Publications by authors named "Ling Xu"

1,218 Publications

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A Pilot Behavioural and Neuroimaging Investigation on Photothrombotic Stroke Models in Rhesus Monkeys.

J Neurosci Methods 2021 Jul 19:109291. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

National Resource Center for Non-Human Primates, Kunming Primate Research Center, and National Research Facility for Phenotypic & Genetic Analysis of Model Animals (Primate Facility), Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan, China. Electronic address:

Background: Ischemic stroke leads to a long-term disability in humans and no efficient clinical therapy exists to date. The middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model in non-human primates has shown to be of value for translational stroke research. New method In the current study, a photothrombotic (PT) stroke model was established in rhesus monkeys with either a proximal or distal segment of middle cerebral artery (MCA) thrombosis. This study is the first that compares the two approaches of PT stroke in monkeys using behavioral and physiological measurements and MRI scans.

Results: The experiment found that infarct occurred in the MCA target regions, with all monkeys having impaired behavior reflected by deficits in neurologic function, and motor and cognition in object retrieval detour (ORD) task. The monkeys with distal MCA thrombosis developed with sequential photo-irritations of the Sylvian fissure zone, adjacent central anterior gyrus and central posterior gyrus, had similar impairments with respect to behavior and showed a tendency of a small edema volume with proximal MCA thrombosis at days 4 and 7 post PT stroke.

Comparison With Existing Methods: The distal MCA thrombosis developed with sequential photo-irritations might provide a consistent and well-tolerated focal ischemia in rhesus monkeys, compared with other PT stroke models which usually were singly conducted on the animal's motor cortex and had a temporal effect.

Conclusions: The sequentially photo-irritated PT stroke model is a promising ischemic stroke model in rhesus monkey for studying human stroke pathology and physiology and for new therapies development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jneumeth.2021.109291DOI Listing
July 2021

Human gingiva-derived mesenchymal stem cells promote osteogenic differentiation through their immunosuppressive function.

J Oral Biosci 2021 Jul 17. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Department of Prosthodontics, Ninth People's Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China; Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology and Shanghai Research Institute of Stomatology, National Clinical Research Center of Stomatology, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Objectives: Human gingiva-derived mesenchymal stem cells (GMSCs) have emerged as a new MSC population exhibiting robust immune regulatory functions, multipotent differentiation potential, and regenerative ability. However, the effects of GMSCs on T cells remain unexplored. Herein, we aimed to evaluate whether GMSCs promote osteogenic differentiation by regulating immune cells.

Methods: The GMSC phenotype was confirmed using the colony-forming assay, immunophenotyping, Oil red O staining, and Alizarin red staining. mRNA expression levels of proinflammatory molecules (interleukin-1β [IL-1β] and tumor necrosis factor-α [TNF-α]) and anti-inflammatory factors (IL-10) were measured by quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). Then, MC3T3-E1 cells were treated with the collected co-culture supernatant, followed by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and immunofluorescence staining to evaluate osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells. qRT-PCR and western blotting were employed to analyze the expression levels of osteogenic differentiation proteins, including collagen type I (COL-1), ALP, osteopontin (OPN), and runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2).

Results: GMSCs were successfully isolated and identified. We observed that GMSCs suppressed the activated T-cell function by downregulating IL-1β and TNF-α and upregulating IL-10. Simultaneously, the expression levels of osteogenesis-related genes (COL-1, ALP, OPN, and RUNX2) were markedly lower in the co-culture supernatant and Jurkat T cell supernatant groups than those in the normal culture medium group; however, expression levels were significantly increased in the co-culture supernatant group when compared with the Jurkat T cell supernatant group.

Conclusion: Our findings indicate that GMSCs could promote the osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells by inhibiting the biological activity of activated T cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.job.2021.07.003DOI Listing
July 2021

Lung abscess secondary to lung cancer with a coinfection of Granulicatellaadiacens and other bacteria: a case report.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Jul 8;21(1):662. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

The first Clinical College of Xinjiang Medical University, Urumqi city, China.

Background: Granulicatella adiacens is facultative anaerobic Gram-positive bacteria, which mainly involve bacterial endocarditis and bacteremia, but there are few reports of local suppurative infection. A case of lung abscess with a coinfection of Granulicatella adiacens and other bacteria in a lung cancer patient will be reported in this paper. To our knowledge, this is the first case report describing lung abscess due to G.adiacens.

Case Presentation: A 52-year-old Chinese woman was admitted to the hospital, She complained of coughing and expectoration for 1 month, shortness of breath for half a month, and dyspnea for 1 day. After a series of examinations, she was diagnosed with lung abscess, pleural effusion, and bronchogenic carcinoma. Draining pus culture demonstrated Granulicatella adiacens. After more than 5 weeks of antibiotic therapies in total, she gradually recovered to fight against lung cancer.

Conclusion: This is the first reported lung abscess caused by G.adiacens. In immunosuppressed hosts, G.adiacens is a virulent pathogen associated with a spectrum of intrathoracic suppurative. Earlier diagnosis and proper drainage surgery with effective antibiotics treatment are very important, and antimicrobial treatment should be more than 5 weeks. When complex pulmonary infection interferes with the CT diagnosis, clinical suspicion of lung cancer should be increased if G.adiacens or Eikenella corrodens is detected from a pulmonary infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-021-06191-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8265077PMC
July 2021

The role of NFAT2/miR-20a-5p signaling pathway in the regulation of CD8 naïve T cells activation and differentiation.

Immunobiology 2021 Jul 1;226(4):152111. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Depart of Hematology, First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China; Key Laboratory for Regenerative Medicine of Ministry of Education, Institute of Hematology, School of Medicine, Jinan University, 601 Huang Pu Da Dao Xi, 510632 Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

T cell dysfunction is a common characteristic in leukemia patients that significantly impacts clinical treatment and prognosis. However, the mechanism underlying T cell dysfunction and its reversal remains unclear. In this study, in accordance with our previous findings, we found that the expression of NFAT2 and pri-miR-17 ~ 92 are lower in peripheral blood CD3 T cells from chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) patients by gene expression analysis. We further demonstrate that the NFAT2-induced activation, differentiation, and expression of cytokines in human umbilical cord blood CD8 naïve T cells are miR-20a-5p dependent. We also preliminarily explored the relationship between NFAT2 and miR-20a-5p in naive T cells. These results suggest that NFAT2 and miR-20a are crucial for regulating functional CD8 T cells. Additionally, their alteration may be related to CD8 T cell dysfunction in CML patients; thus, NFAT2 and miR-20a-5p may be considered potential targets for revising T cell function in leukemia immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.imbio.2021.152111DOI Listing
July 2021

Identifying Potential Neoantigens for Cervical Cancer Immunotherapy Using Comprehensive Genomic Variation Profiling of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia and Cervical Cancer.

Front Oncol 2021 17;11:672386. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Key Laboratory of Systems Biomedicine (Ministry of Education), Shanghai Center for Systems Biomedicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Cervical cancer (CC) is one of the most common gynecological malignant tumors. The 5-year survival rate remains poor for the advanced and metastatic cervical cancer for the lack of effective treatments. Immunotherapy plays an important role in clinical tumor therapy. Neoantigens derived from tumor-specific somatic mutations are prospective targets for immunotherapy. Hence, the identification of new targets is of great significance for the treatment of advanced and metastatic cervical cancer. In this study, we performed whole-exome sequencing in 70 samples, including 25 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CINs) with corresponding blood samples and 10 CCs along with paired adjacent tissues to identify genomic variations and to find the potential neoantigens for CC immunotherapy. Using systematic bioinformatics pipeline, we found that C>T transitions were in both CINs and CCs. In contrast, the number of somatic mutations in CCs was significantly higher than those in CINs (t-test, = 6.60E-04). Meanwhile, mutational signatures analysis revealed that signature 6 was detected in CIN2, CIN3, and CC, but not in CIN1, while signature 2 was only observed in CCs. Furthermore, , and were identified as potential driver genes in this report, of which was firstly reported in CC. Based on the genomic variation profiling of CINs and CCs, we identified 2586 potential neoantigens in these patients, of which 45 neoantigens were found in three neoantigen-related databases (TSNAdb, IEDB, and CTDatabase). Our current findings lay a solid foundation for the study of the pathogenesis of CC and the development of neoantigen-targeted immunotherapeutic measures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.672386DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8249860PMC
June 2021

QiShenYiQi Pill Improves Myocardial Hypertrophy Caused by Pressure Overload in Rats.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 16;2021:5536723. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

The First Teaching Hospital of Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin 300193, China.

Pressure-overloaded myocardial hypertrophy is an independent risk factor for various cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), such as heart failure (HF), arrhythmia, and even sudden death. It is reported that QiShenYiQi pill (QSYQ) is widely used in the treatment of CVDs and can prevent pathological hypertrophy of myocardium, but its specific mechanism is still unclear. In this study, a rat model of myocardial hypertrophy was established through the pressure overload caused by abdominal aortic constriction in Wistar rats. The rats were randomly divided into model group, valsartan group, and QSYQ group, and sham-operated animals served as the control group. At the 4 and 8 weeks of intervention, the general morphology of the heart, myocardial collagen content, collagen volume factor (CVF), collagen type I, collagen type III, myocardial pathological changes, and the expression of ANP, -MHC, TGF-1, and CTGF were analyzed, respectively, in order to explore the possible effect of QSYQ on the mechanism of myocardial hypertrophy. We observed that QSYQ could effectively improve myocardial hypertrophy in pressure-overloaded rats, which was related to the regulatory mechanism of TGF-1 and CTGF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/5536723DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8225423PMC
June 2021

Validation of the Prediction Accuracy for 13 Traits in Chinese Simmental Beef Cattle Using a Preselected Low-Density SNP Panel.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Jun 25;11(7). Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Bovine Breeding, Institute of Animal Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, China.

Chinese Simmental beef cattle play a key role in the Chinese beef industry due to their great adaptability and marketability. To achieve efficient genetic gain at a low breeding cost, it is crucial to develop a customized cost-effective low-density SNP panel for this cattle population. Thirteen growth, carcass, and meat quality traits and a BovineHD Beadchip genotyping of 1346 individuals were used to select trait-associated variants and variants contributing to great genetic variance. In addition, highly informative SNPs with high MAF in each 500 kb sliding window and in each genic region were also included separately. A low-density SNP panel consisting of 30,684 SNPs was developed, with an imputation accuracy of 97.4% when imputed to the 770 K level. Among 13 traits, the average prediction accuracy levels evaluated by genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP) and BayesA/B/Cπ were 0.22-0.47 and 0.18-0.60 for the ~30 K array and BovineHD Beadchip, respectively. Generally, the predictive performance of the ~30 K array was trait-dependent, with reduced prediction accuracies for seven traits. While differences in terms of prediction accuracy were observed among the 13 traits, the low-density SNP panel achieved moderate to high accuracies for most of the traits and even improved the accuracies for some traits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani11071890DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8300368PMC
June 2021

Thermal and Humidity Stability of Mixed Spacer Cations 2D Perovskite Solar Cells.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 Jun 6;8(12):2004510. Epub 2021 May 6.

Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics China-EU Institute and Renewable Energy Huazhong University of Science and Technology Wuhan 430074 P. R. China.

In this article, two different types of spacer cations, 1,4-butanediamonium (BDA) and 2-phenylethylammonium (PEA) are co-used to prepare the perovskite precursor solutions with the formula of (BDA) (PEA) MAPbX. By simply mixing the two spacer cations, the self-assembled polycrystalline films of (BDA)(PEA)MAPbX are obtained, and BDA is located in the crystal grains and PEA is distributed on the surface. The films display a small exciton binding energy, uniformly distributed quantum wells and improved carrier transport. Besides, utilizing mixed spacer cations also induces better crystallinity and vertical orientation of 2D perovskite (BDA)(PEA)MAPbX films. Thus, a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 17.21% is achieved in the optimized perovskite solar cells with the device structure of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/Perovskite/PCBM/BCP/Ag. In addition, the complementary humidity and thermal stability are obtained, which are ascribed to the enhanced interlayer interaction by BDA and improved moisture resistance by the hydrophobic group of PEA. The encapsulated devices are retained over 95% or 75% of the initial efficiency after storing 500 h in ambient air under 40 ± 5% relative humidity or 100 h in nitrogen at 60 °C.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/advs.202004510DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8224444PMC
June 2021

Efficient identification of raw and ripe tung oil by headspace GC-MS.

Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 2021 Jun 28:e9156. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

National Center for Inorganic Mass Spectrometry in Shanghai, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China.

Rationale: Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has been successfully applied for separation and identification of organic compounds in the fields of energy resources, chemistry, environmental protection, medical industry and so on. By GC-MS, the complex components of raw tung oil and ripe tung oil can be separated and determined. Through comparing the components between raw tung oil and ripe tung oil samples, the special substance could be figured out to distinguish the two kinds of tung oil.

Methods: In this paper, an efficient headspace gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-GC-MS) method was developed for identifying eight samples T1-T8 including the raw tung oil and ripe tung oil. Also, the HS-GC-MS method was applied into the putty samples of X1 (raw tung oil with lime) and X2 (ripe tung oil with lime).

Results: By the HS-GC-MS method, both the sample analysis of raw tung oil and ripe tung oil showed over 100 peaks with gas chromatogram, and a component like the octanoic acid was investigated only in all the ripe tung oil samples. Standard octanoic acid was utilized for the HS-GC-MS experiments and HS-GC-MS/MS experiments to verify the existence of octanoic acid in the ripe tung oil, and it was proposed that octanoic acid may be screened as a marker to distinguish the raw tung oil and the ripe tung oil.

Conclusion: The HS-GC-MS method could figure out the octanoic acid as a marker for distinguishing the differences between the raw tung oil and ripe tung oil, which could further identify the putty samples of X1 with raw tung oil and X2 with ripe tung oil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rcm.9156DOI Listing
June 2021

Obesity Challenge Drives Distinct Maternal Immune Response Changes in Normal Pregnant and Abortion-Prone Mouse Models.

Front Immunol 2021 9;12:694077. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Laboratory for Reproductive Immunology, NHC Key Lab of Reproduction Regulation (Shanghai Institute of Planned Parenthood Research), Shanghai Key Laboratory of Female Reproductive Endocrine Related Diseases, Hospital of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Fudan University Shanghai Medical College, Shanghai, China.

Obesity is prevalent among women of reproductive age and is associated with increased risk of developing multiple pregnancy disorders. Pregnancy must induce immune tolerance to avoid fetal rejection, while obesity can cause chronic inflammation through activating the immune system. Impaired maternal immuno-tolerance leads to pregnancy failure, such as recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA), one of the most common complications during early pregnancy. How does maternal immune response change under obesity stress in normal pregnancy and RSA? In turn, is obesity affected by different gestational statuses? Limited information is presently available now. Our study investigated pregnancy outcomes and maternal immune responses in two murine models (normal pregnancy and spontaneous abortion models) after obesity challenge with a high-fat diet (HFD). Abortion-prone mice fed HFD had significantly higher weight gains during pregnancy than normal pregnant mice with HFD feeding. Nonetheless, the embryo implantation and resorption rates were comparable between HFD and normal chow diet (NCD)-fed mice in each model. Evaluation of immune cell subsets showed HFD-induced obesity drove the upregulation of activated NK cell-activating receptor (NKp46) NK cells and pro-inflammatory macrophages (MHCII M) as well as CD4 and CD8 T cells in the normal pregnancy group. However, in the abortion-prone group, relative more immature NK cells with decreased activity phenotypes were found in obese mice. Moreover, there were increased DCreg (CD11b DC) cells and decreased CD4 and CD8 T cells detected in the HFD abortion-prone mice relative to those fed the NCD diet. Our findings reveal how pregnancy obesity and maternal immune regulation are mutually influenced. It is worth noting that the abortion-prone model where active maternal immune status was intensified by obesity, in turn stimulated an overcompensation response, leading to an over-tolerized immune status, and predisposing to potential risks of perinatal complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.694077DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8219966PMC
June 2021

Exploring the optimal crop planting structure to balance water saving, food security and incomes under the spatiotemporal heterogeneity of the agricultural climate.

J Environ Manage 2021 Jun 24;295:113130. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering (China Ministry of Education), School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Linggong Road 2, Dalian, 116024, PR China.

Crop planting provided foods, generated incomes, and consumed water resources to different extents under different spatiotemporal agroclimatic conditions. For balancing three aspects, targeting the rice, maize, wheat, and sorghum planted in Liaoning during the recent two decades, we established an integrated research framework consisting of water footprint (WF) accounting, clustering analysis, and fuzzy optimization programming to quantify the temporal trends and spatial distribution of water footprints, and optimized the planting structure under the different spatiotemporal agroclimatic conditions. Results showed that the maximum water footprint differences were 4166.73 m/t and 4790.71 m/t in spatial distribution and temporal series, respectively. Based on precipitation, we established 12 agroclimatic scenarios according to K-Means clustering. The fuzzy optimization result indicated that the planting area percent ranges of maize, wheat, rice, and sorghum in Liaoning province were 4.96%-98.62%, 0.00%-8.55%, 0.00%-18.18%, and 0.00%-95.04%, respectively under the different spatiotemporal conditions. This study's methods and results help make targeted decisions related to grain planting structure while considering the complex spatial-temporal conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.113130DOI Listing
June 2021

Combinatory strategy using nanoscale proteomics and machine learning for T cell subtyping in peripheral blood of single multiple myeloma patients.

Anal Chim Acta 2021 Aug 29;1173:338672. Epub 2021 May 29.

Department of Chemistry, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen, 518055, China. Electronic address:

T cells play crucial roles in our immunity against hematological tumors by inducing sustained immune responses. Flow cytometry-based detection of a limited number of specific protein markers has been routinely applied for basic research and clinical investigation in this area. In this study, we combined flow cytometry with the simple integrated spintip-based proteomics technology (SISPROT) to characterize the proteome of primary T cell subtypes in the peripheral blood (PB) from single multiple myeloma (MM) patients. Taking advantage of the integrated high pH reversed-phase fractionation in the SISPROT device, the global proteomes of CD3, CD4 and CD8 T cells were firstly profiled with a depth of >7 000 protein groups for each cell type. The sensitivity of single-shot proteomic analysis was dramatically improved by optimizing the SISPROT and data-dependent acquisition parameters for nanogram-level samples. Eight subtypes of T cells were sorted from about 4 mL PB of single MM patients, and the individual subtype-specific proteomes with coverage among 1 702 and 3 699 protein groups were obtained from as low as 70 ng and up to 500 ng of cell lysates. In addition, we developed a two-step machine learning-based subtyping strategy for proof-of-concept classifying eight T cell subtypes, independent of their cell numbers and individual differences. Our strategy demonstrates an easy-to-use proteomic analysis on immune cells with the potential to discover novel subtype-specific protein biomarkers from limited clinical samples in future large scale clinical studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2021.338672DOI Listing
August 2021

Downregulation of VDR in benign paroxysmal positional vertigo patients inhibits otolith‑associated protein expression levels.

Mol Med Rep 2021 Aug 24;24(2). Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Otolaryngology, Affiliated Hospital of Inner Mongolia Medical University, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia 010110, P.R. China.

Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is the most common peripheral vertigo‑associated disease. Vitamin D (VD) helps maintain normal otolith function and may be associated with BPPV. VD exerts its biological functions primarily via the VD receptor (VDR). The present study demonstrated that serum VD levels were significantly decreased in patients with BPPV compared with in controls. VDR, otolith‑associated protein otoconin‑90 (OC90) and NADPH oxidase 3 (NOX3) expression levels were also significantly decreased in patients with BPPV compared with in controls. Furthermore, a positive correlation was observed between VD levels and VDR expression. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis identified VDR expression levels as a potential diagnostic marker for BPPV. OC90 and NOX3 expression levels were notably lower in the inner ear tissue of VDR knockout mice compared with in those of wild‑type mice. In mice overexpressing VDR, OC90 and NOX3 were also overexpressed. Following intravenous injection of VD in VDR knockout mice, expression levels of OC90 and NOX3 were not significantly different from those in VDR knockout mice injected with saline. This indicated that VDR may be underexpressed in patients with BPPV and was associated with the expression levels of otolith‑associated proteins. Moreover, VDR mediated VD activation, leading to otolith protein formation. The present study provided a novel theoretical basis for BPPV onset that may facilitate the development of more effective diagnostic and treatment options.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2021.12230DOI Listing
August 2021

A nomogram for predicting brain metastasis in patients with de novo stage IV breast cancer.

Ann Transl Med 2021 May;9(10):853

Breast Disease Center, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, China.

Background: Brain metastasis (BM) is a very serious event in patients with breast cancer. The aim of this study was to establish a nomogram to predict the risk of BM in patients with stage IV breast cancer.

Methods: We gathered female patients diagnosed with de novo stage IV breast cancer between 2010 and 2015 from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. After randomly allocating the patients to the training set and verification set, we used univariate and multivariate logistic regression to analyze the relationship between BM and clinicopathological features. Finally, we developed a nomogram which was validated by the analysis of calibration curve and receiver operating characteristic curve.

Results: Of 7,154 patients with stage IV breast cancer, 422 developed BM. Age, tumor size, subtype, and the degree of lung involvement were significantly correlated with BM. The nomogram had discriminatory ability with an area under curve (AUC) of 0.640 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.607 to 0.673] in the training set, and 0.644 (95% CI: 0.595 to 0.693) in the validation set.

Conclusions: Our study developed a nomogram to predict BM for de novo stage IV breast cancer, thus helping clinicians to identify patients at high-risk of BM and implement early preventive interventions to improve their prognoses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-21-1808DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8184439PMC
May 2021

Reliability of Chinese web-based ocular surface disease index questionnaire in dry eye patients: a randomized, crossover study.

Int J Ophthalmol 2021 18;14(6):834-843. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Ophthalmology, He Eye Specialists Hospital, Shenyang 110034, Liaoning Province, China.

Aim: To assess the reliability of web-based version of ocular surface disease index in Chinese (C-OSDI) on clinically diagnosed dry eye disease (DE) patients.

Methods: A total of 254 Chinese participants (51% male, 129/254; mean age: 27.90±9.06y) with DED completed paper- and web-based versions of C-OSDI questionnaires in a randomized crossover design. Ophthalmology examination and DED diagnosis were performed prior to the participants being invited to join the study. Participants were randomly designated to either group A (paper-based first and web-based second) or group B (web-based first and paper-based second). Final data analysis included participants that had successfully completed both versions of the C-OSDI. Demographic characteristics, test-retest reliability, and agreement of individual items, subscales, and total score were evaluated with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), Spearman rank correlation, Wilcoxon test and Rasch analysis.

Results: Reliability indexes were adequate, Pearson correlation was greater than 0.8 and ICCs range was 0.827 to 0.982; total C-OSDI score was not statistically different between the two versions. The values of mean-squares fit statistics were very low compared to 1, indicating that the responses to the items by the model had a high degree of predictability. While comparing the favorability 72% (182/254) of the participants preferred web-based assessment.

Conclusion: Web-based C-OSDI is reliable in assessing DED and correlation with the paper-based version is significant in all subscales and overall total score. Web-based C-OSDI can be administered to assess individuals with DED as participants predominantly favored online assessment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18240/ijo.2021.06.07DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8165610PMC
June 2021

Establishment and Characterization of a HER2-Positive Cell Line Derived From the Pleural Effusion of a Drug-Resistant Breast Cancer Patient.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 1;9:680968. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Drug resistance is a daunting challenge in the treatment of breast cancer, making it an urgent problem to solve in studies. Cell lines are important tools in basic and preclinical studies; however, few breast cell lines from drug-resistant patients are available. Herein, we established a novel HER2-positive breast cancer cell line from the pleural effusion of a drug-resistant metastatic breast cancer patient. This cell line has potent proliferative capability and tumorigenicity in nude mice but weak invasive and colony-forming capability. The molecular subtype of the cell line and its sensitivity to chemotherapeutics and HER2-targeting agents are different from those of its origin, suggesting that the phenotype changes between the primary and metastatic forms of breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.680968DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8204809PMC
June 2021

Pulmonary parenchymal involvement caused by .

Open Med (Wars) 2021 2;16(1):843-846. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, No. 600, YiShan Road, Shanghai, 200233, China.

We report a 26-year-old man with left chest pain for 4 days. His chest CT showed a cavity in the left upper lung. Tuberculosis was suspected first, but metagenomics next generation sequencing (mNGS) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid only detected . is the pathogen of Whipple's disease. The most frequently involved organs are the eyes, heart, and central nervous system. Pulmonary parenchymal involvement is rare. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of pulmonary cavity caused by . Nineteen cases of pulmonary parenchymal involvement were found by literature search. The most common respiratory symptom was cough, followed by dyspnea/breathlessness and chest pain. The most common finding in chest imaging was pulmonary nodules, followed by interstitial changes and patchy infiltration. Our case and literature review highlighted that infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pulmonary cavity, pulmonary nodules, interstitial changes, and patchy infiltration. mNGS is helpful to improve diagnosis rate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/med-2021-0297DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8174119PMC
June 2021

Effects of hormone replacement therapy on glucose and lipid metabolism in peri- and postmenopausal women with a history of menstrual disorders.

BMC Endocr Disord 2021 Jun 15;21(1):121. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Gynecology, Women's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, 1st Xueshi Road, Hangzhou, 310006, China.

Background: Previous studies have indicated that women with a history of menstrual disorders have an increased risk of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. This has been attributed to the high proportion of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) among this group. The favorable effects of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on serum lipid profiles and glucose homeostasis in postmenopausal women is widely accepted. Whether HRT can also show positive effects on metabolic homeostasis in menopausal women with prior menstrual disorders (a putative PCOS phenotype) has not been reported yet. The aim of the study was to compare the effects of HRT on glucose and lipid metabolism in peri- and postmenopausal women with prior menstrual disorders and controls who did not have prior menstrual disorders.

Methods: A retrospective multicenter study was conducted including 595 peri- and postmenopausal women who received HRT at four hospitals in the Zhejiang Province from May 31, 2010 to March 8, 2021. Participants were divided into the Normal menstruation group and the Menstrual disorders group according to their prior usual menstrual cycle pattern. Glucose and lipid metabolism indicators were assessed at baseline and after HRT. The results were compared between and within the groups, and data from peri- and postmenopausal women were analyzed separately.

Results: HRT significantly decreased fasting insulin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance in perimenopausal users, and fasting plasma glucose levels in postmenopausal users with prior menstrual disorders, compared with baseline. Furthermore, HRT decreased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, fasting insulin, fasting plasma glucose and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance in both peri- and postmenopausal controls, compared with baseline. Nevertheless, no significant differences were observed in any of the glucose or lipid metabolism indicators at baseline and follow-up, as well as changes from baseline levels between menopausal women with and without prior menstrual disorders.

Conclusions: HRT shows more obvious within-group improvements in glucose and lipid metabolism in controls, but there is no significant between-group difference. Further prospective studies are required for confirmation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12902-021-00784-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8207761PMC
June 2021

Effects of hormone replacement therapy on glucose and lipid metabolism in peri- and postmenopausal women with a history of menstrual disorders.

BMC Endocr Disord 2021 Jun 15;21(1):121. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Gynecology, Women's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, 1st Xueshi Road, Hangzhou, 310006, China.

Background: Previous studies have indicated that women with a history of menstrual disorders have an increased risk of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. This has been attributed to the high proportion of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) among this group. The favorable effects of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on serum lipid profiles and glucose homeostasis in postmenopausal women is widely accepted. Whether HRT can also show positive effects on metabolic homeostasis in menopausal women with prior menstrual disorders (a putative PCOS phenotype) has not been reported yet. The aim of the study was to compare the effects of HRT on glucose and lipid metabolism in peri- and postmenopausal women with prior menstrual disorders and controls who did not have prior menstrual disorders.

Methods: A retrospective multicenter study was conducted including 595 peri- and postmenopausal women who received HRT at four hospitals in the Zhejiang Province from May 31, 2010 to March 8, 2021. Participants were divided into the Normal menstruation group and the Menstrual disorders group according to their prior usual menstrual cycle pattern. Glucose and lipid metabolism indicators were assessed at baseline and after HRT. The results were compared between and within the groups, and data from peri- and postmenopausal women were analyzed separately.

Results: HRT significantly decreased fasting insulin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance in perimenopausal users, and fasting plasma glucose levels in postmenopausal users with prior menstrual disorders, compared with baseline. Furthermore, HRT decreased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, fasting insulin, fasting plasma glucose and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance in both peri- and postmenopausal controls, compared with baseline. Nevertheless, no significant differences were observed in any of the glucose or lipid metabolism indicators at baseline and follow-up, as well as changes from baseline levels between menopausal women with and without prior menstrual disorders.

Conclusions: HRT shows more obvious within-group improvements in glucose and lipid metabolism in controls, but there is no significant between-group difference. Further prospective studies are required for confirmation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12902-021-00784-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8207761PMC
June 2021

SARS-CoV-2 envelope protein causes acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)-like pathological damages and constitutes an antiviral target.

Cell Res 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Key Laboratory of Animal Models and Human Disease Mechanisms of the Chinese Academy of Sciences/Key Laboratory of Bioactive Peptides of Yunnan Province, KIZ-CUHK Joint Laboratory of Bioresources and Molecular Research in Common Diseases, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan, China.

Cytokine storm and multi-organ failure are the main causes of SARS-CoV-2-related death. However, the origin of excessive damages caused by SARS-CoV-2 remains largely unknown. Here we show that the SARS-CoV-2 envelope (2-E) protein alone is able to cause acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)-like damages in vitro and in vivo. 2-E proteins were found to form a type of pH-sensitive cation channels in bilayer lipid membranes. As observed in SARS-CoV-2-infected cells, heterologous expression of 2-E channels induced rapid cell death in various susceptible cell types and robust secretion of cytokines and chemokines in macrophages. Intravenous administration of purified 2-E protein into mice caused ARDS-like pathological damages in lung and spleen. A dominant negative mutation lowering 2-E channel activity attenuated cell death and SARS-CoV-2 production. Newly identified channel inhibitors exhibited potent anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity and excellent cell protective activity in vitro and these activities were positively correlated with inhibition of 2-E channel. Importantly, prophylactic and therapeutic administration of the channel inhibitor effectively reduced both the viral load and secretion of inflammation cytokines in lungs of SARS-CoV-2-infected transgenic mice expressing human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE-2). Our study supports that 2-E is a promising drug target against SARS-CoV-2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41422-021-00519-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8190750PMC
June 2021

Agrimol B present in Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb impedes cell cycle progression of cancer cells through G state arrest.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Jun 4;141:111795. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Chinese Medicine Anti-Cancer Evaluation Program, Greg Brown Laboratory, Central Clinical School and Charles Perkins Centre, The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia; Department of Endocrisnology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, Australia. Electronic address:

Cancer recurrence poses a significant challenge. At the cellular level, recurrence takes place as a result of reactivation of dormant cancer cells residing at G phase. The aim of the study was to identify compounds that can trap prostate and lung cancer cells in G phase from a new Chinese herb recipe, Astringent recipe, consisting of Radix Paeoniae Alba, Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb, Fructus Mume, Fritillaria thunbergii Miq., Ganoderma Lucidum Karst, and Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bunge. Astringent recipe impeded cell cycle progression in prostate and lung cancer cells by rounding them up at G phase by flow cytometric analysis of cancer cells stained with Hoechst 33342 and Pyronin Y, respectively, for DNA and RNA. The anti-cancer efficacy of the recipe was found to be attributable to Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. Further study established that agrimol B, a polyphenol derived from Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb, contributed to the activity of the herb. The action of agrimol B on the cancer cells was likely derived from its effect on c-MYC, SKP2 and p27 by immunoblotting and immunofluorescence. Oral administration of Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb or agrimol B reduced growth of prostate cancer cell xenograft in animal. In conclusion, Agrimol B can enrich for prostate and lung cancer cells in G state and influence key regulators that govern G status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2021.111795DOI Listing
June 2021

Comparing School-Aged Refraction Measurements Using the 2WIN-S Portable Refractor in Relation to Cycloplegic Retinoscopy: A Cross-Sectional Study.

J Ophthalmol 2021 21;2021:6612476. Epub 2021 May 21.

He Eye Specialist Hospital, Shenyang, China.

Purpose: To assess the repeatability and agreement of refractive measurements using 2WIN-S photoscreening with the gold-standard cycloplegic retinoscope refraction.

Design: Single centre, cross-sectional study.

Methods: Spherical, cylindrical, axis, and spherical equivalent of 194 bilateral eyes of 97 children were assessed using a retinoscope and 2WIN-S. One week later, another operator repeated the 2WIN-S measurements. The primary outcome measures were to assess the repeatability and agreement between spherical equivalent, J0, and J45 readings of 2WIN-S. The repeatability of measurements was assessed by the within-subject standard deviation (2.77 Sw) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The agreement between devices was assessed using 95% limits of agreement. The extent of the agreement between cycloplegic retinoscopy and noncycloplegic 2WIN-S measurements was assessed using Bland-Altman analysis.

Results: The mean age ± SD was 10.3 ± 2.46 year (range, 4-14 years). The sphere, cylinder, and spherical equivalent measurements were found to be consistent with both apparatus ( value >0.86). ICC for SE, J0, and J45 was 0.900, 0.666, and 0.639, respectively; Sw for SE, J0, and J45 was 0.61D, 0.30D, and 0.31D, respectively; Bland-Altman analysis of retinoscopy with cycloplegia and 2WIN-S for SE was 184/194 (95%) in 95% confidence interval, and the mean value was 0.46. J0 was 184/194 (95%), and the mean value is -0.04. J45 was 181/194 (93%), and the mean value is -0.15.

Conclusion: The objective refractive measurement of 2WIN-S had good reliability and high agreement with the gold-standard retinoscopy refraction in children and adolescents. While consistency was observed, it is essential to take into consideration that it is a screening tool.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6612476DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8163555PMC
May 2021

Naïve CD4 cell counts significantly decay and high HIV RNA levels contribute to immunological progression in long-term non-progressors infected with HIV by blood products: a cohort study.

BMC Immunol 2021 Jun 3;22(1):36. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

Background: Some long-term non-progressors (LTNPs) have decreasing CD4 T cell counts and progress to AIDS. Exploring which subsets of CD4 T cell decreasing and the determinants associated with the decay in these patients will improve disease progression surveillance and provide further understanding of HIV pathogenesis.

Methods: Twenty-five LTNPs infected with HIV by blood products were classified as decreased (DG) if their CD4 cell count dropped to < 400 cells/μL during follow-up or as non-decreased (non-DG) if their CD4 cell count was ≥400 cells/μL. Laboratory and clinical assessments were conducted at 6 consecutive visits to identify DG characteristics.

Results: The LTNPs were infected with HIV for 12 (IQR: 11.5-14) years, and 23 were classified as the B' subtype. Six individuals lost LTNP status 14.5 (IQR: 12.5-17.5) years after infection (DG), and the CD4 T cell count decreased to 237 (IQR: 213-320) cells/μL at the latest visit. The naïve CD4 T cell count decrease was greater than that of memory CD4 T cells [- 128 (IQR: - 196, - 107) vs - 64 (IQR: - 182, - 25) cells/μL)]. Nineteen individuals retained LTNP status (non-DG). At enrolment, the viral load (VL) level (p = 0.03) and CD8CD38 percentage (p = 0.03) were higher in DG than non-DG individuals. During follow-up, viral load and CD8CD38 percentage were significantly increased and negatively associated with CD4 cell count [(r = - 0.529, p = 0.008), (r = - 0.476, p = 0.019), respectively]. However, the CD8CD28 percentage and B cell count dropped in DG and were positively correlated with CD4 T cell count [(r = 0.448, p = 0.028), (r = 0.785, p < 0.001)].

Conclusion: Immunological progression was mainly characterized by the decrease of naïve CD4 T cell in LTNPs infected with HIV by blood products and it may be associated with high HIV RNA levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12865-021-00426-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8173962PMC
June 2021

Single sample scoring of hepatocellular carcinoma: A study based on data mining.

Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol 2021 Jan-Dec;35:20587384211018389

Department of Infectious Diseases, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a high mortality malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Because the immune system plays a dual role by assisting the host barrier and tumor progression, there are complex interactions with considerable prognostic significance. Herein, we performed single-sample gene set enrichment (ssGSEA) to explore the tumor microenvironment (TME) and quantify the tumor-infiltrating immune cell (TIIC) subgroups of immune responses based on the HCC cohort of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. We evaluate molecular subpopulations, survival, function, and expression differential associations, as well as reveal potential targets, and biomarkers for immunotherapy. We combined the TME score and the 29 immune cell types in the low, medium, and high immunity groups. The stromal score, immune score, and ESTIMATE score were positively correlated with immune activity but negatively correlated with the tumor purity. There were 23 human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-related genes that were significantly different. However, KIAA1429 was not significant among the different immunity groups. Besides, programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) expression increased with the increase of immune activity. This may provide valuable information for HCC immunotherapy. We also found that there was no significant difference in naïve B cells, macrophages M1, activated mast cells, resting natural killer (NK) cells, and T cells gamma delta among the different immunity groups. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis revealed that the differential proteins were mainly enriched in alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) metabolism, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis-heparan sulfate/heparin, glycosphingolipid biosynthesis-ganglio series and proteasome. Our findings provide a deeper understanding of the immune scene, uncovering remarkable immune infiltration patterns of various subtypes of HCC using ssGSEA. This study advances the understanding of immune response and provides a basis for research to enhance immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/20587384211018389DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8168165PMC
May 2021

Genome-resolved metagenomics reveals role of iron metabolism in drought-induced rhizosphere microbiome dynamics.

Nat Commun 2021 05 28;12(1):3209. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA.

Recent studies have demonstrated that drought leads to dramatic, highly conserved shifts in the root microbiome. At present, the molecular mechanisms underlying these responses remain largely uncharacterized. Here we employ genome-resolved metagenomics and comparative genomics to demonstrate that carbohydrate and secondary metabolite transport functionalities are overrepresented within drought-enriched taxa. These data also reveal that bacterial iron transport and metabolism functionality is highly correlated with drought enrichment. Using time-series root RNA-Seq data, we demonstrate that iron homeostasis within the root is impacted by drought stress, and that loss of a plant phytosiderophore iron transporter impacts microbial community composition, leading to significant increases in the drought-enriched lineage, Actinobacteria. Finally, we show that exogenous application of iron disrupts the drought-induced enrichment of Actinobacteria, as well as their improvement in host phenotype during drought stress. Collectively, our findings implicate iron metabolism in the root microbiome's response to drought and may inform efforts to improve plant drought tolerance to increase food security.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-23553-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8163885PMC
May 2021

The "humane in the loop": inclusive research design and policy approaches to foster capacity building assistive technologies in the COVID-19 era.

Assist Technol 2021 Jun 24:1-9. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

School of Social Work, University of Texas at San Antonio.

The COVID-19 pandemic is emerging as a driver of greater reliance on wireless technologies, including intelligent assistive technologies, such as robots and artificial intelligence. We must integrate the humane "into the loop" of human-AT interactions to realize the full potential of wireless inclusion for people with disabilities and older adults. Embedding ethics into these new technologies is critical and requires a co-design approach, with end users participating throughout. Developing humane AT begins with a participatory, user-centered design embedded in an iterative co-creation process, and guided by an ethos prioritizing beneficence, user autonomy and agency. To gain insight into plausible AT development pathways ("futures"), we use scenario planning as a tool to articulate themes in the research literature. Four plausible scenarios are developed and compared to identify one as a desired "humane" future for AT development. Policy and practice recommendations derived from this scenario, and their implications for the role of AT in the advancement of human potential are explored.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10400435.2021.1930282DOI Listing
June 2021

Metabolic profile of women with premature ovarian insufficiency compared with that of age-matched healthy controls.

Maturitas 2021 Jun 20;148:33-39. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Gynecology, Women's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Objective: . To compare the metabolic profile of women with spontaneous premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) with that of age-matched healthy controls.

Study Design: . A cross-sectional case-control study was conducted using 1:1 matching by age. Women below the age of 40 with spontaneous POI who did not receive any medication (n = 303) and age-matched healthy women (n = 303) were included in this study.

Main Outcome Measures: . Metabolic profiles, including serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), glucose, uric acid, urea and creatinine, were compared between women with POI and controls. For women with POI, factors associated with the metabolic profile were analyzed.

Results: . Women with POI were more likely to exhibit increased serum levels of TG (β, 0.155; 95% CI, 0.086, 0.223) and glucose (0.067; 0.052, 0.083), decreased levels of HDL-C (-0.087; -0.123, -0.051), LDL-C (-0.047; -0.091, -0.003) and uric acid (-0.053; -0.090, -0.015), and impaired kidney function (urea [0.070; 0.033, 0.107]; creatinine [0.277; 0.256, 0.299]; eGFR [-0.234; -0.252, -0.216]) compared with controls after adjusting for age and BMI. BMI, parity, gravidity, FSH and E2 levels were independent factors associated with the metabolic profile of women with POI.

Conclusion: . Women with POI exhibited abnormalities in lipid metabolism, glucose metabolism, and a decrease in kidney function. In women with POI, early detection and lifelong management of metabolic abnormalities are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.maturitas.2021.04.003DOI Listing
June 2021

Highly Thermally Conductive Graphene-Based Thermal Interface Materials with a Bilayer Structure for Central Processing Unit Cooling.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jun 19;13(21):25325-25333. Epub 2021 May 19.

College of Polymer Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, China.

Innovations of transistors toward miniaturization and integration aggravate heat accumulation of central processing units (CPUs). Thermal interface materials (TIMs) are critical to remove the generated heat and to guarantee the device reliability. Herein, maltose-assisted mechanochemical exfoliation was proposed to prepare maltose-g-graphene as a structural motif of TIMs. Then, maltose-g-graphene/gelatin composite films with a bilayer structure were prepared by two-step vacuum filtration to construct effective thermally conductive pathways consisting of the directionally arranged and tightly packed maltose-g-graphene. The bilayer composite film exhibited a remarkable in-plane thermal conductivity (30.8 W m K) and strong anisotropic ratio (∼8325%) at 40 wt % maltose-g-graphene addition. More intriguingly, the cooling effect on CPUs was significantly better for the bilayer composite films than commercial thermal pads as TIMs. The outstanding thermally conductive stability in resistance to instantaneous and prolonged thermal shocks as well as fatigue stability was gathered. Our work offers a valuable reference to design and fabricate high-performance TIMs for CPU cooling to surmount harsh application scenarios.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c01223DOI Listing
June 2021

Propofol modulates inhibitory inputs in paraventricular thalamic nucleus of mice.

Neurosci Lett 2021 06 9;756:135950. Epub 2021 May 9.

Department of Anesthesiology, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

The mechanisms of general anaesthetics such as propofol have drawn substantial attention. The effects of propofol on inhibitory postsynaptic currents are not exactly the same in different brain nuclei. Recent studies revealed that the paraventricular thalamic nucleus (PVT) is a critical nucleus modulating wakefulness. However, the effects of propofol on PVT neurons and the mechanisms underlying such effects remain unknown. Here, we performed the whole-cell recording of the PVT neurons in acute brain slices and bath application of propofol. We found that propofol hyperpolarized the membrane potentials of the PVT neurons and suppressed the action potentials induced by step-current injection. Propofol did not affect the spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) amplitude or frequency, but prolonged the sIPSCs half-width. Besides, propofol increased miniature inhibitory synaptic currents (mIPSCs) frequency and half-width. Furthermore, propofol could induce GABA receptors-mediated tonic inhibitory currents dose-dependently. Thus, our results demonstrate that propofol hyperpolarizes PVT neurons by modulating inhibitory currents via GABA receptors in mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2021.135950DOI Listing
June 2021

The TiO-μ implant residual is more toxic than the AlO-n implant residual blocking LAP and inducing macrophage polarization.

Nanoscale 2021 May;13(19):8976-8990

Chongqing Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases and Biomedical Sciences, College of Stomatology, Chongqing Medical University, China. and Chongqing Municipal Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedical Engineering of Higher Education, College of Stomatology, Chongqing Medical University, China and Department of Orthodontics, College of Stomatology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Medical device residuals cause harmful effects and diseases in the human body, such as Particle Disease (PD), but the biological interaction of different types of particles is unclear. In this study, after a biological interaction screen between different particles, we aimed to explore the mechanism of the biological interaction between different types of particles, and the effect of a proteasome inhibitor on PD. Our studies showed that the titanium oxide microscale particle (Ti-μ) was more toxic than the aluminum oxide nanoscale particle (Al-n). Al-n activated LAP, attenuated the macrophage M1 polarization, inhibited the activator of the NF-κB pathway, and blocked the secretion of inflammatory factors and apoptosis in vitro, and also prevented the inflammation tissue disorder and aseptic loosening in vivo induced by Ti-μ. What is more, Bortezomib blocked apoptosis, secretion of inflammatory factors and the activation of the NF-κB pathway induced by TiO2 micro particles. Al-n-induced autophagy could play the function in the efficient clearance of dying cells by phagocytosis, and serves in dampening M1 polarization-related pro-inflammatory responses. While the Ti alloy medical implant and devices are applied worldwide, the toxicity of Ti-μ and its interaction with Al-n could be considered in the implant design, and Bortezomib was a potential therapeutic for PD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1nr00696gDOI Listing
May 2021
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