological functions. Despite the important role of this process, the underlying molecular events are not fully understood. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to play important roles in lymphocyte development and function. However, the miRNAs that regulate T-cell differentiation, activation and proliferation are still largely unknown. In our previous study, using a miRNA array, we found that several miRNAs (including miR-202, 33b, 181c, 568 and 576) are differentially expressed between resting and activated CD4(+) T cells. In this study, we focused on the function of miR-568 during CD4(+) T-cell activation. We showed that the expression level of miR-568 decreased during the activation of T cells, including Jurkat cells and human peripheral blood CD4(+) T cells. When Jurkat or human peripheral blood CD4(+) T cells were transfected with miR-568 mimics, cell activation was significantly inhibited, as shown by the inhibited expression of activation markers such as CD25, CD69 and CD154; decreased IL-2 production; and inhibited cell proliferation. Using software predictions and confirmatory experiments, we demonstrated that nuclear factor of activated T cells 5 (NFAT5) is a target of miR-568. Treg cells are an important CD4(+) T-cell subpopulation, so we also evaluated the function of miR-568 in Treg-cell activation and differentiation. We showed that the miR-568 level decreased, while the NFAT5 protein level increased during CD4(+)CD25(+) Treg-cell activation, and the transfection of miR-568 mimics inhibited the NFAT5 expression, inhibited the production of both TGF-β and IL-10 and also inhibited the proliferation of Treg cells. Our further study showed that over-expression of miR-568 can inhibit Treg-cell differentiation and can inhibit the suppressive effect of these cells on effector cells. In addition, inhibition of NFAT5 by siRNA-mediated knockdown can inhibit the activation and differentiation of Treg cells. These findings reveal that miR-568 can inhibit the activation and function of both CD4(+) T cells and Treg cells by targeting NFAT5. Since miR-568 plays an important role in both CD4(+) T cells and Treg cells, these findings may provide leads for the development of novel treatments for human inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/intimm/dxt065DOI Listing
May 2014

[Relation of IL-17 polymorphisms and serum levels in patients with chronic HCV infection].

Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi 2013 Jun;21(6):425-8

Department of Traditional and Western Medical Hepatology, Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang 050051, China.

Objective: To investigate the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the interleukin 17 (IL-17) gene and serum protein levels in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection.

Methods: A total of 228 patients with chronic HCV infection and 81 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. The frequencies of IL-17 rs8193036 and rs2275913 polymorphisms were detected by the TaqMan SNP genotyping assay. Serum levels of IL-17 protein were detected by ELISA. Pairwise comparisons were made by the Chi-square test, and the significance of between-group differences was assessed by the Student's t-test with P less than 0.05.

Results: The patients with chronic HCV infection and the healthy controls showed similar frequencies of the rs8193036 C/T allele (x2 = 1.428, P = 0.232) and the rs2275913 A/G allele (x2 = 0.106, P = 0.744). In addition, the two groups showed similar distribution of the rs8193036 CC (chronic HCV infection: 46.49% vs. healthy controls: 41.98%), CT (45.61% vs. 44.44%) and TT (7.89% vs. 13.58%) genotypes (x2 = 2.346, P = 0.309), and of the rs2275913 AA (16.23% vs. 13.58%), AG (48.25% vs. 50.62%) and GG (35.53% vs. 35.80%) genotypes (x2 = 0.340, P = 0.844). Subgroup analysis of chronic HCV infection patients stratified according to HCV genotypes 1 and 2 showed no differences in the distribution of rs8193036 and rs2275913 alleles (x2 = 1.127, P = 0.288; x2 = 1.088, P = 0.297) and genotypes (x2 = 2.825, P = 0.246; x2 = 0.970, P = 0.616). However, the chronic HCV infection group did show significantly higher levels of serum IL-17 than the controls (97.67+/-39.68 vs. 71.60+/-19.78 pg/ml, t = 2.414, P = 0.033).

Conclusion: Chronic HCV infection is associated with increased serum IL-17; however, the IL-17 polymorphisms rs8193036 and rs2275913 were not associated with chronic HCV infection susceptibility in this study's Chinese cohort.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.1007-3418.2013.06.010DOI Listing
June 2013

[Establishment of a complex alcoholic liver fibrosis mouse model and investigation of OPN and TGF-beta1 hepatic expression].

Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi 2013 Mar;21(3):207-12

Department of Traditional and Western Medical Hepatology, Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang 050051, China.

Objective: To create a convenient method to establish an alcoholic liver fibrosis model in mice and use it to explore the putative pathogenic mechanisms involving the immunomodulatory proteins osteopontin (OPN) and transforming growth factor-betal (TGF-beta1).

Methods: Forty C57BLI6J mice were fed the Lieber-DeCarli 4% ethanol-containing liquid diet for four weeks, followed by an additional four weeks of the 4% ethanol diet combined with intraperitoneal injection of carbon tetrachloride (CC14 5% solution in olive oil; 2ml/ kg body weight, 2 times/week) to induce alcoholic liver fibrosis. Control groups (n = 6 each) included: normal diet; normal diet plus CCl4 injections; ethanol diet alone; ethanol diet plus solvent (olive oil) injections. Model establishment was monitored by sacrificing six mice at model inception (week 0), and weeks 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 of modeling to collect liver tissues and blood for histological and biochemical analyses. Extent of hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis was assessed by hematoxylin-eosin and Masson staining. Liver function markers, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels, were tested by automated enzymatic assays. Alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) expression was detected by immunohistochemistry. The mRNA and protein expression of OPN and TGF-beta1 was detected by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and western blotting, respectively. Significance of differences between multiple groups was assessed by one-way ANOVA analysis followed by least significant difference t-test or Kruskal-Wallis H test followed by the Mann-Whitney U test.

Results: Compared to the control groups, the group of mice administrated ethanol and CCl4 developed mild to moderate hepatic steatosis at week 4 of modeling, progressive necroinflammation and perisinusoidal and portal fibrosis from weeks 5-8, and irregular necrosis and bridging fibrosis at week 8. In addition, the model group showed progressive up-regulation of a-SMA expression in the activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and fibrotic areas from weeks 5-8. Both hepatic OPN and TGF-beta1 showed significantly increasing trends in mRNA and protein expressions from weeks 5-8 (OPN mRNA: 1.83 +/- 0.25, 2.94 +/- 0.19, 3.45 +/- 0.31, and 5.99 +/- 0.17 (F= 476.27, P < 0.001); OPN protein: 0.52 +/- 0.06, 1.02 +/- 0.10, 1.52 +/- 0.11 and 1.50 +/- 0.08 (F= 298.03, P< 0.001); TGF-beta1 mRNA: 13.19 +/- 0.40, 3.31 +/- 0.28, 1.58 +/- 0.18 and 2.08 +/- 0.26 (F= 85.55, P < 0.001); TGF-P31 protein: 1.26 +/- 0.16, 0.96 +/- 0.12, 1.09 +/- 0.25 and 1.10 +/- 0.20 (F = 43.64, P < 0.001).

Conclusion: Feeding C57BL/6J mice the Lieber-DeCarli ethanol-containing liquid diet combined with CCl4 intraperitoneal injection is a convenient method to establish a model of alcoholic liver fibrosis within a relatively short amount of time (eight weeks). Progression of alcoholic liver fibrosis is accompanied by increased hepatic expression of OPN and TGF-beta1, which may contribute to the pathogenic mechanism of this disease and may be targets of future molecular therapies.
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March 2013

[Activation of Fas/FasL and its downstream signaling pathway promotes development of alcoholic steatohepatitis and liver fibrosis in mice].

Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi 2013 Feb;21(2):129-33

Department of Traditional and Western Medical Hepatology, Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang 050051, China.

Objective: To explore the role and mechanism of the Fas/Fas ligand (FasL) system and its downstream signaling pathway related to the progression of alcoholic steatohepatitis and liver fibrosis.

Methods: Eighteen C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into three groups: controls; alcoholic steatohepatitis model, given four-weeks of a 4% ethanol-containing Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet; alcoholic steatohepatitis and liver fibrosis model, given the four-week alcohol diet followed by twice weekly intraperitoneal injections of carbon tetrachloride (5% olive oil solution; 2 mL/kg dose) during the fifth to eighth weeks. Mice in the model groups were sacrificed at the end of week 4 and 8, respectively, along with control mice for comparative analyses. Liver tissue sections were evaluated for hepatocellular apoptosis by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay. The mRNA expression of Fas, FasL, cysteine aspartate-specific proteases 3 (caspase 3), and cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP 2E1) in liver tissues was detected by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR, visualized by ethidium bromide staining, and normalized to the gray-value of GAPDH expression. The protein expression of Fas and caspase 3 were detected by western blotting (b-actin normalized), and of FasL and CYP 2E1 by immunohistochemistry staining. Intergroup differences and statistical significance were evaluated by single factor analysis of variance and the least squares difference-t test or the Kruskal-Wallis H test and the Mann-Whitney U test.

Results: The number of apoptotic cells in the liver sections was significantly higher in both model groups with alcoholic steatohepatitis (vs. controls) and the amount in the alcoholic steatohepatitis plus liver fibrosis model was significantly higher than that in the model with only alcoholic steatohepatitis. In addition, activation of Fas, FasL and its downstream signaling pathway showed an increasing trend with extent of liver injury. The hepatic mRNA (by RT-PCR) and protein (by western blotting) normalized expression levels in the controls, alcoholic steatohepatitis models, and alcoholic steatohepatitis plus liver fibrosis models were, respectively: Fas mRNA: 0.50+/-0.05, 0.61+/-0.10, 0.76+/-0.03 (H=12.137, P less than 0.05), protein: 0.52+/-0.14, 0.86+/-0.10, 0.99+/-0.09 (F=12.758, P less than 0.01); FasL mRNA: 0.31+/-0.03, 0.53+/-0.02, 1.02+/-0.04 (F=153.260, P less than 0.01); caspase 3 mRNA: 0.86+/-0.11, 0.85+/-0.05, 1.33+/-0.16 (F=8.740, P less than 0.01), protein: 0.40+/-0.03, 0.69+/-0.06, 1.02+/-0.10 (F=90.785, P less than 0.01); CYP 2E1 mRNA: 0.72+/-0.14, 1.00+/-0.15, 1.30+/-0.20 (H=4.713, P less than 0.01). The changes in hepatic FasL and CYP 2E1 expression detected by immunohistochemistry were consistent with the mRNA expression.

Conclusion: Activation of Fas/FasL and its downstream signaling pathway, which induces hepatocellular apoptosis, contributes to the development of alcoholic steatohepatitis and liver fibrosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.1007-3418.2013.02.013DOI Listing
February 2013

Activation of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha ameliorates ethanol mediated liver fibrosis in mice.

Lipids Health Dis 2013 Feb 6;12:11. Epub 2013 Feb 6.

Department of Traditional and Western Medical Hepatology, Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, China.

Background: Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARα) ameliorates ethanol induced hepatic steatohepatitis. However, its role in alcoholic liver fibrosis has not been fully clarified. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effect and the molecular basis of PPARα in ethanol induced liver fibrosis in mice.

Methods: C57BL/6J mice were fed with 4% ethanol-containing Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet for eight weeks, and intraperitoneal injected with 5% carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) for the last four weeks to induce alcoholic liver fibrosis. PPARα agonist WY14643 was administered to mice during the last couple of weeks. The effects of PPARα induction on liver histology, activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), as well as hepatic expression of inflammatory and fibrogenic factors were assessed.

Results: The ethanol plus CCl4 treated mice exhibited progressive liver injury including piecemeal necrosis of hepatocytes, severe inflammatory cells infiltration and bridging fibrosis. This was accompanied by down-regulated hepatic expression of PPARα and the protective cytokines adiponectin, heme oxygenase-1 and interleukin-10. Additionally, up-regulation of the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha, as well as the profibrogenic genes osteopontin, transforming growth factor-beta 1, visfatin, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9 was observed. WY14643 treatment restored expression of cytokines altered by ethanol plus CCl4 treatment and concomitantly ameliorated the liver injury.

Conclusions: The present study provides evidence for the protective role of PPARα induction in ameliorating ethanol mediated fibrosis through mediation of inflammatory and fibrogenic factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1476-511X-12-11DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3608939PMC
February 2013

Fuzheng Huayu recipe prevents nutritional fibrosing steatohepatitis in mice.

Lipids Health Dis 2012 Mar 28;11:45. Epub 2012 Mar 28.

Department of Traditional and Western Medical Hepatology, Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, China.

Background: Fuzheng Huayu recipe (FZHY), a compound of Chinese herbal medicine, was reported to improve liver function and fibrosis in patients with hepatitis B virus infection. However, its effect on nutritional fibrosing steatohepatitis is unclear. We aimed to elucidate the role and molecular mechanism of FZHY on this disorder in mice.

Methods: C57BL/6 J mice were fed with methionine-choline deficient (MCD) diet for 8 weeks to induce fibrosing steatohepatitis. FZHY and/or heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) chemical inducer (hemin) were administered to mice, respectively. The effect of FZHY was assessed by comparing the severity of hepatic injury, levels of hepatic lipid peroxides, activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and the expression of oxidative stress, inflammatory and fibrogenic related genes.

Results: Mice fed with MCD diet for 8 weeks showed severe hepatic injury including hepatic steatosis, necro-inflammation and fibrosis. Administration of FZHY or hemin significantly lowered serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, reduced hepatic oxidative stress and ameliorated hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. An additive effect was observed in mice fed MCD supplemented with FZHY or/and hemin. These effects were associated with down-regulation of pro-oxidative stress gene cytochrome P450 2E1, up-regulation of anti-oxidative gene HO-1; suppression of pro-inflammation genes tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-6; and inhibition of pro-fibrotic genes including α-smooth muscle actin, transforming growth factor beta 1, collagen type I (Col-1) and Col-3.

Conclusions: Our study demonstrated the protective role of FZHY in ameliorating nutritional fibrosing steatohepatitis. The effect was mediated through regulating key genes related to oxidative stress, inflammation and fibrogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1476-511X-11-45DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3359233PMC
March 2012

[The role of Fas mutation on non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in mice].

Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi 2011 Sep;19(9):653-7

Department of Traditional and Western Medical Hepatology, Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang 050051, China.

Objective: Our previous study indicated that the death receptor Fas played a key role on hepatocyte apoptosis in nutritional steatohepatitis in mice. This study aimed to explore whether Fas mutation accelerated hepatic steatosis and inflammatory infiltration in methionine-choline deficient (MCD) diet feeding mice.

Methods: Mice homozygous for the lymphoproliferation spontaneous mutation (C57BL/6J-Faslpr) and wild type C57BL/6J mice were fed with MCD diet for three weeks to induce non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) levels were detected by an Olympus AU5400 automatic chemical analyzer. The role of Fas gene mutation on NASH was assessed by comparing the severity of hepatic steatosis and inflammation in the liver sections, the mRNA and protein expressions of hepatic inflammatory and fibrogenesis related factors, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFb1).

Results: The serum ALT levels of the wild type and Faslpr mice fed with MCD were significant higher than that of the control mice (126.33+/-10.50 U/L vs (25.00+/-10.14) U/L, (160.33+/-48.29) U/L vs (18.33+/-9.08) U/L, with the LSD-t value 12.02, 5.08 respectively, the P value<0.001, 0.007 respectively. The serum ALT levels showed no significant difference between the Faslpr and wild type mice fed with MCD, with the LSD-t value 1.19, the P value 0.229. The serum AST, TG and TC levels showed neithere significant difference among the four groups. MCD diet induced hepatic steatosis and inflammatory infiltration in both of the wild type and Faslpr mice. Especially, severer hepatic injury was observed in Faslpr mice as compared with wild type mice. The mRNA expression levels of cell proliferation factor PCNA and fibrogenesis growth factor TGF b1 in wild type mice fed with MCD were significantly higher than that of the control mice (2.84+/-0.73, 2.77+/-0.54 vs 1.31+/-0.18, 0.89+/-0.18), with the LSD-t value 4.99, 8.08 respectively, the P value 0.001, <0.001 respectively. The mRNA expression levels of PCNA and TGFb1 in Faslpr mice fed with MCD were significantly higher than that of the Faslpr control mice and the wild type mice fed with MCD (5.57+/-1.13, 5.73+/-0.89 vs 1.04+/-0.16, 0.85+/-0.11 and 2.84+/-0.73, 2.77+/-0.54), with the LSD-t value 10.15, 13.19 and 5.33, 6.91 respectively, the P value<0.001. The protein expressions levels of PCNA and TGFb1 were concordant with the mRNA.

Conclusions: Faslpr promoted hepatic steatosis and inflammatory infiltration in mice fed with MCD diet, which might associated with excessive release of cell proliferative, inflammatory and fibrogenesis factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.1007-3418.2011.09.006DOI Listing
September 2011

[Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma activation and overexpression prevent hepatocellular apoptosis of nutritional fibrotic steatohepatitis in mice].

Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi 2011 Jul;19(7):521-6

Department of Traditional and Western Medical Hepatology, Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, China.

Objective: To elucidate the effect of targeted gene modulation of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARg) on hepatocellular apoptosis in nutritional fibrotic steatohepatitis in mice. C57BL/6J mice were fed with high fat, methionine-choline deficient (MCD) diet for 8 weeks to induce fibrotic steatohepatitis. Mice fed the MCD diet were treated with adenovirus carrying PPARg (Ad-PPARg), adenovirus-beta-galactosidase (Ad-LacZ), Ad-PPARg plus PPARg agonist rosiglitazone, or PPARg antagonist 2-chloro-5-nitro- benzanilide (GW9662), respectively. H and E stain was performed for observation of hepatocellular apoptosis, hepatic steatosis, inflammation and fibrosis in the liver sections. The expression levels of mRNA and protein of PPARg and apoptosis related genes, Fas, Fas Ligand (FasL), B cell lymphoma/leukemia-2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2 associated X protein (Bax) and cysteine-containing aspartate-specific proteases-3 (caspase-3) were detected by real-time RT-PCR and Western blot assay, respectively.

Results: Mice fed with MCD diet for 8 weeks showed severe hepatic injury including steatosis, hepatocellular apoptosis, inflammatory infiltration and fibrosis, concomitancy with enhanced expression of pro-apoptosis genes, Fas, FasL, Bax and caspase-3 and increased expression of anti-apoptosis gene Bcl-2, by comparing with the control group. The mRNA expression levels of these genes were 3.59+/-0.35 vs 1.11+/-0.37, 4.37+/-1.03 vs 1.09+/-0.33, 4.27+/-0.48 vs 1.03+/-0.10, 4.93+/-0.67 vs 1.12+/-0.24 and 3.95+/-0.34 vs 1.20+/-0.19, and LSD-t values were 2.49, 3.28, 3.25, 3.80 and 2.75, as compared with the control group, P is less than 0.01; the protein expression levels were 1.96+/-0.07 vs 0.45+/-0.07, 0.53+/-0.07 vs 0.22+/-0.02, 1.32+/-0.06 vs 0.59+/-0.03, 1.51+/-0.23 vs 0.36+/-0.09 and 0.57+/-0.01 vs 0.29+/-0.01, and LSD-t values were 1.51, 0.31, 0.73, 1.14 and 0.28, P is less than 0.01. Administration of PPARg agonist rosiglitazone and/or Ad-PPARg significantly ameliorated hepatic steatosis, hepatocellular apoptosis, necro inflammation and fibrosis. These effects were associated with repressed expression of pro-apoptosis genes and up-regulated expression of anti-apoptosis gene. After rosiglitazone treatment, the mRNA expression levels were 3.78+/-0.58, 3.66+/-0.83, 3.04+/-0.37, 2.54+/-0.62 and 4.42+/-0.42, and LSD-t values were 0.18, 0.71, 1.23, 2.39 and 0.46, as compared with MCD group, the P values were 0.627, 0.241, less than 0.01, less than 0.01 and 0.278, the protein expression levels were 1.06+/-0.03, 0.30+/-0.01, 0.70+/-0.05, 1.19+/-0.30 and 0.90+/-0.01, and LSD-t values were 0.90, 0.23, 0.62, 0.31 and 0.34, the P values were less than 0.01, less than 0.01, less than 0.01, 0.122, less than 0.01. After Ad-PPARg treatment, the mRNA expression levels were 2.31+/-0.16, 2.71+/-0.23, 2.52+/-0.27, 1.79+/-0.32 and 5.97+/-0.72, and LSD-t values were 1.28, 1.66, 1.75, 3.13 and 2.02, as compared with MCD group, P is less than 0.05; the protein expression levels were 1.73+/-0.07, 0.43+/-0.04, 1.01+/-0.08, 1.31+/-0.10 and 1.56+/-0.04, and LSD-t values were 0.23, 0.10, 0.30, 0.20 and 0.99, with P values equal 0.009, 0.01, less than 0.01, 0.322 and less than 0.01.

Conclusions: This study provided evidences for the protective role of activation and overexpression of PPARg in ameliorating hepatocellular apoptosis in mice with hepatic fibrosing steatohepatitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.1007-3418.2011.07.013DOI Listing
July 2011

Peginterferon alpha-based therapy for chronic hepatitis B focusing on HBsAg clearance or seroconversion: a meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials.

BMC Infect Dis 2011 Jun 9;11:165. Epub 2011 Jun 9.

Department of Traditional and Western Medical Hepatology, Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, China.

Background: Interferon alpha (IFNα) therapy has been widely used in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) for decades. Nucleos(t)ide analogues are also increasingly used to treat CHB recently. More and more studies are being carried out concerning the clearance or seroconversion of HBsAg, which is recognized as an ideal goal of CHB therapy. This study conducted a meta-analysis to estimate the effect of pegylated interferon alpha (peginterferon α, PEG-IFNα)-based therapy on HBsAg clearance or seroconversion in CHB.

Methods: All available controlled clinical trials, published from 2004 to 2010, with the following antiviral therapies for CHB patients: PEG-IFNα combined with lamivudine (LAM), PEG-IFNα only, conventional IFNα and LAM, with a course ≥24 weeks, were meta-analysed for HBsAg clearance and seroconversion.

Results: Fourteen trials (involving a total of 2,682 patients) were identified, including seven high-quality and seven low-quality studies. The analysis results of the different antiviral therapies on HBsAg clearance or seroconversion were as follows: 1. No significant difference in HBsAg clearance or seroconversion was observed between the combination therapy group and PEG-IFNα monotherapy group [odds ratio (OR) = 1.16, 95% confidence intervals (CI) (0.73-1.85), P = 0.54 and OR = 1.07, 95% CI (0.58-1.97), P = 0.82, respectively]; 2. HBsAg clearance and seroconversion rates in patients with combination therapy were markedly higher than in those with LAM monotherapy [OR = 9.41, 95% CI (1.18-74.94), P = 0.03, and OR = 12.37, 95% CI (1.60-95.44), P = 0.02, respectively]; 3. There was significant difference in HBsAg clearance between the PEG-IFNα group and IFNα monotherapy group [OR = 4.95, 95% CI (1.23-20.00), P = 0.02], but not in seroconversion [OR = 2.44, 95% CI (0.35-17.08), P = 0.37]; 4. PEG-IFNα was superior to LAM in HBsAg seroconversion [OR = 14.59, 95% CI (1.91-111.49), P = 0.01].

Conclusions: PEG-IFNα facilitated HBsAg clearance or seroconversion in CHB patients. PEG-IFNα-based therapy was more effective than LAM monotherapy in achieving HBsAg clearance or seroconversion for both HBeAg-positive and HBeAg-negative CHB patients. There was no significant difference in HBsAg clearance or seroconversion between PEG-IFNα/LAM combination therapy and PEG-IFNα monotherapy. PEG-IFNα was obviously superior to conventional IFNα in HBsAg clearance, but not in HBsAg seroconversion. Although PEG-IFNα produced significantly higher rates of HBsAg clearance and seroconversion, the absolute change in the proportion of HBsAg clearance and seroconversion was low (about 3-6%). Therefore, additional interventions are needed to improve the rate of positive outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2334-11-165DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3128052PMC
June 2011

Induction of heme oxygenase-1 protects against nutritional fibrosing steatohepatitis in mice.

Lipids Health Dis 2011 Feb 12;10:31. Epub 2011 Feb 12.

Department of Traditional and Western Medical Hepatology, Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, China.

Background: Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), an antioxidant defense enzyme, has been shown to protect against oxidant-induced liver injury. However, its role on liver fibrosis remains unclear. This study aims to elucidate the effect and the mechanism of HO-1 in nutritional fibrosing steatohepatitis in mice.

Methods: Male C57BL/6J mice were fed with a methionine-choline deficient (MCD) diet for eight weeks to induce hepatic fibrosis. HO-1 chemical inducer (hemin), HO-1 chemical inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP-IX) and/or adenovirus carrying HO-1 gene (Ad-HO-1) were administered to mice, respectively. Liver injury was assessed by serum ALT, AST levels and histological examination; hepatic lipid peroxides levels were determined; the expression levels of several fibrogenic related genes were assayed by real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot.

Results: MCD feeding mice showed progressive hepatic injury including hepatic steatosis, inflammatory infiltration and fibrosis. Induction of HO-1 by hemin or Ad-HO-1 significantly attenuated the severity of liver injury. This effect was associated with the up-regulation of HO-1, reduction of hepatic lipid peroxides levels, down-regulation of inflammatory factors tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6 and suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 as well as the pro-fibrotic genes alpha-smooth muscle actin, transforming growth factor-β1, matrix metallopeptidase-2 and matrix metallopeptidase-9. A contrary effect was observed in mice treated with ZnPP-IX.

Conclusions: The present study provided the evidence for the protective role of HO-1 in ameliorating MCD diet-induced fibrosing steatohepatitis. Modulation of HO-1 expression might serve as a therapeutic approach for fibrotic steatohepatitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1476-511X-10-31DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3048569PMC
February 2011

Adenovirus-mediated peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma overexpression prevents nutritional fibrotic steatohepatitis in mice.

Scand J Gastroenterol 2011 Mar 24;46(3):358-69. Epub 2010 Oct 24.

Department of Traditional and Western Medical Hepatology, Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, China.

Objective: The pathogenesis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis is still unclear. We have demonstrated previously that peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) ligand protects against inflammation and fibrogenesis in experimental non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. We aim to elucidate the effect and the mechanism of PPARγ itself on nutritional fibrotic steatohepatitis in mice.

Methods: C57BL/6J mice were fed with methionine-choline deficient (MCD) diet for 8 weeks to induce fibrotic steatohepatitis. Mice fed the MCD diet were treated with adenovirus carrying PPARγ (Ad-PPARγ), Ad-PPARγ plus PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone, or PPARγ antagonist 2-chloro-5-nitrobenzaniliden (GW9662), respectively. The effects of up-regulation of PPARγ in the presence or absence of its agonist/or antagonist were assessed by comparing the severity of hepatic injury, activation of hepatic stellate cells and the expression of adiponectin, heme oxygenase-1, and fibrogenic related genes.

Results: Mice fed with MCD diet for 8 weeks showed severe hepatic injury including hepatic steatosis, inflammatory infiltration, and fibrosis. Administration of Ad-PPARγ significantly lowered serum alanine aminotransferase level and ameliorated hepatic steatosis, necroinflammation, and fibrosis. These effects were associated with enhanced expression of PPARγ, up-regulated expression of adiponectin and heme oxygenase-1, and down-regulated expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-6, α-smooth muscle actin, transforming growth factor beta 1, matrix metallopeptidase-2, and -9. Administration of GW9662 promoted the severity of liver histology.

Conclusions: The present study provided evidences for the protective role of overexpressing PPARγ in ameliorating hepatic fibrosing steatohepatitis in mice. Modulation of PPARγ expression might serve as a therapeutic approach for fibrotic steatohepatitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/00365521.2010.525717DOI Listing
March 2011

[The significance of resistin expression in livers of patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease].

Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi 2008 Aug;16(8):630-1

Department of Infectious Diseases, Third Affiliated Hospital, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang 050051, China.

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August 2008
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