Publications by authors named "Ling Yu"

590 Publications

Effects of the total physical activity and its changes on incidence, progression, and remission of hypertension.

J Geriatr Cardiol 2021 Mar;18(3):175-184

Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Epidemiology & Department of Epidemiology, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100037, China.

Objectives: Moderate to vigorous physical activity is recommended to prevent hypertension according to the current guidelines. However, the degree to which the total physical activity (TPA) and its changes benefit normotensives and hypertensives is uncertain. We aimed to examine the effects of TPA and its changes on the incidence, progression, and remission of hypertension in the large-scale prospective cohorts.

Methods: A total of 73,077 participants (55,101 normotensives and 17,976 hypertensives) were eligible for TPA analyses. During a mean follow-up of 7.16 years (394,038 person-years), 12,211 hypertension cases were identified. TPA was estimated as metabolic equivalents and categorized into quartiles. Cox proportional hazards regression and multivariable logistic regression were used to estimate associations of TPA and changes in TPA with incident hypertension and progression/remission of hypertension.

Results: Compared with the lowest quartile of TPA, normotensives at the third and the highest quartile had a decreased risk of incident hypertension, with hazard ratios (HRs) of 0.86 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.81-0.91] and 0.81 (95% CI: 0.77-0.86), respectively. Hypertensives at the highest quartile of TPA demonstrated a decreased risk of progression of hypertension [odds ratio (OR) = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.79-0.95], and an increased probability of hypertension remission (OR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.05-1.29). Moreover, getting active from a sedentary lifestyle during the follow-up period could reduce 25% (HR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.58-0.96) risk of incident hypertension, whereas those becoming sedentary did not achieve benefit from initially being active.

Conclusions: Our findings indicated that increasing and maintaining TPA levels could benefit normotensives, whereas higher TPA levels were needed to effectively control progression and improve remission of hypertension. Physical activity played undoubtedly an essential role in both primary and secondary prevention of hypertension.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2021.03.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8047184PMC
March 2021

Fruit and vegetable consumption, cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality in China.

Sci China Life Sci 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Epidemiology, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100037, China.

Evidence about the response patterns of fruit and vegetable consumption with the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality was inconsistent. These associations were examined using a large-scale, population-based Chinese cohort comprising 100,728 participants. A food-frequency questionnaire was used to assess fruit and vegetable consumption. Outcomes were ascertained by interviewing individuals or their proxies and checking hospital records or death certificates. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). At the 736,668 person-years of follow-up, 3,677 CVD cases and 5,466 deaths were identified. The multivariable-adjusted HRs for CVD across increasing quartiles of total fruit and vegetable consumption were 1 (reference), 0.94 (95%CI=0.85-1.04), 0.89 (95%CI=0.80-0.98), and 0.85 (95% CI=0.11-0.95). Moreover, participants in the highest quartile displayed a 13% lower risk of all-cause mortality (HR=0.81; 95% CI=0.80-0.95). A nonlinear dose-response relation was found for CVD, without additional benefits beyond a consumption of 600 g d, whereas the all-cause mortality risk decreased along with higher consumption, with a linear trend. These associations remained significant for fruit consumption but not for vegetable consumption. Our findings indicated that greater fruit and vegetable consumption was significantly associated with a lower risk of CVD and all cause mortality. Increasing fruit and vegetable consumption, especially fruit, in the general population would prevent CVD and premature mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11427-020-1896-xDOI Listing
April 2021

[Release Mechanisms of Carbon Source and Dissolved Organic Matter of Six Agricultural Wastes in the Initial Stage].

Huan Jing Ke Xue 2021 May;42(5):2422-2431

Research Center of Environmental Pollution Control Technology, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Science, Beijing 100012, China.

As carbon sources for the denitrification process, agricultural wastes have some problems, such as excess release of organic carbon; unclear release characteristics of nitrogen, phosphorus, and colorimetric substances; and unclear components, release mechanisms, and potential effects of the released dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the start-up period. To resolve those problems, rice straw, wheat straw, corn stalk, corncob, soybean stalk, and soybean hull were selected as denitrification carbon sources to investigate the release mechanisms and potential influences of the organic matter, secondary pollutants, and DOM. The results showed that the six agricultural wastes could be used as the denitrification carbon source. The carbon content in the wheat straw was the highest and the secondary pollution risk from the corncob was the lowest. For the six carbon sources, the second-order kinetic equation and Ritger-Peppas equation were followed during the 1-120 h carbon release process. The fitting results demonstrated that corncob was more suitable for use as the denitrification carbon source because of its moderate value and longer value, and the release mechanisms of the six types of carbon sources were mainly controlled by the diffusion process. The NH-N, TN, and TP contents in the immersion water of the rice straw were higher than those of the five other agricultural wastes, and there was heavy chromaticity in the immersion water of the wheat straw and corn stalk. The amounts of nitrogen, phosphorus, and chromatic substances released from the corncob were the lowest. The leachates of the corncob and soybean hull had higher biodegradability and lower risks of secondary pollution than those of the other sources. The aromaticity and molecular weight of DOM increased as the reaction time increased, and the humification of DOM was low. Five components were identified by PARAFAC. The main component was protein-like matter, which was mainly composed of tyrosine-like and tryptophan-like substances. There was less humic acid-like matter in the immersion water. The component characteristics of DOM might have had an adverse effect on the subsequent water treatment process. These results could provide theoretical support for the impact on effluent water quality and risk assessment when the agricultural wastes are used as an additional denitrification carbon source at the start-up stage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13227/j.hjkx.202010177DOI Listing
May 2021

Association of serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) with heat pain stimulation and postoperative pain in gastric cancer patients.

Mol Pain 2021 Jan-Dec;17:17448069211006606

Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education, Beijing), Department of Anesthesiology, Peking University Cancer Hospital & Institute, Beijing, China.

Background: The aim of this study was to assess whether the genotype of the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) in gastric cancer patients is associated with postoperative pain and pain threshold.

Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study of 251 patients scheduled for gastrectomy from May to September 2019. All patients enrolled in the study were asked to complete the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale questionnaire. Heat pain threshold (HPT), cold pain threshold (CPT) and Pressure pain threshold (PPT) were measured for all participants one day prior to surgery. Blood samples were collected for genetic testing. All patients were connected to a patient-controlled intravenous analgesia (PCIA) pump at the end of the surgery. After exclusion of 15 patients, the postoperative conditions of 236 patients were recorded.

Results: Distribution of homozygous long (L/L), heterozygous (L/S), and homozygous short (S/S) 5-HTTLPR genotypes among participants were 26 (11.0%), 91 (38.6%), and 119 (50.4%), respectively. Heat pain threshold ( = 0.038) and Numerical rating scale (NRS) in the 1st postoperative 24 h ( = 0.026) were significantly different between long (L/L) and short (S/S) genotype carriers.

Conclusions: In patients with gastric cancer, heat pain stimulation is associated with 5-HTTLPR polymorphism, and postoperative pain may be related to 5-HTTLPR polymorphism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/17448069211006606DOI Listing
April 2021

Adverse associations of sedentary behavior with cancer incidence and all-cause mortality: A prospective cohort study.

J Sport Health Sci 2021 Apr 18. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100037, China; Department of Epidemiology, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100037, China; School of Medicine, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen 518055, China. Electronic address:

Background: Inconsistent results have been reported in developed countries for relationships between sedentary behavior and cancer incidence and mortality, and evidence from the Chinese population is scarce. This study aimed to investigate such relationships in large Chinese population-based prospective cohorts and to explore the joint effect and interaction of sedentary behavior and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) on these relationships.

Methods: We included 95,319 Chinese adults without cancer from 3 large cohorts and assessed their sedentary behavior and physical activity with a unified questionnaire. Cancer incidence and mortality were confirmed by interviewing participants or their proxies and checking hospital records and death certificates. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) for cancer and mortality were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression models.

Results: During 559,002 person-years of follow-up, 2388 cancer events, 1571 cancer deaths, and 4562 all-cause deaths were recorded. Sedentary behavior was associated with increased risk of developing cancer and deaths in a dose-response manner. The multivariable-adjusted HRs (95%CIs) were the following: HR = 1.16, 95%CI: 1.01‒1.33; HR = 1.24, 95%CI: 1.04‒1.48; and HR = 1.15, 95%CI: 1.04‒1.28 for cancer incidence, cancer mortality, and all-cause mortality, respectively, for those having ≥10 h/day of sedentary time compared to those having <6 h/day of sedentary time. Sedentary populations (≥10 h/day) developed cancer or died 4.09 and 2.79 years earlier, respectively, at the index age of 50 years. Failure to achieve the recommended level of MVPA may further aggravate the adverse associations, with the highest cancer and mortality risks being observed among participants with both ≥10 h/day of sedentary time and <150 min/week of MVPA. Limitations of this study include the fact that physical activity information was obtained via questionnaire instead of objective measurement and that there were insufficient incident cases for the analysis of associations between sedentary behavior and site-specific cancers.

Conclusion: Sedentary behavior was associated with an increased risk of cancer and all-cause mortality among Chinese adults, especially for those with ≥10 h/day of sedentary time. It is necessary to reduce sedentary time, in addition to increasing MVPA levels, for the prevention of cancer and premature death.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jshs.2021.04.002DOI Listing
April 2021

Cutting and Bonding Parafilm to Fast Prototyping Flexible Hanging Drop Chips for 3D Spheroid Cultures.

Cell Mol Bioeng 2021 Apr 27;14(2):187-199. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Institute for Clean Energy and Advanced Materials, School of Materials and Energy, Southwest University, Chongqing, 400715 People's Republic of China.

A fast and low-cost fabrication process of flexible hanging drop chips for 3D spheroid cultures was proposed by cutting and bonding Parafilm, a cohesive thermoplastic. The Parafilm Hanging Drop Chip (PHDC) was assembled by two-layer of Parafilm sheet with different sizes of holes. The hole on the upper layer of the Parafilm is smaller than the hole on the bottom layer. The impact of hole size and sample volume on hanging drop formation and 3D spheroid formations in the hanging drop were investigated. The results showed that 20 L solution on PHDC with a 3 mm hole could form stabile drop and facilitate spheroid formation. The initial cell number determinates the size of the formed spheroids. Exchanging liquid from the upper hole of the PHDC enables the co-culture of two types of cells in one spheroid and drug efficacy testing in hanging drops. The relative expression of cell adhesion and hypoxia-related genes from spheroids in hanging drop and conventional culture plate suggested the relevance of 3D spheroids and tumor tissue. The economical hanging drop chip can be fabricated without wet chemistry or expensive fabrication equipment, strengthening its application potential in conventional biological laboratories.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12195-020-00660-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8010094PMC
April 2021

Synergistic Recognition-Triggered Charge Transfer Enables Rapid Visual Colorimetric Detection of Fentanyl.

Anal Chem 2021 04 15;93(16):6544-6550. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

National Collaborative Innovation Center for Nuclear Waste and Environmental Safety, School of National Defence Science & Technology, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010, P. R. China.

As a new psychoactive substance, abuse of fentanyl (FTN) is currently spreading around the world, resulting in an urgent need of on-site and rapid analytical methods for detection of FTN. Here, we present a synergistic recognition strategy for rapid, cost-effective, selective, sensitive, and visual colorimetric detection of FTN by taking advantage of Rose Bengal (RB) as the specific probe. This assay is based on the halogen- and hydrogen-bonding interactions between them, generating a charge transfer and accompanying a red shift in the RB absorption band as well as color change from red to purple. The utility of the present visual colorimetric assay is demonstrated in aqueous solution, diluted urine, and domestic sewage samples. A detection limit of 0.7 mg·L in aqueous solution is achieved, and the naked-eye detection of FTN is also realized in different real matrices within 6 min. Moreover, this method is insusceptible to interference from various substances (other opioids, cutting agents of street drugs, FTN precursors, amino acids, and small-molecular amines). Additionally, we successfully fabricate a smartphone-based portable device to determine FTN, which is appropriate for field tests. The present work not only provides the first visual assay for FTN but also reveals the molecular structure-property relationship, which will guide the design and development of various probes for recognizing FTN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.1c00723DOI Listing
April 2021

The occurrence and treatment of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis caused by multiple factors: a case report and literature review.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 Mar;10(3):3518-3523

Department of Hematology, Shenzhen Hospital, Southern Medical University, Shenzhen, China.

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a high-fatality disease caused by hereditary or acquired immune dysfunction, and is characterized by pathological inflammatory response. Primary HLH (pHLH) has hereditary genetic defects, and secondary HLH (sHLH) is caused by a variety of underlying diseases. Here, we report the case of a patient with aggressive natural killer cell leukemia and HLH-related gene defects who achieved long-term survival after treatment. A 20-year-old man presented to our hospital with symptoms of fever and fatigue. Investigations revealed splenomegaly, cytopenia, hyperferritinemia, hypofibrinogenemia, elevated levels of soluble CD25 (sCD25), and hemophagocytosis in bone marrow. Bone marrow flow cytometry showed 23.4% abnormal natural killer cells, the cells were CD2, CD7, CD16, CD94, NKG2A positive, met the diagnosis of aggressive NK-Cell leukemia. Investigation of the patient's pedigree revealed that mutations of pHLH-related genes (LYST and UNC13D) were inherited from his father and mother, but neither of the parents had the disease. The patient received hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT), after which he achieved complete remission. As of 2020-10-19, the patient's survival has exceeded 3 years, and he has returned to his normal life. A variety of factors contribute to the onset of HLH, and this case gives greater insight into the etiology of HLH. Allogeneic HSCT is a key treatment for HLH patients with underlying genetic mutations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/apm-21-68DOI Listing
March 2021

Safety of protease inhibitors and Arbidol for SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in Zhejiang Province, China.

J Zhejiang Univ Sci B 2020 Dec.;21(12):948-954

Department of Infectious Diseases, State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Infectious Diseases, the First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou 310003, China.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety of an antiviral regimen of protease inhibitors combined with Arbidol (umifenovir) for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia patients. The genomic sequence of SARS-CoV-2 is highly homologous to that of SARS-CoV (Zhou et al., 2020). Previously published basic and clinical research on anti-SARS-CoV treatment found that lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) could improve the prognosis of SARS patients (Chan et al., 2003; Chu et al., 2004). Darunavir (DRV) is another protease inhibitor that blocks the binding of SARS-CoV-2 to human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (Omotuyi et al., 2020). The broad-spectrum antiviral drug Arbidol (umifenovir) also shows in vitro anti-SARS-CoV activity (Khamitov et al., 2008).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1631/jzus.B2000204DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7759455PMC
April 2021

Six-month follow-up of gut microbiota richness in patients with COVID-19.

Gut 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseasesm, National Clinical Research Center for Infectious Diseases, Zhejiang University School of Medicine First Affiliated Hospital, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2021-324090DOI Listing
April 2021

A bioactive magnesium phosphate cement incorporating chondroitin sulfate for bone regeneration.

Biomed Mater 2021 Apr 16;16(3). Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Orthopedics, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430060, People's Republic of China.

Magnesium phosphate cement (MPC) has been evaluated as an inorganic bone filler due to its favorable biocompatibility, biodegradability, rapid setting, high initial strength, and osteogenic potential. However, the setting time of MPC is so rapid that it makes it difficult to use in practice, and the clinical properties of MPC could be further be improved by adding bioactive materials. Here we developed novel bioactive chondroitin sulfate (CS)-MPC composites (CS-MPCs) by incorporating different amounts of CS into MPC. The compositions, microstructures, and physiochemical properties of CS-MPCs and their inducedcellular responses andbone regeneration properties were evaluated. CS-MPCs had a longer setting time, lower hydration temperature, higher compressive strength, and more neural pH than MPC. CS-MPCs demonstrated similar degradation ratios relative to MPC in Tris-HCl solution. CS-MPCs promoted pre-osteoblast cell proliferation, attachment, and differentiationand enhanced bone formation surrounding implants. In conclusion, through CS modification, our novel CS-MPCs have improved physiochemical properties that enhance compatibilityand bone regeneration, making them attractive materials for bone regeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1748-605X/abf5c4DOI Listing
April 2021

Determination of Organochlorine Pesticides in Green Leafy Vegetable Samples via FeO Magnetic Nanoparticles Modified QuEChERS Integrated to Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction Coupled with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.

J Anal Methods Chem 2021 13;2021:6622063. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xingtai University, Xingtai 054001, China.

A fast method based on FeO magnetic nanoparticles (FeO MNPs) modified QuEChERS integrated to dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was established for the determination of 8 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in green leafy vegetables. The factors involved in the purification by QuEChERS and concentration by DLLME were optimized. In the QuEChERS process, FeO MNPs were used as a new impurity adsorbent after the sample extraction procedure by acetonitrile, which achieved phase separation rapidly. Carbon black was used as an alternative to costly graphitized carbon black without affecting the recovery. In the process of DLLME, 1 mL of the extract obtained by QuEChERS was used as the dispersive solvent, 40 L of chloroform was used as the extractive solvent, and 4 mL of water was added. Making them mix well, then the dispersed liquid-liquid microextraction concentration was subsequently carried out. The enrichment factors of 8 OCPs ranged from 22.8 to 36.6. The recoveries of the proposed method ranged from 78.6% to 107.7%, and the relative standard deviations were not more than 7.5%. The limits of detection and limits of quantification were 0.15-0.32 g/kg and 0.45-0.96 g/kg, respectively. The method has been successfully applied to the determination of OCPs in green leafy vegetable samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6622063DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7994098PMC
March 2021

Crystal Violet-Sensitized Direct Z-Scheme Heterojunction Coupled with a G-Wire Superstructure for Photoelectrochemical Sensing of Uracil-DNA Glycosylase.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Apr 28;13(13):15881-15889. Epub 2021 Mar 28.

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, P. R. China.

Dye sensitization achieving photoelectrochemical (PEC) signal amplification for ultrasensitive bioanalysis has undergone a major breakthrough. In this proposal, an innovative PEC sensing platform is developed by combining Z-scheme WO@SnS photoactive materials and a G-wire superstructure as well as a dye sensitization enhancement strategy. The newly synthesized WO@SnS heterojunction with outstanding PEC performance is employed as a photoelectrode matrix. Due to the formation of the Z-scheme heterojunction between WO and SnS, the migration dynamics of the photogenerated carrier is evidently augmented. To improve sensitivity, the target excision-driven dual-cycle signal amplification strategy is introduced to output exponential c-myc fragments. Crystal violet is then conjugated into the G-quadruplex to amplify the PEC signal, where crystal violet generates excited electrons by capturing visible light and rapidly injects electrons into the conduction band of SnS, suppressing the recombination of the photo-induced carrier. Moreover, the G-wire superstructure acts as a universal amplification pathway, ensuring adequate crystal violet loads. Specifically, the biosensor for uracil-DNA glycosylase quantification displays a wide detection range (0.0005-1.0 U/mL) and a lower detection limit (0.00025 U/mL). Furthermore, the Z-scheme electron migration mechanism and the crystal violet sensitization effect are discussed in detail. The construction of the PEC sensor provides a new consideration for signal amplification and material design.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c01525DOI Listing
April 2021

Assessing the Measurement Invariance of the Gratitude Questionnaire-5 in Chinese and American Adolescents.

Span J Psychol 2021 Mar 22;24:e17. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

University of South Carolina (US).

Given the possibility of cultural differences in the meaning and levels of gratitude among children, we evaluated the measurement invariance of the Gratitude Questionnaire-5 (GQ-5) and differences in latent means across adolescents from two distinct cultures, China and America. Data were obtained from 1,991 Chinese and 1,685 American adolescents. Confirmatory factor analysis and multigroup confirmatory factor analysis were performed to examine the factor structure and the measurement equivalence across Chinese and American adolescents. The Cronbach's alpha and Item-total Correlations of the GQ-5 were also evaluated. Results of confirmatory factor analyses provided support for the expected one-factor structure. Also, a series of multi-group confirmatory factor analyses supported full configural invariance, full metric invariance, and partial scalar invariance between the two groups. Furthermore, the findings suggested that the GQ-5 is suitable for conducting mean level comparisons. The subsequent comparison of latent means revealed that the Chinese adolescents reported significantly lower gratitude than American adolescents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/SJP.2021.19DOI Listing
March 2021

Single-Particle Imaging of Anion Exchange Reactions in Cuprous Oxide.

ACS Nano 2021 Apr 16;15(4):6481-6488. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

National Collaborative Innovation Center for Nuclear Waste and Environmental Safety, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang, 621010, People's Republic of China.

Ion exchange is a predominant and flexible route to tailor the composition and crystal structure of various materials. monitoring of the ion exchange process at the single-particle level is critical to better understand the reaction mechanism and engineer high-performance materials. We report herein a dark-field imaging approach to investigate the anion exchange reactions between individual CuO microparticles and S or Cl assisted by the hydrolysis of Sn, which are visualized by directly observing the color change of single CuO microparticles. The variation of the scattering intensity is applied for quantitative analysis of anion exchange kinetics, revealing that this reaction process is dependent on the morphology, size, environmental pH, and reactant concentration. We directly observe that the corners of CuO are the preferential exchange sites, and the reaction activity is surface dependent. Moreover, the reaction rate constant and diffusion coefficient are estimated to be 1.1 × 10 s and 9.4 × 10 cm/s. Furthermore, a single-particle colorimetric assay is also fabricated for visual detection of S.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.0c09094DOI Listing
April 2021

In Situ Visualizing Oxidase-Mimicking Activity of Single MnOOH Nanotubes with Mie Scattering-Based Absorption Microscopy.

Inorg Chem 2021 Apr 15;60(7):5264-5270. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

National Collaborative Innovation Center for Nuclear Waste and Environmental Safety, School of National Defence Science & Technology, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010, P. R. China.

Imaging the catalytic activity at the single-particle level can greatly promote the screening and rational design of highly efficient nanozymes, but conventional techniques are based on ensemble analysis. Here, we present a new absorption microscopy for in situ visualizing oxidase-mimicking activity of single MnOOH nanotubes. The particle with a size more than 700 nm roughly equally scatters all wavelengths of visible light via Mie scattering, and the scattering light is collected by dark-field optical microscopy. When the particles absorb a single color of the scattering light, each individual nanoparticle shows its complementary color, enabling a form of absorption microscopy that we name Mie scattering-based absorption microscopy. We find that MnOOH nanotubes can catalyze the oxidation of 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) to generate polyTMB nanowires at their tips. There are multiple active sites on the surface of the individual nanotube, and the nanozyme activity shows a large heterogeneity as well as pH-dependent characteristic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.inorgchem.1c00250DOI Listing
April 2021

Loss of Integrity of Corpus Callosum White Matter Hyperintensity Penumbra Predicts Cognitive Decline in Patients With Subcortical Vascular Mild Cognitive Impairment.

Front Aging Neurosci 2021 18;13:605900. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Department of Radiology, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Loss of white matter (WM) integrity contributes to subcortical vascular mild cognitive impairment (svMCI). Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has revealed damage beyond the area of WM hyperintensity (WMH) including in normal-appearing WM (NAWM); however, the functional significance of this observation is unclear. To answer this question, in this study we investigated the relationship between microstructural changes in the WMH penumbra (WMH-P) and cognitive function in patients with svMCI by regional tract-based analysis. A total of 111 patients with svMCI and 72 patients with subcortical ischemic vascular disease (SIVD) without cognitive impairment (controls) underwent DTI and neuropsychological assessment. WMH burden was determined before computing mean values of fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) within WMHs and WMH-Ps. Pearson's partial correlations were used to assess the relationship between measurements showing significant intergroup differences and composite -scores representing global cognitive function. Multiple linear regression analysis was carried out to determine the best model for predicting composite -scores. We found that WMH burden in the genu, body, and splenium of the corpus callosum (GCC, BCC, and SCC respectively); bilateral anterior, superior, and posterior corona radiata; left sagittal stratum was significantly higher in the svMCI group than in the control group ( < 0.05). The WMH burden of the GCC, BCC, SCC, and bilateral anterior corona radiata was negatively correlated with composite -scores. Among diffusion parameters showing significant differences across the 10 WM regions, mean FA values of WMH and WMH-P of the BCC were correlated with composite -scores in svMCI patients. The results of the multiple linear regression analysis showed that the FA of WMH-P of the BCC and WMH burden of the SCC and GCC were independent predictors of composite -score, with the FA of WMH-P of the BCC making the largest contribution. These findings indicate that disruption of the CC microstructure-especially the WMH-P of the BCC-may contribute to the cognitive deficits associated with SIVD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2021.605900DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7930322PMC
February 2021

Facile construction of 2D g-CN supported nanoflower-like NaBiO with direct Z-scheme heterojunctions and insight into its photocatalytic degradation of tetracycline.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Feb 27;414:125547. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

School of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Higher Education Mega Center, Guangzhou 510006, China.

Photocatalytic oxidation using solar energy is a promising green technology to degrade antibiotic contaminants. Herein, a 2D g-CN supported nanoflower-like NaBiO with direct Z-scheme heterojunction was synthesized via a facile hydrothermal approach, and the photocatalytic performance of g-CN/NaBiO was remarkable better than that of g-CN and NaBiO for tetracycline degradation under visible light. Photoinduced electrons accumulated on the conduction band of g-CN and holes gathered on the valence band of NaBiO, which was more suitable for generating superoxide and hydroxyl radicals. Meanwhile, the built-in electric field between g-CN and NaBiO was proved by their different work functions based on DFT calculations, which enhanced the charges separation. The formed radicals were determined by ESR, and their role in the degradation of tetracycline was examined by the active species trapping test. Moreover, the sites attacked by free radicals and degradation pathways for tetracycline were inferred by the results of Gaussian 09 program and HPLC-MS. The effects of water matrix and three other organic contaminants was further studied for actual use evaluation. Importantly, the prepared g-CN/NaBiO showed stable photodegradation activity for eight cycles. This work not only provides a promising photocatalyst, but also gets insight into the photocatalytic removal of tetracycline.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.125547DOI Listing
February 2021

Targeting Radiation-Resistant Prostate Cancer Stem Cells by B7-H3 CAR T Cells.

Mol Cancer Ther 2021 03;20(3):577-588

Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

Radiotherapy (RT) is a key treatment for prostate cancer. However, RT resistance can contribute to treatment failure. Prostate cancer stem cells (PCSCs) are radioresistant. We recently found that fractionated irradiation (FIR) upregulates expression of the immune checkpoint B7-H3 (CD276) on PCSCs and bulk cells in each prostate cancer cell line tested. These findings prompted us to investigate whether B7-H3 targeting chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells, which may abrogate function of an immune checkpoint and mediate lysis of targeted cells, can target RT-resistant PCSCs and . B7-H3 expression is naturally higher on PCSCs than bulk prostate cancer cells and cytotoxicity of B7-H3 CAR T cells to PCSCs is more potent than to bulk prostate cancer cells. Furthermore, FIR significantly upregulates B7-H3 expression on PCSCs and bulk prostate cancer cells. The duration of FIR or single-dose irradiation-induced further upregulation of B7-H3 on bulk prostate cancer cells and PCSCs lasts for up to 3 days. B7-H3 CAR T-cell cytotoxicity against FIR-resistant PCSCs at a low effector to target ratio of 1:1 was assessed by flow cytometry and sphere formation assays. Further upregulation of B7-H3 expression by FIR made PCSCs even more sensitive to B7-H3 CAR T-cell-mediated killing. Consequently, the FIR and B7-H3 CAR T-cell therapy combination is much more effective than FIR or CAR T cells alone in growth inhibition of hormone-insensitive prostate cancer xenografts in immunodeficient mice. Our work provides a sound basis for further development of this unique combinatorial model of RT and B7-H3 CAR T-cell therapy for prostate cancer. SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrate that FIR significantly upregulates B7-H3 expression by RT-resistant PCSCs and bulk cells; cytotoxicity of B7-H3 CAR T cells to FIR-treated PCSCs is potent and results in significantly improved antitumor efficacy in mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-20-0446DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7952034PMC
March 2021

Release Mechanism, Secondary Pollutants and Denitrification Performance Comparison of Six Kinds of Agricultural Wastes as Solid Carbon Sources for Nitrate Removal.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 01 29;18(3). Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Research Center of Environmental Pollution Control Technology, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Science, Beijing 100012, China.

Agricultural wastes used as denitrification carbon sources have some drawbacks such as excessive organic carbon release and unclear release characteristics of nitrogen, phosphorus, and chromatic substances, which can cause adverse effects on the effluent quality during the denitrification process. The composition and surface characteristics, carbon release mechanisms, and secondary pollutant release properties of six kinds of agricultural wastes, i.e., rice straw (RS), wheat straw (WS), corn stalk (CS), corncob (CC), soybean stalk (SS), and soybean hull (SH) were studied and analyzed in this research. The denitrification performance of these agricultural wastes was also investigated extensively by batch experiments. The results showed that the carbon release basically followed the second-order reaction kinetic equation and Ritger-Peppas equation in the 120 h reaction, and it was mainly controlled by the diffusion process. The kinetic equation fitting results and bioavailability test suggested that the potential risk of excessive effluent COD of CC was the lowest due to the appropriate amount and degradability of its released carbon. The NH-N, TN, and TP in the leachate of RS were higher than those of the other five agriculture wastes, and the chroma in the leachate of WS and CS was heavier than that of the others. CC released the lowest pollutants, which resulted in slight fluctuations of effluent quality in the start-up period (1-11 d), and it had the best nitrogen removal capacity in the denitrification experiment. The average NO-N removal of CC was 5.12 mg for each batch in the stable period (11-27 d), which was higher than that of others, and less NO-N, NH-N, and COD were accumulated in the CC effluent during the whole denitrification process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18031232DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7908289PMC
January 2021

Therapeutic Effects and Mechanisms of Hydroxyasiaticoside Combined With Praziquantel in the Treatment of Schistosomiasis Induced Hepatic Fibrosis.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2020 22;8:613784. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Department of Trauma and Reconstructive Surgery, Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule Aachen University Hospital, Aachen, Germany.

Schistosomiasis has been a fatal obstinate disease that threatens global human health, resulting in the granulomatous inflammation and liver fibrosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effects and mechanisms of hydroxyasiaticoside combined with praziquantel in the treatment of schistosomiasis-induced liver fibrosis. Mice were randomly distributed into four experimental groups: normal control group, model group, praziquantel group, praziquantel + hydroxyasiaticoside group. Except for the normal control group, they were infected with through the abdominal skin to induce liver fibrosis. In the intervention group, mice were administered with the respective drugs by gavage after 8 weeks of infection. At the end of the treatment, mice were sacrificed to collect blood for the determination of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) serum levels. Moreover, the liver was excised, weighed, and liver indices were calculated. Histopathological examination was performed to assess liver morphology. Besides, the expression of collagen type I and III in liver was determined; the mRNA expression levels of IL-6 and TNF-α in liver tissues were measured using Real-time PCR while ELISA and western blotting were performed on liver tissue homogenate to determine the protein expression of IL-6 and TNF-α. The combination of praziquantel and hydroxyasiaticoside lowered the pathological scores of schistosomiasis-induced hepatic fibrosis, the liver indice, serum AST and ALT levels, improved liver morphology, downregulated the expression levels of hepatic type I and III collagen, inhibited the mRNA expression levels of pro-inflammatory factors (IL-6 and TNF-α) in the liver of mice relative to the praziquantel alone. The combination of hydroxyasiaticoside and praziquantel is a potential therapeutic option for schistosomiasis-induced hepatic fibrosis. Notably, this combination noticeably suppresses the protein and mRNA expression levels of pro-inflammatory factors (TNF-α and IL-6) in the liver.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fbioe.2020.613784DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7862569PMC
January 2021

Modified cerebral small vessel disease score is associated with vascular cognitive impairment after lacunar stroke.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 Feb 1;13(7):9510-9521. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Department of Neurology, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

We conducted a cross-sectional study to characterize the relationship between total and modified small vessel disease (SVD) score with vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). Patients (n = 157) between the ages of 50 and 85 years old who had suffered their first lacunar infarction were analyzed prospectively. Brain magnetic resonance imaging was performed to identify SVD manifestations, which were used to calculate total or modified SVD scores. Neuropsychological assessments measured cognitive function. Spearman correlation analysis demonstrated that the total and modified SVD scores were associated with overall cognition as well as with function in the executive and visuospatial domains. The associations remained significant in linear regression after adjusting for age, sex, education and vascular risk factors. Binary logistic regression and chi-squared trend tests revealed that VCI risk increased significantly with SVD burden based on the modified SVD score. Subsequent chi-squared testing demonstrated that the VCI rate was significantly higher in patients with a modified SVD score of 5-6 than in patients without any SVD burden. Our results suggest that both the total and modified SVD scores show a negative association with cognitive function, but the modified SVD score may be better at identifying patients at high VCI risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.202438DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8064168PMC
February 2021

Prenatal exposure to organochlorine pesticides and infant growth: A longitudinal study.

Environ Int 2021 03 18;148:106374. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

State Key Laboratory of Environment Health (Incubation), Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Environment and Health (Wuhan), Ministry of Environmental Protection, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, #13 Hangkong Road, Wuhan 430030, Hubei, China. Electronic address:

Background: The association between exposure to organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and infant growth has been reported contradictorily in previous studies. Few studies have investigated the effects of prenatal exposure to OCPs on infant growth assessed longitudinally at multiple time points.

Objectives: The purpose of the study was to examine the associations between prenatal exposure to OCPs and infant growth at birth, 6, 12 and 24 months of age, and further to explore the potential sex-specific effects.

Methods: The study population included 1039 mother-infant pairs who participated in a birth cohort study in Wuhan, China. The weight, length and body mass index (BMI) z-score of infants were measured and calculated at birth, 6, 12 and 24 months of age. The overweight status was defined as BMI z-score ≥ 85th percentile according to the standard of World Health Organization. The concentrations of OCPs were measured in cord serum, including hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs, consisted of α-HCH, β-HCH, and γ-HCH), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT) and its metabolites: p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p,p'-DDD), and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE). Generalized linear models were applied to estimate the associations of cord OCPs with infant growth parameters. A group-based semiparametric mixture model was used to estimate growth patterns of infants. Linear-mixed growth curve models were used to examine relationships between predicted growth trajectories and prenatal exposure to OCPs. Weighted quantile sum regression (WQSR) analyses were used to estimate the mixture effects of OCPs on infant growth.

Results: Higher cord serum β-HCH concentrations were associated with higher BMI z-score at 12 [β = 0.07, 95%CI: 0.01, 0.13] and 24 months of age [β = 0.08, 95% CI: 0.02, 0.14]. Similar patterns were observed for relationships of γ-HCH [β = 0.04, 95%CI: 0.01, 0.07] and p,p'-DDT [β = 0.03, 95% CI: 0.00, 0.06] with BMI z-score at 6 and 12 months of age, respectively. However, higher cord serum p,p'-DDE concentrations were associated with a reduction of BMI z-score at 6 months of age [β = -0.07, 95% CI: -0.12, -0.01]. Cord serum β-HCH was also positively associated with the risk of overweight at 12 months of age [RR = 1.16, 95% CI (1.02, 1.33), for the medium vs the lowest tertile]. Among girls, the effects of β-HCH on BMI z-score and overweight status were stronger than boys at 12 and 24 months of age. No statistically significant relationships of other OCPs with infant growth were observed.

Conclusions: Prenatal exposure to β-HCH was associated with increased BMI z-score and higher risk of overweight status in infants especially at 12 and 24 months of age, which seemed to be stronger in girls.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2020.106374DOI Listing
March 2021

High temperature-mediated disturbance of carbohydrate metabolism and gene expressional regulation in rice: a review.

Plant Signal Behav 2021 Mar 20;16(3):1862564. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

College of Coastal Agricultural Sciences, Guangdong Ocean University , Zhanjiang,China.

Global warming has induced higher frequencies of excessively high-temperature weather episodes, which pose damage risk to rice growth and production. Past studies seldom specified how high temperature-induced carbohydrate metabolism disturbances from both source and sink affect rice fertilization and production. Here we discuss the mechanism of heat-triggered damage to rice quality and production through disturbance of carbohydrate generation and consumption under high temperatures. Furthermore, we provide strong evidence from past studies that rice varieties that maintain high photosynthesis and carbohydrate usage efficiencies under high temperatures will suffer less heat-induced damage during reproductive developmental stages. We also discuss the complexity of expressional regulation of rice genes in response to high temperatures, while highlighting the important roles of heat-inducible post-transcriptional regulations of gene expression. Lastly, we predict future directions in heat-tolerant rice breeding and also propose challenges that need to be conquered in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15592324.2020.1862564DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7889029PMC
March 2021

Pathways involved in pony body size development.

BMC Genomics 2021 Jan 18;22(1):58. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

College of Life Sciences, Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, No. 306 Zhaowuda Road, Hohhot, 010018, China.

Background: The mechanism of body growth in mammals is poorly understood. Here, we investigated the regulatory networks involved in body growth through transcriptomic analysis of pituitary and epiphyseal tissues of smaller sized Debao ponies and Mongolian horses at the juvenile and adult stages.

Results: We found that growth hormone receptor (GHR) was expressed at low levels in long bones, although growth hormone (GH) was highly expressed in Debao ponies compared with Mongolian horses. Moreover, significant downregulated of the GHR pathway components m-RAS and ATF3 was found in juvenile ponies, which slowed the proliferation of bone osteocytes. However, WNT2 and PLCβ2 were obviously upregulated in juvenile Debao ponies, which led to premature mineralization of the bone extracellular matrix. Furthermore, we found that the WNT/Ca pathway may be responsible for regulating body growth. GHR was demonstrated by q-PCR and Western blot analyses to be expressed at low levels in long bones of Debao ponies. Treatment with WNT antagonistI decreased the expression of WNT pathway components (P < 0.05) in vitro. Transduction of ATDC5 cells with a GHR-RNAi lentiviral vector decreased the expression of the GHR pathway components (P < 0.05). Additionally, the expression of the IGF-1 gene in the liver was lower in Debao ponies than in Mongolian horses at the juvenile and adult stages. Detection of plasma hormone concentrations showed that Debao ponies expressed higher levels of IGF-1 as juveniles and higher levels of GH as adults than Mongolian horses, indicating that the hormone regulation in Debao ponies differs from that in Mongolian horses.

Conclusion: Our work provides insights into the genetic regulation of short stature growth in mammals and can provide useful information for the development of therapeutic strategies for small size.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-020-07323-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7814589PMC
January 2021

An Integrative Analysis Reveals the Potential Mechanism between Herbal Medicine Yinchen and Immunoregulation in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Biomed Res Int 2020 29;2020:8886914. Epub 2020 Dec 29.

Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province 510080, China.

. Abundant evidences in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) supported the therapeutic value of herbal medicine Yinchen in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but the underlying mechanism remains to be investigated. . The intersection of immune gene set, module genes, HCC-associated genes, and target genes of Yinchen was employed for further analyses. The module genes were identified by weighted gene coexpression network analysis, and the other three gene sets were obtained from public databases. Subsequently, we further explored the clinical value and immunoregulation of the hub gene of intersection. The relevant pathways related to hub gene expression were investigated by gene set enrichment analysis. Finally, the interaction of active compounds and target genes was validated by molecular docking. . Thirteen active compounds and 90 target genes of Yinchen were included. After constructing the network among Yinchen, target genes, and HCC, BIRC5 was identified as the hub gene. Significant difference was found between the high-expressed group and the low-expressed group in survival and stage. Different immune subtypes also presented significant difference in BIRC5 expression. Moreover, NK cell and T cell (CD4+ effector memory and CD4+ memory resting) were negatively correlated with BIRC5 expression, while CTLA4 and LAG3 were positively correlated. The results of molecular docking further validated a good binding activity of quercetin-BIRC5 interaction. . In summary, our research identified for the first time a novel underlying association among herbal medicine Yinchen, BIRC5, immunotherapy, and HCC. We speculated that Yinchen may target the immune checkpoints (CTLA4 and LAG3) and activate the immune cells by suppressing BIRC5.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/8886914DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7785361PMC
December 2020

Clinical efficacy of methylprednisolone and the combined use of lopinavir/ritonavir with arbidol in treatment of coronavirus disease 2019.

J Med Virol 2021 Jan 15. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Department of Infectious Disease, State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Infectious Diseases, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China.

This study aims to comparatively analyze the therapeutic efficacy upon multiple medication plans over lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r), arbidol (ARB), and methylprednisolone on patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Totally, 75 COVID-19 patients admitted to The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine from January 22, 2020 to February 29, 2020 were recruited and grouped based on whether or not LPV/r and ARB were jointly used and whether or not methylprednisolone was used. Indexes including body temperature, time for nucleic acid negative conversion, hospital stays, and laboratory indexes were examined and compared. For all patients, there were no significant differences in the change of body temperature, the time for negative conversion, and hospital stays whether LPV/r and ARB were jointly used or not. While for severe and critically severe patients, methylprednisolone noticeably reduced the time for negative conversion. Meanwhile, the clinical efficacy was superior on patients receiving methylprednisolone within 3 days upon admission, and the duration of hospital stays was much shorter when methylprednisolone was given at a total dose of 0-400 mg than a higher dose of >400 mg if all patients received a similar dose per day. Nonetheless, no significant changes across hepatic, renal, and myocardial function indexes were observed. LPV/r combined with ARB produced no noticeably better effect on COVID-19 patients relative to the single-agent treatment. Additionally, methylprednisolone was efficient in severe and critically severe cases, and superior efficacy could be realized upon its early, appropriate, and short-term application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.26798DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8013375PMC
January 2021

Diminished excitatory synaptic transmission correlates with impaired spatial working memory in neurodevelopmental rodent models of schizophrenia.

Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2021 Mar 12;202:173103. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Pathophysiology, Department of Pharmacology, Ningbo University School of Medicine, 818 Fenghua Rd, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315211, China; Key Laboratory of Addiction Research of Zhejiang Province, Ningbo Kangning Hospital, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315010, China. Electronic address:

Neurodevelopmental abnormalities are associated with cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia. In particular, deficits of working memory, are consistently observed in schizophrenia, reflecting prefrontal cortex (PFc) dysfunction. To elucidate the mechanism of such deficits in working memory, the pathophysiological properties of PFc neurons and synaptic transmission have been studied in several developmental models of schizophrenia. Given the pathogenetic heterogeneity of schizophrenia, comparison of PFc synaptic transmission between models of prenatal and postnatal defect would promote our understanding on the developmental components of the biological vulnerability to schizophrenia. In the present study, we investigated the excitatory synaptic transmission onto pyramidal cells localized in layer 5 of the medial PFc (mPFc) in two developmental models of schizophrenia: gestational methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) administration and post-weaning social isolation (SI). We found that both models exhibited defective spatial working memory, as indicated by lower spontaneous alternations in a Y-maze paradigm. The recordings from pyramidal neurons in both models exhibited decreased spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic current (sEPSC), representing the reduction of excitatory synaptic transmission in the mPFc. Interestingly, a positive correlation between the impaired spontaneous alternation behavior and the decreased excitatory synaptic transmission of pyramidal neurons was found in both models. These findings suggest that diminished excitatory neurotransmission in the mPFc could be a common pathophysiology regardless of the prenatal and postnatal pathogenesis in developmental models of schizophrenia, and that it might underlie the mechanism of defective working memory in those models.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pbb.2021.173103DOI Listing
March 2021

The Potassium Transporter OsHAK5 Alters Rice Architecture via ATP-Dependent Transmembrane Auxin Fluxes.

Plant Commun 2020 Sep 29;1(5):100052. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Germplasm Enhancement, MOA Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and Fertilization in Lower-Middle Reaches of the Yangtze River, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China.

Plant HAK/KUP/KT family members function as plasma membrane (PM) H/K symporters and may modulate chemiosmotically-driven polar auxin transport (PAT). Here, we show that inactivation of , a rice K transporter gene, decreased rootward and shootward PAT, tiller number, and the length of both lateral roots and root hairs, while overexpression increased PAT, tiller number, and root hair length, irrespective of the K supply. Inhibitors of ATP-binding-cassette type-B transporters, NPA and BUM, abolished the -overexpression effect on PAT. The mechanistic basis of these changes included the OsHAK5-mediated decrease of transmembrane potential (depolarization), increase of extracellular pH, and increase of PM-ATPase activity. These findings highlight the dual roles of OsHAK5 in altering cellular chemiosmotic gradients (generated continuously by PM H-ATPase) and regulating ATP-dependent auxin transport. Both functions may underlie the prominent effect of OsHAK5 on rice architecture, which may be exploited in the future to increase crop yield via genetic manipulations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.xplc.2020.100052DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7747981PMC
September 2020

Modification of polyvinylidene fluoride membrane by silver nanoparticles-graphene oxide hybrid nanosheet for effective membrane biofouling mitigation.

Chemosphere 2021 Apr 3;268:129187. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, National University of Singapore, 10 Kent Ridge Crescent, Singapore, 119260, Singapore; NUS Environmental Research Institute, National University of Singapore, 5A Engineering Drive 1, #02-01, Singapore, 117411, Singapore. Electronic address:

Membrane biofouling poses severe impacts on the membrane lifespan and performance. In this study, a silver nanoparticles-graphene oxide hybrid nanosheet (AgNPs-GO) was synthesized as a bactericidal agent for effective membrane biofouling mitigation. The surface polymerization between polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and AgNPs-GO nanosheet improved the stability of inorganic biocidal materials on the membrane surface and had a significant effect on the permeability and rejection performance of membranes. The PVA/AgNPs-GO modified hydrophilic polyvinylidene fluoride (H-PVDF) membrane exhibited an excellent anti-microbial activity in both static contact and filtration modes; nearly 100% inactivation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in solution and 91% reduction in the membrane surface adhesion were found. The composite membrane with good stability and anti-microbial ability may offer an alternative to alleviate membrane biofouling problem.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.129187DOI Listing
April 2021