Publications by authors named "Ling Jin"

470 Publications

Reconstruction of a leaking gas cloud from a passive FTIR scanning remote-sensing imaging system.

Appl Opt 2021 Oct;60(30):9396-9403

The concentration-path-length product (CL) image of the leaking gas cloud measured by the passive Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) scanning remote-sensing imaging system has a low resolution. Gas cloud diffusion is affected by wind speed and direction, which makes it difficult to trace the source of a leakage. Therefore, we propose a method to reconstruct the CL image of the leaking gas cloud applied to the passive FTIR scanning remote-sensing imaging system. First, bicubic interpolation is employed to upsample the low-resolution CL image of gas clouds. Second, the maximum noise-equivalent concentration-path-length (NECL) product is used as a threshold to segment the high-resolution gas cloud image. Third, image morphology processing and the evaluation criteria of the leaking gas cloud are applied to detect the leaking gas cloud. Finally, the high-resolution CL image of the leaking gas cloud is superimposed onto the background image. The effectiveness of the reconstruction method is proven by the remote-sensing experiment and simulation. The results show that the proposed method should be effectively implemented to reconstruct the high-resolution CL image of the leaking gas cloud. The reconstructed leaking gas cloud plume, as well as the location of the leakage source, are quite obvious. The reconstruction method has been successfully applied to passive FTIR scanning remote-sensing imaging systems, with high accuracy, in real time, and with robustness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.439086DOI Listing
October 2021

Implementation and Application of an Intelligent Pterygium Diagnosis System Based on Deep Learning.

Front Psychol 2021 22;12:759229. Epub 2021 Oct 22.

School of Information Engineering, Huzhou University, Huzhou, China.

This study aims to implement and investigate the application of a special intelligent diagnostic system based on deep learning in the diagnosis of pterygium using anterior segment photographs. A total of 1,220 anterior segment photographs of normal eyes and pterygium patients were collected for training (using 750 images) and testing (using 470 images) to develop an intelligent pterygium diagnostic model. The images were classified into three categories by the experts and the intelligent pterygium diagnosis system: (i) the normal group, (ii) the observation group of pterygium, and (iii) the operation group of pterygium. The intelligent diagnostic results were compared with those of the expert diagnosis. Indicators including accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, kappa value, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), as well as 95% confidence interval (CI) and F1-score were evaluated. The accuracy rate of the intelligent diagnosis system on the 470 testing photographs was 94.68%; the diagnostic consistency was high; the kappa values of the three groups were all above 85%. Additionally, the AUC values approached 100% in group 1 and 95% in the other two groups. The best results generated from the proposed system for sensitivity, specificity, and F1-scores were 100, 99.64, and 99.74% in group 1; 90.06, 97.32, and 92.49% in group 2; and 92.73, 95.56, and 89.47% in group 3, respectively. The intelligent pterygium diagnosis system based on deep learning can not only judge the presence of pterygium but also classify the severity of pterygium. This study is expected to provide a new screening tool for pterygium and benefit patients from areas lacking medical resources.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.759229DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8569253PMC
October 2021

Prevalence, incidence, and risk factors for myopia among urban and rural children in southern China: protocol for a school-based cohort study.

BMJ Open 2021 Nov 5;11(11):e049846. Epub 2021 Nov 5.

State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Introduction: Myopia is the common cause of reduced uncorrected visual acuity among school-age children. It is more prevalent in urban than in rural areas. Although many myopia studies have focused on the effect of urbanisation, it remains unclear how visual experience in urban regions could affect childhood myopia. This study aims to investigate the incidence and prevalence of myopia among school-age children in urban and rural settings, thereby identifying the environmental factors that affect the onset and progression of myopia.

Methods And Analysis: A school-based cohort study will be conducted. We will enroll all first-grade students from an urban (10 primary schools) and a rural (10 primary schools) regions of Zhaoqing city, China. Over 3-year follow-up period, students will receive detailed eye examinations annually and complete questionnaires about living habits and environment. In a 5% random subsample of the cohort, physical activity, light intensity and eye-tracking data will be obtained using wearable devices, and high-resolution macular images will be obtained by optical coherence tomography (OCT). The primary outcome is incident myopia, defined as myopia (spherical equivalent refractive of at least -0.5D) detected during follow-up among those without myopia at baseline.

Ethics And Dissemination: Ethics approval was obtained from the ethics committee of the Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center (number: 2019KYPJ171). Study findings will be published in a peer-reviewed journal.

Trial Registration Number: NCT04219228.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2021-049846DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8573650PMC
November 2021

Impact of malnutrition on in-hospital outcomes in takotsubo cardiomyopathy.

Nutrition 2021 Sep 24;93:111495. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong, China; Clinical Research Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong, China. Electronic address:

Objective: This study assesses the effect of malnutrition on the in-hospital outcomes of patients with takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TCM).

Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort analysis using the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) codes for a primary diagnosis of TCM from the National Inpatient Sample database (2016-2018). A concurrent diagnosis of malnutrition was then identified, and these patients were divided into the malnutrition group and non-malnutrition group. To adjust for underlying risk factors, a multivariable logistic regression model was employed followed by a propensity score matching analysis for the malnutrition and the non-malnutrition group. We then compared the in-hospital outcomes between these two groups.

Results: Among 4733 patients with a primary diagnosis of TCM, 221 (4.7%) patients with TCM were found to be malnourished. After propensity score matching, patients with TCM with malnutrition were found to have a higher mortality rate (8.3% versus 2.0%, P < 0.001), a higher rate of complications including cardiogenic shock (16.1% versus 7.0%, P < 0.001), ventricular arrhythmia (8.8% versus 3.9%, P = 0.01), acute kidney injury (24.9% versus 10.6%, P < 0.001), and acute respiratory failure (32.7% versus 17.8%, P < 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in the incidence of cardiac arrest between the two groups. Malnutrition of severe degree was associated with a sevenfold (odds ratio 6.8, 95% confidence interval, 3.2-13.4) increased risk of in-hospital mortality compared with those without malnutrition.

Conclusion: Patients with malnutrition who were admitted with TCM were associated with higher rates of in-hospital mortality and complications compared with those without malnutrition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2021.111495DOI Listing
September 2021

Variations in cell-surface ACE2 levels alter direct binding of SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein and viral infectivity: Implications for measuring Spike protein interactions with animal ACE2 orthologs.

bioRxiv 2021 Oct 22. Epub 2021 Oct 22.

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of COVID-19, the most severe pandemic in a century. The virus gains access to host cells when the viral Spike protein (S-protein) binds to the host cell-surface receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Studies have attempted to understand SARS-CoV-2 S-protein interaction with vertebrate orthologs of ACE2 by expressing ACE2 orthologs in mammalian cells and measuring viral infection or S-protein binding. Often these cells only transiently express ACE2 proteins and levels of ACE2 at the cell surface are not quantified. Here, we describe a cell-based assay that uses stably transfected cells expressing ACE2 proteins in a bi-cistronic vector with an easy to quantify reporter protein to normalize ACE2 expression. We found that both binding of the S-protein receptor-binding domain (RBD) and infection with a SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus is proportional to the amount of human ACE2 expressed at the cell surface, which can be inferred by quantifying the level of reporter protein, Thy1.1. We also compared different ACE2 orthologs which were expressed in stably transfected cells expressing equivalent levels of Thy1.1. When ranked for either viral infectivity or RBD binding, mouse ACE2 had a weak to undetectable affinity for S-protein while human ACE2 was the highest level detected and feline ACE2 had an intermediate phenotype. The generation of stably transfected cells whose ACE2 level can be normalized for cross-ortholog comparisons allows us to create a reusable cellular library useful for measuring emerging SARS-CoV-2 variant's ability to potentially infect different animals.

Importance: SARS-CoV-2 is a zoonotic virus responsible for the worst global pandemic in a century. An understanding of how the virus can infect other vertebrate species is important for controlling viral spread and understanding the natural history of the virus. Here we describe a method to generate cells stably expressing equivalent levels of different ACE2 orthologs, the receptor for SARS-CoV-2, on the surface of a human cell line. We find that both binding of the viral Spike protein receptor binding domain (RBD) and infection of cells with a SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus are proportional to ACE2 levels at the cell surface. Adaptation of this method will allow for the creation of a library of stable transfected cells expressing equivalent levels of different vertebrate ACE2 orthologs which can be repeatedly used for identifying vertebrate species which may be susceptible to infection with SARS-CoV-2 and its many variants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2021.10.21.465386DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8562541PMC
October 2021

Neuronal Induction of Bone-Fat Imbalance through Osteocyte Neuropeptide Y.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 Oct 31:e2100808. Epub 2021 Oct 31.

Department of Orthopedics, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, 410008, China.

A differentiation switch of bone marrow mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (BMSCs) from osteoblasts to adipocytes contributes to age- and menopause-associated bone loss and marrow adiposity. Here it is found that osteocytes, the most abundant bone cells, promote adipogenesis and inhibit osteogenesis of BMSCs by secreting neuropeptide Y (NPY), whose expression increases with aging and osteoporosis. Deletion of NPY in osteocytes generates a high bone mass phenotype, and attenuates aging- and ovariectomy (OVX)-induced bone-fat imbalance in mice. Osteocyte NPY production is under the control of autonomic nervous system (ANS) and osteocyte NPY deletion blocks the ANS-induced regulation of BMSC fate and bone-fat balance. γ-Oryzanol, a clinically used ANS regulator, significantly increases bone formation and reverses aging- and OVX-induced osteocyte NPY overproduction and marrow adiposity in control mice, but not in mice lacking osteocyte NPY. The study suggests a new mode of neuronal control of bone metabolism through the ANS-induced regulation of osteocyte NPY.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/advs.202100808DOI Listing
October 2021

Predictive Value of MPV and Plasma NT-ProBNP Combined with the Simplified Geneva Scale for the Prognosis of Acute Pulmonary Embolism.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 19;2021:1292921. Epub 2021 Oct 19.

Department of Wound Repairment and Intervention, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian, Liaoning 116000, China.

Objective: To explore the predictive value of mean platelet volume (MPV) and plasma -terminal probrain natriuretic peptide (NT-ProBNP) combined with a simplified Geneva scale for the prognosis of acute pulmonary embolism (APE).

Methods: The clinical data of 68 patients with APE admitted to our hospital from October 2017 to October 2019 were collected. According to the prognosis, the patients were divided into a good prognosis group ( = 45) and a poor prognosis group ( = 23). The clinical data, laboratory clinical indexes, and simplified Geneva scale scores were recorded for the two groups. The risk factors of poor prognosis were analyzed by binary multivariate logistic regression analysis; the predictive ability of each index on the prognosis of patients with APE was analyzed by the ROC curve.

Results: The incidences of deep vein thrombosis, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia in the poor prognosis group were higher than those in the good prognosis group ( < 0.05). PLT, platelet distribution width (PDW), MPV, and plasma NT-ProBNP in the poor prognosis group were higher than those in the good prognosis group ( < 0.05). The simplified Geneva scale score of the poor prognosis group was higher than that of the good prognosis group ( < 0.05). PDW, MPV, plasma NT-ProBNP, and simplified Geneva scale were all independent risk factors for the poor prognosis of APE patients ( < 0.05). The AUC of MPV in predicting the prognosis of APE patients was 0.818 (95% CI: 0.712-0.925). When the optimal cutoff value was 0.571, the sensitivity was 77.1%, and the specificity was 80.0%. The AUC of plasma NT-ProBNP in predicting the prognosis of APE patients was 0.762 (95% CI: 0.634-0.891). When the optimal cutoff value was 0.475, the sensitivity was 71.5%, and the specificity was 76.0%. The AUC of the simplified Geneva scale in predicting the prognosis of APE patients was 0.749 (95% CI: 0.618-0.879). When the optimal cutoff value was 0.469, the sensitivity was 82.9%, and the specificity was 64.0%. The AUC of MPV and plasma NT-ProBNP combined with the simplified Geneva scale in predicting the prognosis of APE patients was 0.907 (95% CI: 0.826-0.988). When the optimal cutoff value was 0.726, the sensitivity was 88.6%, and the specificity was 84.0%.

Conclusion: MPV, plasma NT-ProBNP, and simplified Geneva scale have a certain predictive value for the prognosis of APE. Compared with a single index, the combination of the three indexes has a significant improvement in predicting the prognosis of APE and has better clinical value.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/1292921DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8548102PMC
October 2021

Composition Changes in Fruit Dried by Different Methods.

Front Nutr 2021 5;8:737521. Epub 2021 Oct 5.

College of Pharmacy, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan, China.

The fruit of (LRF), known as black wolfberry, is a medicinal and edible fruit. The fresh LRF is perishable and has only about 3 days of shelf life. Drying could prolong the shelf life of LRF. However, it could imply physical changes and chemical modification. This study evaluated the effect of sun drying (SD), hot air drying (HD), and freeze drying (FD) on the appearance characteristics, moisture content, bioactive compounds, amino acid composition, and antioxidant activity of LRF. The results showed that LRF dried by FD was round, expansive, fragile, and maintained the largest amount of appearance traits among the three drying methods. Drying methods had a significant effect on phytochemical content and antioxidant activity of LRF ( < 0.05). Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that procyanidin content (PAC), asparagine (Asn), total phenolic content (TPC), total anthocyanin content (TAC), and moisture content were the main sources of the difference in LRF dried by different methods. The characteristic of LRF in FD was low moisture content, and high TPC, Asn, PAC, and TAC. Sun drying was opposite to FD. Hot air drying was high TPC and low TAC content. The quality of LRF was in the order of FD > HD > SD based on comprehensive evaluation of the phytochemical component content and antioxidant capacity. Additionally, the water temperature and soaking time had different antioxidant activity effect on LRF dried by different methods. These findings will provide useful information for production and utilization of LRF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2021.737521DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8523835PMC
October 2021

Targeting LRRC15 inhibits metastatic dissemination of ovarian cancer.

Cancer Res 2021 Oct 15. Epub 2021 Oct 15.

Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic

Dissemination of ovarian cancer (OC) cells can lead to inoperable metastatic lesions in the bowel and omentum that cause patient death. Here we show that LRRC15, a type-I 15-leucine-rich repeat-containing membrane protein, highly overexpressed in OC bowel metastases compared to matched primary tumors and acts as a potent promoter of omental metastasis. Complementary models of OC demonstrated that LRRC15 expression leads to inhibition of anoikis-induced cell death and promotes adhesion and invasion through matrices that mimic omentum. Mechanistically, LRRC15 interacted with β1-integrin to stimulate activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) signaling. As a therapeutic proof of concept, targeting LRRC15 with the specific antibody-drug conjugate ABBV-085 in both early and late metastatic OC cell line xenograft models prevented metastatic dissemination, and these results were corroborated in metastatic patient-derived OC xenograft models. Furthermore, treatment of 3D-spheroid cultures of LRRC15-positive patient-derived ascites with ABBV-085 reduced cell viability. Overall, these data uncover a role for LRRC15 in promoting OC metastasis and suggest a novel and promising therapy to target OC metastases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-21-0622DOI Listing
October 2021

In-the-bag versus Ciliary Sulcus Secondary Intraocular Lens Implantation for Pediatric Aphakia:A Prospective Comparative Study: Secondary Intraocular Lens Implantation for Children.

Am J Ophthalmol 2021 Oct 12. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China; Department of Ophthalmology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA; Department of Ophthalmology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA; Center for Public Health, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast UK; Orbis International, New York, USA. Electronic address:

Purpose: To compare outcomes of in-the-bag versus ciliary sulcus secondary intraocular lens (IOL) implantation for pediatric aphakia.

Design: Prospective interventional case series.

Methods: SETTING: institutional.

Patient: Two hundred and two children (355 aphakic eyes) diagnosed as congenital cataracts and undergoing cataract extraction before 24 months of age.

Intervention: Pediatric aphakic eyes underwent either in-the-bag or ciliary sulcus secondary IOL implantation according to the amount of residual lens capsule and were followed for three years postoperatively.

Main Outcome Measures: Adverse events (AEs), IOL tilt and decentration, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in operative eye.

Results: One hundred forty-four eyes (40.6%, 89 children) received in-the-bag IOL implantation (capsular group) and 211 (59.4%, 132 children) underwent ciliary sulcus IOL implantation (sulcus group). Kaplan-Meier curves showed that the time-dependent incidence of glaucoma-related adverse events (GRAEs) (P=0.005) and any AEs (P=0.002) were higher in the sulcus group. In-the-bag IOL implantation was a strong protective factor against GRAE (HR, 0.08, 95CI:0.01∼0.53; P=0.009) and any AEs (HR, 0.21 95CI: 0.08∼0.57; P=0.002). Clinically significant IOL decentration (>0.4mm) was more common in the sulcus group compared to the capsular group (vertical decentration: 29.8% vs. 15.7%, P=0.005; horizontal decentration: 30.3% vs. 9.35%, P<0.001). BCVA in the capsular group was better than that in the sulcus group (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution [LogMAR] 0.56 vs. 0.67, P=0.014).

Conclusions: Compared to ciliary sulcus secondary IOL implantation, in-the-bag IOL implantation reduced AEs, and yielded better IOL centration and BCVA for pediatric aphakia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajo.2021.10.006DOI Listing
October 2021

Incidence of Incision-Related Descemet Membrane Detachment Using Phacoemulsification With Trapezoid vs Conventional 2.2-mm Clear Corneal Incision: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Ophthalmol 2021 Nov;139(11):1228-1234

State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Importance: The conventional 2.2-mm clear corneal incision is relatively narrow compared with the sleeves of Phaco handpieces, resulting in friction at the incision site and increased risk of incision-related Descemet membrane detachment (DMD). The modified 2.2-mm incision only enlarged internal width to 3.0 mm, forming a trapezoid incision shape, which may reduce the friction of surgical instruments and decrease the risk of incisional DMD.

Objective: To compare the incidence of incision-related DMD between eyes undergoing modified vs conventional 2.2-mm incision phacoemulsification for hard nuclear age-related cataract.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This double-masked, parallel randomized clinical trial was conducted from July 22, 2019, to January 22, 2020, at Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China. The study included patients with age-related cataract and nuclear opalescence grade of 4.0 or greater based on the Lens Opacities Classification System III. Patients were enrolled in this study according to the following inclusion criteria: (1) age between 65 to 90 years; (2) pupil size of 6 mm or greater after dilation; (3) Lens Opacities Classification System III nuclear opalescence grade of 4.0 or more; and (4) corneal endothelial cell density greater than 1500 cells/mm2.

Interventions: Modified (enlarged internal width to 3.0 mm) or conventional 2.2-mm incision phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Incidence of incision-related DMD at postoperative day 1.

Results: A total of 130 eyes of 130 patients were randomized into the conventional group (n = 65) or the modified group (n = 65). The mean (SD) age of participants was 74.5 (5.9) years and 74.3 (6.0) years in the conventional and modified groups, respectively. A total of 26 participants in the conventional group (40%) and 27 in the modified group (42%) were men. Compared with eyes in the conventional group, the incidence of DMD in eyes in the modified group was significantly lower at postoperative day 1 (difference, 26.15; 95% CI, 9.60-42.71; P = .003). The difference at postoperative day 7 was 16.92 (95% CI, 2.91-30.94; P = .02). The length of DMD (postoperative day 1: difference, 0.188; 95% CI, 0.075-0.301; P = .002) and maximal corneal thickness at incision site (postoperative day 1: difference, 0.032; 95% CI, 0.006-0.057; P = .02; postoperative day 7: difference, 0.019; 95% CI, 0.003-0.035; P = .02) were lower in the modified group, while visual quality parameter modulation transfer function (postoperative day 1: difference, -0.033; 95% CI, -0.064 to -0.001; P = .04) was higher. No difference was observed between the 2 groups in best-corrected visual acuity, central corneal endothelium loss, or surgically induced astigmatism at any follow-up time. There were no intraoperative complications in the 2 groups.

Conclusions And Relevance: These findings suggest that modified 2.2-mm trapezoid incision phacoemulsification reduces the incidence of DMD for hard nuclear age-related cataract at postoperative day 1 and might be considered in patients at high risk of incision-related DMD, although the clinical relevance cannot be determined with certainty from this trial.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT04014699.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2021.4148DOI Listing
November 2021

Cross-cultural differences in adult attachment and depression: A culturally congruent approach.

J Couns Psychol 2021 Oct 14. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Department of Psychology.

This cross-cultural study investigated a conditional indirect effect model in which country membership (South Korea or United States) and the need for approval of others (AO) were hypothesized to moderate the direct and indirect effects of attachment insecurity on depression via social self-efficacy (SSE). A total of 673 Korean university students and 401 American university students completed research questionnaires. Results indicated that Korean students endorsed a significantly higher level of AO than American students. Additionally, findings revealed that the strengths of several significant direct and indirect effects varied significantly by country membership and AO. Finally, we found a significant three-way interaction (Attachment avoidance × Country membership × AO), suggesting the necessity of considering cultural differences in attachment influence. The limitations and implications of our cross-cultural findings for decolonization in Western-based psychology are discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/cou0000589DOI Listing
October 2021

Time trends and heterogeneity in the disease burden of trachoma, 1990-2019: a global analysis.

Br J Ophthalmol 2021 Sep 30. Epub 2021 Sep 30.

State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Guangzhou, China.

Purpose: To evaluate the epidemiological trends and associated risk factors of disease burden due to trachoma.

Methods: Data for the country-specific disability-adjusted life year (DALY) number, rate and age-standardised rate of trachoma together with related data of other common eye diseases were acquired from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019 database. The Socio-Demographic Index (SDI), Human Development Index (HDI), inequality-adjusted HDI and other related indices were obtained from published data or publicly available databases. Regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the associations between potential risk factors and the age-standardised DALY burden of trachoma.

Results: The global DALY burden due to trachoma decreased by 37% from 1990 to 2019 and decreased by 69.8% after adjusting for age and population growth, and, in available 1990-2019 data, had the greatest reduction in attributable DALYs of all common eye disease, with the others analysed being cataract, glaucoma, refractive disorders and age-related macular degeneration. Women had higher age-standardised DALY burden due to trachoma than men (p<0.001). The African region (p<0.001) had the heaviest burden among global regions. The age-standardised DALY rate was higher in countries with lower income (p<0.001) and lower SDI (p<0.001). Higher disease burden due to trachoma was associated with lower HDI (β=-48.102, 95% CI -86.888 to -9.316, p=0.016), lower SDI (β=-48.063, 95% CI -83.702 to -12.423, p<0.001) and lower expected years of schooling (β=-2.352, 95% CI -3.756 to -0.948, p=0.002).

Conclusions: The global disease burden due to trachoma decreased from 1990 to 2019 and it had the greatest reduction compared with other common eye diseases. Lower HDI, socioeconomic status and educational level were related to a higher national disease burden of trachoma. Our findings could provide necessary information for trachoma control and prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjophthalmol-2021-319621DOI Listing
September 2021

Choriocapillaris Flow Deficits in Normal Chinese Imaged by Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomographic Angiography.

Am J Ophthalmol 2021 Sep 25. Epub 2021 Sep 25.

State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Purpose: To evaluate the ocular and systemic determinants of the choriocapillaris flow deficits percentage (CC FD%) in normal eyes.

Design: Observational cross-sectional study.

Methods: Healthy Chinese participants without ocular or systemic diseases underwent detailed ophthalmic evaluations, including swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (SS-OCTA) with 6 × 6 mm macular choriocapillaris images. The CC FD% was assessed in circular regions with diameters of 1.0 and 5.0 mm, rings with 1.0-2.5-mm and 2.5-5.0-mm diameters.

Results: The study included 830 individuals (mean age: 58.66±8.75 years). CC FD% (mean: 22.05%±1.13%) was the lowest in the 2.5-5.0-mm ring, followed by the 1.0-2.5-mm ring, and highest in the 1.0-mm circle. In multivariable analysis, a higher CC FD% was associated with older age (β=0.16; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.08,0.24, P<0.001), higher intraocular pressure (IOP) (β=0.34; 95% CI: 0.25,0.42, P<0.001), higher serum concentrations of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) (β=0.24, 95% CI: 0.17,0.32, P<0.001), and lower image quality score (β=-0.22, 95% CI: -0.30,-0.14, P<0.001). And CC FD% was independent of the axial length.

Conclusions: In healthy adult Chinese individuals, a higher CC FD% was associated with older age, higher IOP, and higher HDL-c serum concentration. These factors may influence clinical assessments of the choriocapillaris. The lack of an association between CC FD% and axial length is consistent with similar findings for Bruch´s membrane thickness, macular retinal thickness, and macular retinal pigment epithelium cell density.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajo.2021.09.018DOI Listing
September 2021

Quinacrine Induces Nucleolar Stress in Treatment-Refractory Ovarian Cancer Cell Lines.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Sep 16;13(18). Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Division of Experimental Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA.

A considerable subset of gynecologic cancer patients experience disease recurrence or acquired resistance, which contributes to high mortality rates in ovarian cancer (OC). Our prior studies showed that quinacrine (QC), an antimalarial drug, enhanced chemotherapy sensitivity in treatment-refractory OC cells, including artificially generated chemoresistant and high-grade serous OC cells. In this study, we investigated QC-induced transcriptomic changes to uncover its cytotoxic mechanisms of action. Isogenic pairs of OC cells generated to be chemoresistant and their chemosensitive counterparts were treated with QC followed by RNA-seq analysis. Validation of selected expression results and database comparison analyses indicated the ribosomal biogenesis (RBG) pathway is inhibited by QC. RBG is commonly upregulated in cancer cells and is emerging as a drug target. We found that QC attenuates the in vitro and in vivo expression of nucleostemin (NS/GNL3), a nucleolar RBG and DNA repair protein, and the RPA194 catalytic subunit of Pol I that results in RBG inhibition and nucleolar stress. QC promotes the redistribution of fibrillarin in the form of extranuclear foci and nucleolar caps, an indicator of nucleolar stress conditions. In addition, we found that QC-induced downregulation of NS disrupted homologous recombination repair both by reducing NS protein levels and PARylation resulting in reduced RAD51 recruitment to DNA damage. Our data suggest that QC inhibits RBG and this inhibition promotes DNA damage by directly downregulating the NS-RAD51 interaction. Additionally, QC showed strong synergy with PARP inhibitors in OC cells. Overall, we found that QC downregulates the RBG pathway, induces nucleolar stress, supports the increase of DNA damage, and sensitizes cells to PARP inhibition, which supports new therapeutic stratagems for treatment-refractory OC. Our work offers support for targeting RBG in OC and determines NS to be a novel target for QC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13184645DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8466834PMC
September 2021

Development and clinical deployment of a smartphone-based visual field deep learning system for glaucoma detection.

NPJ Digit Med 2020 Sep 22;3(1):123. Epub 2020 Sep 22.

Department of Ophthalmology, The Second Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, People's Republic of China.

By 2040, ~100 million people will have glaucoma. To date, there are a lack of high-efficiency glaucoma diagnostic tools based on visual fields (VFs). Herein, we develop and evaluate the performance of 'iGlaucoma', a smartphone application-based deep learning system (DLS) in detecting glaucomatous VF changes. A total of 1,614,808 data points of 10,784 VFs (5542 patients) from seven centers in China were included in this study, divided over two phases. In Phase I, 1,581,060 data points from 10,135 VFs of 5105 patients were included to train (8424 VFs), validate (598 VFs) and test (3 independent test sets-200, 406, 507 samples) the diagnostic performance of the DLS. In Phase II, using the same DLS, iGlaucoma cloud-based application further tested on 33,748 data points from 649 VFs of 437 patients from three glaucoma clinics. With reference to three experienced expert glaucomatologists, the diagnostic performance (area under curve [AUC], sensitivity and specificity) of the DLS and six ophthalmologists were evaluated in detecting glaucoma. In Phase I, the DLS outperformed all six ophthalmologists in the three test sets (AUC of 0.834-0.877, with a sensitivity of 0.831-0.922 and a specificity of 0.676-0.709). In Phase II, iGlaucoma had 0.99 accuracy in recognizing different patterns in pattern deviation probability plots region, with corresponding AUC, sensitivity and specificity of 0.966 (0.953-0.979), 0.954 (0.930-0.977), and 0.873 (0.838-0.908), respectively. The 'iGlaucoma' is a clinically effective glaucoma diagnostic tool to detect glaucoma from humphrey VFs, although the target population will need to be carefully identified with glaucoma expertise input.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41746-020-00329-9DOI Listing
September 2020

Multiple comorbid sleep disorders adversely affect quality of life in Parkinson's disease patients.

NPJ Parkinsons Dis 2020 Sep 15;6(1):25. Epub 2020 Sep 15.

Department of Neurology, Xinhua Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Sleep disorders are common non-motor symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). The characteristics and impact of multiple comorbid sleep disorders remain to be elucidated. Our goal was to investigate the characteristics of various sleep disorder comorbidities, and their association with motor complications and the impact on the quality of life in PD patients. In this multicenter, observational, cross-sectional study, data concerning the clinical characteristics of complicated sleep disorders were collected from PD patients treated at 40 different hospitals in Shanghai. Sleep disorders were evaluated using the PD Sleep Scale-2, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder Questionnaire-Hong Kong, and the International Restless Legs Scale. Among the 1006 subjects evaluated, 77.53% exhibited signs of sleep disorders, and most had multiple sleep disorders (n = 502, 49.9%). A smaller percentage of patients with sleep disorders had a single disorder (n = 278, 27.6%). Furthermore, an increased number of sleep disorders, including nighttime problems, excessive daytime sleepiness, rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, and restless legs syndrome was a significant contributor to a poor quality of life (β = 4.33, CI: 3.33-5.33, P for trend <0.001), even when controlling for multiple factors. Moreover, motor complications partially mediated this relationship (indirect effect: β = 0.355, 95% boot CI: 0.134, 0.652).Our study showed that a large proportion of PD patients suffer from multiple comorbid sleep disorders, which greatly decreases the quality of life in PD patients and is partially mediated by motor complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41531-020-00126-xDOI Listing
September 2020

Sequential different B cell antigen-targeted CAR T-cell therapy for pediatric refractory/relapsed Burkitt Lymphoma.

Blood Adv 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Hematology/Oncology, National Center for Children's Health, Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China, China.

Single antigen-targeted chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy may be insufficient to induce a durable response in pediatric aggressive B-cell lymphomas. The clinical trial (ChiCTR1800014457) examined the feasibility of sequential different B cell antigen-targeted CAR T-cell therapy for pediatric refractory/relapsed Burkitt lymphoma. Twenty-three patients received the first CD19 CAR T-cell infusion. The patients who did not achieve an ongoing complete response sequentially underwent one or more additional infusions of CAR T-cell targeting CD22 followed by CD20 according to their disease status and CAR T-cell persistence after each infusion. The median time from the last infusion to cutoff date was 17 months (range, 15 to 23). The estimated 18-month complete response rate was 78% (95% confidence interval [CI], 54 to 91). The estimated 18-month progression-free survival rate was 78% (95% CI, 55 to 90), with 78% (95% CI, 37 to 94) in patients with bulky diseases and 60% (95% CI, 25 to 83) in patients with central nervous system (CNS) involvement. During the first CD19 CAR T-cell infusion, grade 3 or higher cytokine release syndrome (CRS) and neurotoxicity occurred in 34.8% and 21.7% of all patients, respectively. During subsequent infusions, few incidences of higher than grade 2 CRS and neurotoxicity were observed. All adverse events were reversible. The severity of neurotoxicity was not significantly different between patients with CNS and non-CNS involvement. Sequential CAR T-cell therapy may result in a durable response and is safe in pediatric refractory/relapsed Burkitt lymphoma. Patients with CNS involvement may benefit from sequential CAR T-cell therapy. This trial was registered at www.chictr.org.cn/index.aspx as ChiCTR1800014457.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2021004557DOI Listing
September 2021

Examining indirect effects of emotion dysregulation between PTSD symptom clusters and reckless/self-destructive behaviors.

Psychol Trauma 2021 Sep 9. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Department of Psychology.

Objectives: Emotion dysregulation theoretically and empirically explains the link between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and posttrauma reckless and self-destructive behaviors (RSDBs).

Method: The current study uniquely examined the role of emotion dysregulation in the association between the four heterogeneous PTSD clusters (intrusions, avoidance, negative alterations in cognitions and mood [NACM], and alterations in arousal and reactivity [AAR]) and an overall measure of posttrauma RSDBs. Trauma-exposed participants ( = 411) completed self-report measures assessing PTSD symptoms (PTSD Checklist for -5), emotion dysregulation (Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale-16), and engagement in RSDBs (Posttrauma Risky Behaviors Questionnaire).

Results: Direct and indirect effects were examined using PROCESS Model 4. The bias-corrected bootstrap revealed a significant indirect effect of emotion dysregulation in posttrauma RSDBs' relation with PTSD's intrusions ( = -.13, = .04, 95% CI [-.23, -.06]), avoidance ( =.15, =.07, 95% CI [.04, .33]), NACM ( =.17, =.05, 95% CI [.09, .27]), and AAR ( =.14, =.05, 95% CI [.05, .27]).

Conclusions: Emotion dysregulation explained associations between the severity of each PTSD symptom cluster and overall posttrauma RSDBs. PTSD treatments targeting emotion dysregulation may help to reduce posttrauma RSDBs for trauma-exposed individuals. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/tra0001118DOI Listing
September 2021

Drug evaluation based on phosphomimetic PDHA1 reveals the complexity of activity-related cell death in A549 non-small cell lung cancer cells.

BMB Rep 2021 Sep 7. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Department of Korean Medical Science, School of Korean Medicine, Pusan National University, Yangsan 50612, Korea; Korean Medical Research Center for Healthy Aging, Pusan National University, Yangsan 50612, Korea.

Cancer cells predominantly generate energy via glycolysis, even in the presence of oxygen, to support abnormal cell proliferation. Suppression of PDHA1 by PDK1 prevents the conversion of cytoplasmic pyruvate into Acetyl-CoA. Several PDK inhibitors have been identified, but their clinical applications have not been successful for unclear reasons. In this study, endogenous PDHA1 in A549 cells was silenced by the CRISPR/Cas9 system, and PDHA1WT and PDHA13SD were transduced. Since PDHA13SD cannot be phosphorylated by PDKs, it was used to evaluate the specific activity of PDK inhibitors. This study highlights that PDHA1WT and PDHA13SD A549 cells can be used as a cell-based PDK inhibitor-distinction system to examine the relationship between PDH activity and cell death by established PDK inhibitors. Leelamine, huzhangoside A and otobaphenol induced PDH activity-dependent apoptosis, whereas AZD7545, VER-246608 and DCA effectively enhanced PDHA1 activity but little toxic to cancer cells. Furthermore, the activity of phosphomimetic PDHA1 revealed the complexity of its regulation, which requires further in-depth investigation.
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September 2021

A Chinese pedigree with glucocorticoid remediable aldosteronism.

Hypertens Res 2021 Nov 30;44(11):1428-1433. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Department of Hypertension, Fuwai Hospital, State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

Glucocorticoid-remediable aldosteronism (GRA) is an autosomal-dominant inherited aldosteronism that is often accompanied by early-onset hypertension. GRA is caused by the unequal crossover of the 11β-hydroxylase (CYP11B1) and aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) genes. As a result of chimeric gene duplication, aldosterone is ectopically synthesized in the adrenal zona fasciculata under the control of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). Here, we describe a Chinese pedigree with three affected subjects. Both the uncle and nephew were hospitalized in our hospital due to early-onset hypertension (onset <20 years old) and were diagnosed with primary aldosteronism (PA). Their laboratory test results revealed hyperaldosteronism, hyporeninemia, a high plasma aldosterone to renin (ARR) ratio, and normal serum potassium (K). Captopril failed to suppress aldosterone secretion. This family had a strong paternal history of hypertension. Thirteen members underwent gene testing, and three of them were found to be GRA positive. Through long-extension PCR (XL-PCR) and direct sequencing, we identified the CYP11B1/CYP11B2 chimeric gene, and with unequal crossover breakpoints located between intron 2 of CYP11B1 and exon 3 of CYP11B2 in the three patients. Low-dose dexamethasone was effective. This is the first family report of GRA in northern China. Moreover, a case of GRA combined with a CACNA1H gene mutation is reported for the first time. We found that dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers (CCBs) combined with aldosterone receptor antagonists exerted good therapeutic effects in controlling blood pressure in GRA patients for whom glucocorticoid therapy was not an option.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41440-021-00685-3DOI Listing
November 2021

Validation and analysis of the geographical origin of (Oliv.) Diels using multi-element and stable isotopes.

PeerJ 2021 6;9:e11928. Epub 2021 Aug 6.

School of Life Science and Engineering, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou, Gansu, China.

Background: Place of origin is an important factor when determining the quality and authenticity of for medicinal use. It is important to trace the origin and confirm the regional characteristics of medicinal products for sustainable industrial development. Effectively tracing and confirming the material's origin may be accomplished by detecting stable isotopes and mineral elements.

Methods: We studied 25 samples collected from three main producing areas (Linxia, Gannan, and Dingxi) in southeastern Gansu Province, China, to better identify its origin. We used inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) to determine eight mineral elements (K, Mg, Ca, Zn, Cu, Mn, Cr, Al) and three stable isotopes (δC, δN, δO). Principal component analysis (PCA), partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were used to verify the validity of its geographical origin.

Results: K, Ca/Al, δC, δN and δO are important elements to distinguish sampled from Linxia, Gannan and Dingxi. We used an unsupervised PCA model to determine the dimensionality reduction of mineral elements and stable isotopes, which could distinguish the from Linxia. However, it could not easily distinguish sampled from Gannan and Dingxi. The supervised PLS-DA and LDA models could effectively distinguish samples taken from all three regions and perform cross-validation. The cross-validation accuracy of PLS-DA using mineral elements and stable isotopes was 84%, which was higher than LDA using mineral elements and stable isotopes.

Conclusions: The PLS-DA and LDA models provide a theoretical basis for tracing the origin of in three regions (Linxia, Gannan and Dingxi). This is significant for protecting consumers' health, rights and interests.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.11928DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8351574PMC
August 2021

Prognostic factors of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy: a systematic review.

ESC Heart Fail 2021 10 9;8(5):3663-3689. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

Department of Cardiology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Shantou University Medical College, 57 Changping Road, Shantou, 515041, China.

Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TCM), characterized by reversible ventricular dysfunction, has similar mortality to acute coronary syndrome. With the growing interest in the diagnosis of and interventions for TCM, many risk factors had been found to affect the prognosis of TCM patients, such as age, sex, and pre-existing diseases. Because of the incomplete understanding of the pathophysiologic mechanism in TCM, evidence-based medical therapy for this condition is lacking. Early intervention on risk factors may improve the outcomes of TCM. In this review, we sought to provide up-to-date evidence on risk factors and medical therapies that affect TCM outcome. We found that male sex, physical triggers, and certain comorbidities such as chronic kidney disease, malignant disease, higher body mass index, sepsis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and anaemia were associated with poor TCM prognosis. In contrast, race, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes mellitus, and mood disorders were not clearly associated with TCM prognosis. We also reviewed the effect of medical therapies on TCM outcome, including angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers, β-blockers, calcium channel blockers, and statins. The evidence that these medications confer a survival benefit on TCM patients is limited. Understanding these prognostic factors could help develop risk-stratification tools for TCM and establish effective prevention and interventions for this not-so-benign condition. Further multicentre clinical studies with large samples and meta-analyses of findings from previous studies are needed to address the inconsistent findings among the many potential risk factors for TCM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ehf2.13531DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8497208PMC
October 2021

Fructose-coated Ångstrom silver prevents sepsis by killing bacteria and attenuating bacterial toxin-induced injuries.

Theranostics 2021 13;11(17):8152-8171. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Orthopedics, Movement System Injury and Repair Research Center, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008, China.

Serious infection caused by multi-drug-resistant bacteria is a major threat to human health. Bacteria can invade the host tissue and produce various toxins to damage or kill host cells, which may induce life-threatening sepsis. Here, we aimed to explore whether fructose-coated Ångstrom-scale silver particles (F-AgÅPs), which were prepared by our self-developed evaporation-condensation system and optimized coating approach, could kill bacteria and sequester bacterial toxins to attenuate fatal bacterial infections. A series of assays were conducted to test the anti-bacterial efficacy of F-AgÅPs, and to investigate whether F-AgÅPs could protect against multi-drug resistant ()- and ()-induced cell death, and suppress their toxins ( hemolysin and lipopolysaccharide)-induced cell injury or inflammation. The mouse models of cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)- or bloodstream infection-induced lethal sepsis were established to assess whether the intravenous administration of F-AgÅPs could decrease bacterial burden, inhibit inflammation, and improve the survival rates of mice. The levels of silver in urine and feces of mice were examined to evaluate the excretion of F-AgÅPs. F-AgÅPs efficiently killed various bacteria that can cause lethal infections and also competed with host cells to bind with α-hemolysin, thus blocking its cytotoxic activity. F-AgÅPs inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced endothelial injury and macrophage inflammation, but not by directly binding to lipopolysaccharide. F-AgÅPs potently reduced bacterial burden, reversed dysregulated inflammation, and enhanced survival in mice with CLP- or bloodstream infection-induced sepsis, either alone or combined with antibiotic therapy. After three times injections within 48 h, 79.18% of F-AgÅPs were excreted feces at the end of the 14-day observation period. This study suggests the prospect of F-AgÅPs as a promising intravenous agent for treating severe bacterial infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/thno.55334DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8344005PMC
July 2021

Research on an Intelligent Lightweight-Assisted Pterygium Diagnosis Model Based on Anterior Segment Images.

Dis Markers 2021 29;2021:7651462. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

The Affiliated Eye Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029, China.

Aims: The lack of primary ophthalmologists in China results in the inability of basic-level hospitals to diagnose pterygium patients. To solve this problem, an intelligent-assisted lightweight pterygium diagnosis model based on anterior segment images is proposed in this study.

Methods: Pterygium is a common and frequently occurring disease in ophthalmology, and fibrous tissue hyperplasia is both a diagnostic biomarker and a surgical biomarker. The model diagnosed pterygium based on biomarkers of pterygium. First, a total of 436 anterior segment images were collected; then, two intelligent-assisted lightweight pterygium diagnosis models (MobileNet 1 and MobileNet 2) based on raw data and augmented data were trained via transfer learning. The results of the lightweight models were compared with the clinical results. The classic models (AlexNet, VGG16 and ResNet18) were also used for training and testing, and their results were compared with the lightweight models. A total of 188 anterior segment images were used for testing. Sensitivity, specificity, F1-score, accuracy, kappa, area under the concentration-time curve (AUC), 95% CI, size, and parameters are the evaluation indicators in this study.

Results: There are 188 anterior segment images that were used for testing the five intelligent-assisted pterygium diagnosis models. The overall evaluation index for the MobileNet2 model was the best. The sensitivity, specificity, F1-score, and AUC of the MobileNet2 model for the normal anterior segment image diagnosis were 96.72%, 98.43%, 96.72%, and 0976, respectively; for the pterygium observation period anterior segment image diagnosis, the sensitivity, specificity, F1-score, and AUC were 83.7%, 90.48%, 82.54%, and 0.872, respectively; for the surgery period anterior segment image diagnosis, the sensitivity, specificity, F1-score, and AUC were 84.62%, 93.50%, 85.94%, and 0.891, respectively. The kappa value of the MobileNet2 model was 77.64%, the accuracy was 85.11%, the model size was 13.5 M, and the parameter size was 4.2 M.

Conclusion: This study used deep learning methods to propose a three-category intelligent lightweight-assisted pterygium diagnosis model. The developed model can be used to screen patients for pterygium problems initially, provide reasonable suggestions, and provide timely referrals. It can help primary doctors improve pterygium diagnoses, confer social benefits, and lay the foundation for future models to be embedded in mobile devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/7651462DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8342163PMC
July 2021

Dopamine-polyethyleneimine co-deposition of a capillary for α-glucosidase immobilization and its application in enzyme inhibitor screening.

Electrophoresis 2021 Oct 16;42(20):2081-2086. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

School of Pharmacy, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, P. R. China.

An online method based on CE was established to screen α-glucosidase inhibitors from traditional Tibetan medicine extracts. First, the inner wall at the inlet of capillary column was simply and effectively functionalized by dopamine-polyethyleneimine co-deposition method, which combines the adhesion property of dopamine and easy cationization of polyethyleneimine. Then α-glucosidase was rapidly immobilized on the inner wall of the capillary column by electrostatic adsorption. The inter- and intraday repeatability of the peak area of the enzymatic reaction product (p-nitrophenol) in a capillary was evaluated, and RSD% (n = 3) was 0.94% and 1.09%, respectively. Good batch-to-batch reproducibility of the peak area between different capillaries (RSD = 2.1%, n = 5) shows that the preparation method has good reproducibility. The Michaelis-Menten constant of the immobilized α-glucosidase was measured to be 1.18 mM, and the capillary column enzyme reactor retained 85.9% of initial activity after 30 cycles. Finally, it was applied to the screening of enzyme inhibitors in 20 traditional Tibetan medicine extracts. Sixteen medicines with inhibitory activity were screened out, and Rheum australe had the strongest inhibitory effect with an inhibitory rate of 83.3 ± 0.4%. These results showed that this method is effective to find potential enzyme inhibitors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/elps.202100185DOI Listing
October 2021

Subthreshold Micropulse Laser vs. Conventional Laser for Central Serous Chorioretinopathy: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 16;8:682264. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

To investigate the effectiveness and safety of 577-nm subthreshold micropulse laser (SML) on acute central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). One hundred and ten patients with acute CSC were randomized to receive SML or 577-nm conventional laser (CL) treatment. Optical coherence tomography and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) were performed before and after treatment. At 3 months, the complete resolution of subretinal fluid (SRF) in 577-nm SML group (72.7%) was lower than that in CL group (89.1%) (Unadjusted RR, 0.82; = 0.029), but it was 85.5 vs. 92.7% at 6 months (unadjusted RR, 0.92; = 0.221). The mean LogMAR BCVA significantly improved, and the mean central foveal thickness (CFT) significantly decreased in the SML group and CL group (all < 0.001) at 6 months. But there was no statistical difference between the two groups (all > 0.05). In the SML group, obvious retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) damage was shown only in 3.64% at 1 month but 92.7% in the CL group ( < 0.001). Although 577-nm SML has a lower complete absorption of SRF compared with 577-nm CL for acute CSC at 3 months, it is similarly effective as 577-nm CL on improving retinal anatomy and function at 6 months. Importantly, 577-nm SML causes less damage to the retina.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2021.682264DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8322653PMC
July 2021

Analysis of the characteristics of outpatient and emergency diseases in the department of otolaryngology during the "COVID-19" pandemic.

Sci Prog 2021 Jul-Sep;104(3):368504211036319

Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Tongji Hospital, School of Medicine, Tongji University, Shanghai, China.

The pandemic of "Corona Virus Disease 2019" (COVID-19) has changed the lives of people. There have been changes in common outpatient and emergency cases in otolaryngology, so an analysis of data pertaining to this was completed. This study is to evaluate the impact of viral infection disease in otolaryngological common disease. This study uses the data of common diseases in the outpatient and emergency department during the "COVID-19" pandemic (from February to April 2020) and the same period in the past 3 years from the Department of Otolaryngology. During the "COVID-19" period compared with the same period last year, the ranking of cases by diseases has changed. Diseases such as chronic pharyngitis, allergic rhinitis, sudden deafness, and tinnitus increased, meanwhile acute pharyngitis and acute laryngopharyngitis decreased ( < 0.05). The viral infection has impacted the mental behaviors of people, therefore mental-related disease cases of the department of Otolaryngology have increased indirectly. This study provides real data to illustrate mental-related diseases. It also provides experience and shows the importance of keeping and maintaining mental health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00368504211036319DOI Listing
August 2021
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