Publications by authors named "Ling Chen"

2,459 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The Value of Relative Size in the Ultrasound Diagnosis of Follicular Thyroid Neoplasm.

Int J Gen Med 2021 3;14:2321-2328. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Ultrasound, The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, 350005, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Ultrasonography as the first choice for thyroid nodules is still difficult to distinguish between solid follicular thyroid neoplasm (FTN) and solid nodular goiter (NG). We tried to investigate the value of relative size (M/S, M: the maximum diameter of target nodule, S: the maximum diameter of the largest of the remaining nodules) that may help to differentiate FTN from NG.

Methods: test and chi-square test were used to retrospectively analyze the differences of the clinical and ultrasonographic characteristics between FTN and NG in 422 cases in our hospital. test was used to analyze the difference of M/S value in the two kinds of nodules. ROC was used to evaluate the accuracy of M/S value in distinguishing the two.

Results: There were statistically significant differences in age, echogenicity, calcification, peripheral halo and blood supply between the two. The M/S value is not only significantly different in the two kinds of nodules but also can be used as a quantitative indicator to guide ultrasound diagnosis. ROC analysis showed that the cutoff point and AUC of M/S value were 1.94 and 0.709, respectively.

Conclusion: In the ultrasound diagnosis of multiple thyroid nodules, the M/S value can better distinguish FTN and NG. We need to be aware of FTN when the M/S value of the nodule is greater than 2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S313468DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8184232PMC
June 2021

[Effects of noise, bright light and mechanical stimulation on sleep, blood-brain barrier and cognitive function in septic rats].

Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue 2021 May;33(5):529-534

Department of Critical Care Medicine, Xiaogan Hospital Affiliated to Wuhan University of Science and Technology (Xiaogan Central Hospital), Xiaogan 432000, Hubei, China. Corresponding author: Yao Peng, Email:

Objective: To evaluate the effects of noise, bright light and mechanical stimulation on sleep, blood-brain barrier and cognitive function in septic rats.

Methods: Forty male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were selected and intraperitoneal injection of 10 mg/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was used to establish sepsis model. 0, 30, 45, 60, 75 dB noise stimulation or 0, 50, 100, 200, 400 Lux light stimulation were given to rats (all n = 4). The serum levels of cortisol and melatonin, and the cerebral content of Evans blue (EB) were measured 96 hours after the stimulation to determine the optimal intensity of intervention. The other 40 SD rats were randomly divided into control group (Con group), LPS group, noise intervention group (LPS+60 dB group), 200 Lux light intervention group (LPS+200 Lux group) and mechanical stimulation group (LPS+MS group), with 8 rats in each group. The open fields test and fear conditioning test were used to evaluate the exploratory behavior and cognitive function 96 hours after corresponding stimulation. The enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect cerebral level of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and serum levels of cortisol and melatonin. The blood-brain barrier integrity was assessed by EB staining. The protein levels of ZO-1, Claudin-5 and caspase-3 in the hippocampus were detected by Western blotting to assess the blood-brain barrier integrity and neuronal apoptosis.

Results: Compared with 0 dB group or 0 Lux group, the serum melatonin concentration in 60 dB group and 200 Lux group were significantly reduced, while the serum cortisol concentration and cerebral EB content were significantly increased. Therefore, 60 dB noise and 200 Lux light were selected in the subsequent experiments. Compared with Con group, the horizontal score and vertical score in the open field test in LPS group were significantly decreased. There were no significant differences in the proportion of freezing time, the cerebral contents of EB and IL-6, the serum levels of melatonin and cortisol, and the hippocampal expressions of ZO-1, Claudin-5 and caspase-3. Compared with LPS group, the horizontal score, vertical score and the percentage of freezing time in LPS+60 dB group, LPS+200 Lux group and LPS+MS group were significantly reduced [horizontal score: 73.8±9.7, 80.3±9.4, 64.5±8.3 vs. 103.6±15.5; vertical score: 9.4±1.7, 11.2±1.9, 6.8±0.9 vs. 15.9±2.8; the percentage of freezing time: (45.3±4.7)%, (53.3±5.8)%, (42.1±5.1)% vs. (66.1±6.3)%], the serum level of melatonin was significantly decreased (ng/L: 53.62±6.20, 44.25±6.41, 45.33±5.84 vs. 74.39±7.54), the serum level of cortisol was significantly increased (nmol/L: 818.34±95.53, 710.04±65.41, 989.73±91.63 vs. 398.82±72.59), the levels of EB, IL-6 in the brain tissue were significantly increased [EB (μg/g): 2.80±0.35, 2.38±0.31, 3.24±0.42 vs. 1.59±0.26; IL-6 (ng/g): 31.56±4.11, 26.69±3.75, 37.47±4.56 vs. 16.28±2.69], the expressions of ZO-1 and Claudin-5 were significantly decreased (ZO-1/β-actin: 0.37±0.04, 0.32±0.05, 0.24±0.04 vs. 0.80±0.09; Claudin-5/β-actin: 0.62±0.08, 0.47±0.06, 0.35±0.05 vs. 0.97±0.20), and the expression of cleaved caspase-3 was significantly increased (caspase-3/β-actin: 0.56±0.06, 0.39±0.04, 0.72±0.12 vs. 0.20±0.03), with statistically significant differences (all P < 0.05).

Conclusions: 60 dB noise, 200 Lux light or mechanical stimulation for 96 hours could inhibit the secretion of serum melatonin, promote the secretion of cortisol, and activate neuroinflammation in septic rats, and lead to neuronal apoptosis in hippocampus and hyper-permeability of blood-brain barrier, which in turn could cause sleep disturbance and cognitive impairment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn121430-20200630-00514DOI Listing
May 2021

Single-cell multi-omics sequencing: application trends, COVID-19, data analysis issues and prospects.

Brief Bioinform 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Data Science Institute, University of Technology Sydney, Ultimo, NSW 2007, Australia.

Single-cell sequencing is a biotechnology to sequence one layer of genomic information for individual cells in a tissue sample. For example, single-cell DNA sequencing is to sequence the DNA from every single cell. Increasing in complexity, single-cell multi-omics sequencing, or single-cell multimodal omics sequencing, is to profile in parallel multiple layers of omics information from a single cell. In practice, single-cell multi-omics sequencing actually detects multiple traits such as DNA, RNA, methylation information and/or protein profiles from the same cell for many individuals in a tissue sample. Multi-omics sequencing has been widely applied to systematically unravel interplay mechanisms of key components and pathways in cell. This survey overviews recent developments in single-cell multi-omics sequencing, and their applications to understand complex diseases in particular the COVID-19 pandemic. We also summarize machine learning and bioinformatics techniques used in the analysis of the intercorrelated multilayer heterogeneous data. We observed that variational inference and graph-based learning are popular approaches, and Seurat V3 is a commonly used tool to transfer the missing variables and labels. We also discussed two intensively studied issues relating to data consistency and diversity and commented on currently cared issues surrounding the error correction of data pairs and data imputation methods. The survey is concluded with some open questions and opportunities for this extraordinary field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bib/bbab229DOI Listing
June 2021

Optimized Propofol Anesthesia Increases Power of Subthalamic Neuronal Activity in Patients with Parkinson's Disease Undergoing Deep Brain Stimulation.

Neurol Ther 2021 Jun 6. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Department of Neurosurgery, First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University , Guangzhou, 510080, Guangdong Province, People's Republic of China.

Introduction: Propofol is a general anesthetic option for deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, its effects on STN activity and neuropsychological outcomes are controversial. The optimal propofol anesthesia for asleep DBS is unknown. This study investigated the safety and effectiveness of an optimized propofol anesthesia regimen in asleep DBS.

Methods: This retrospective study enrolled 68 PD patients undergoing bilateral STN-DBS surgery. All patients received local scalp anesthesia, with (asleep group, n = 35) or without (awake group, n = 33) propofol-remifentanil general anesthesia by target-controlled infusion under electroencephalogram monitoring. The primary outcome was subthalamic neuronal spiking characterization during microelectrode recording. The secondary outcomes were clinical outcomes including motor, cognition, mind, sleep, and quality of life at 6 months.

Results: Significantly increased delta and theta power were obtained under propofol anesthesia (awake vs. asleep group, mean ± standard deviation; delta: 31.97 ± 9.87 vs. 39.77 ± 10.56, p < 0.01; theta: 21.09 ± 5.55 vs. 24.82 ± 6.63, p = 0.01). After excluding the influence of confounding factors of age and preoperative motor scores, there was a statistically significant influence on the delta, theta, and alpha power of STN neuronal activity under different anesthesia regimens (delta: β = 2.64, p < 0.01; theta: β = 2.11, p < 0.01; alpha: β = 1.42, p = 0.01). There were no differences in modified burst index, firing rate, tract numbers of microelectrode recording, and other clinical outcomes between the two groups.

Conclusion: Optimized propofol anesthesia enhanced the delta, theta, and alpha power in STN compared with the awake technique and likely contributed to target recognition under propofol anesthesia. These results demonstrate that propofol is suitable, but needs to be optimized, for asleep STN-DBS.

Trial Registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry Identification number: ChiCTR2100045942. Registered 29 April 2021-Retrospectively registered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40120-021-00259-yDOI Listing
June 2021

Enhancing the sensitivity of ovarian cancer cells to olaparib via microRNA-20b-mediated cyclin D1 targeting.

Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 2021 Jun;246(11):1297-1306

State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, and Collaborative Innovation Center for Biotherapy, Chengdu, P.R. China.

We previously reported that cyclin D1 silencing interferes with RAD51 accumulation and increases the sensitivity of BRCA1 wild-type ovarian cancer cells to olaparib. However, the mechanisms associated with cyclin D1 overexpression in ovarian cancer are not fully understood. TargetScan predicted the potential binding sites for microRNA-20b (miR-20b) and the 3'-untranslated region of cyclin D1 mRNA; thus, we used luciferase reporter assay to verify those binding sites. The Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test were used to examine the relationship between miR-20b and progression-free survival of ovarian cancer patients in The Cancer Genome Atlas ( = 367) dataset. experiments were performed to evaluate the effects of miR-20b on cyclin D1 expression, cell cycle and response to olaparib. A peritoneal cavity metastasis model of ovarian cancer was established to determine the effect of miR-20b on the sensitivity of olaparib. Immunohistochemistry was performed to evaluate molecular mechanisms. In this work, we demonstrated that miR-20b down-regulates cyclin D1, increases the sensitivity of ovarian cancer cells to olaparib, reduces the expression of RAD51, and induces cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase. Ovarian cancer patients with higher expression of miR-20b had significantly longer progression-free survival. These results indicate that miR-20b may be a potential clinical indicator for the sensitivity of ovarian cancer to olaparib and the survival of ovarian cancer patients. Our findings suggest that miR-20b may have therapeutic value in combination with olaparib treatment for ovarian cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1535370221994077DOI Listing
June 2021

Application of competing risk model in the prognostic prediction study of patients with follicular thyroid carcinoma.

Updates Surg 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Thyroid and Breast Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, 20 Cha Zhong Road, Tai Jiang District, Fuzhou, 350005, Fujian Province, China.

Background: Follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) is an indolent carcinoma. The cumulative incidence of death from patients with FTC and the nomogram built based on the competing risks model have not been described.

Methods: The data from patients diagnosed with primary FTC were identified and extracted from the surveillance, epidemiology, and end results (SEER) program (1988-2015). The cumulative incidence function was utilized to calculate the likelihood of death resulting from thyroid cancer and other causes, respectively. Gray's test was used to examine the difference in the cumulative incidence of death between the groups. A tenfold cross-validation was applied to assess the discrimination and calibration of the model.

Results: A total of 9210 patients diagnosed with primary FTC were included. The median follow-up time was 92 months (1-347 months). The 5-year, 10-year, and 20-year probabilities of death from FTC were 2.84%, 5.23%, and 8.61%, respectively. The age at diagnosis, sex, tumor size, pathological subtypes, tumor extension, lymph node involvement, as well as surgical and radiotherapy methods used, were related to the cumulative incidence of death. Multivariate analysis identified several risk factors for patient survival. The model behaved well in terms of performance. A nomogram based on the model allowed the prediction of the probability of death among patients with FTC.

Conclusions: The prognosis of FTC is excellent. The likelihood of death caused by thyroid cancer increases with age. Male sex, tumors larger than 4 cm, invasion, extrathyroidal extension, lymph node involvement, and distant metastases increase the risk of dying of thyroid carcinoma. The nomogram constructed on the basis of the model is potentially useful for both clinicians and patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13304-021-01103-6DOI Listing
June 2021

Adiponectin Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-induced Apoptosis by Regulating the Cx43/PI3K/AKT Pathway.

Front Pharmacol 2021 18;12:644225. Epub 2021 May 18.

Key Laboratory of Xinjiang Endemic and Ethnic Diseases, Ministry of Education, Shihezi University School of Medicine, Shihezi, China.

Cardiomyocyte apoptosis is a crucial factor leading to myocardial dysfunction. Adiponectin (APN) has a cardiomyocyte-protective impact. Studies have shown that the connexin43 (Cx43) and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT) signaling pathways play an important role in the heart, but whether APN plays a protective role by regulating these pathways is unclear. Our study aimed to confirm whether APN protects against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis and to explore whether it plays an important role through regulating the Cx43 and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways. In addition, our research aimed to explore the relationship between the Cx43 and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways. experiments: Before H9c2 cells were treated with LPS for 24 h, they were pre-treated with APN for 2 h. The cytotoxic effect of APN on H9c2 cells was evaluated by a CCK-8 assay. The protein levels of Bax, Bcl2, cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-9, Cx43, PI3K, p-PI3K, AKT and p-AKT were evaluated by Western blot analysis, and the apoptosis rate was evaluated by flow cytometry. APN attenuated the cytotoxicity induced by LPS. LPS upregulated Bax, cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved caspase-9 and downregulated Bcl2 in H9c2 cells; however, these effects were attenuated by APN. In addition, LPS upregulated Cx43 expression, and APN downregulated Cx43 expression and activated the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. LPS induced apoptosis and inhibited PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in H9c2 cells, and these effects were attenuated by Gap26 (a Cx43 inhibitor). Moreover, the preservation of APN expression was reversed by LY294002 (a PI3K/AKT signaling pathway inhibitor). experiments: In C57BL/6J mice, a sepsis model was established by intraperitoneal injection of LPS, and APN was injected into enterocoelia. The protein levels of Bax, Bcl2, cleaved caspase-3, and Cx43 were evaluated by Western blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry was used to detect Cx43 expression and localization in myocardial tissue. LPS upregulated Bax and cleaved caspase-3 and downregulated Bcl2 in sepsis; however, these effects were attenuated by APN. In addition, the expression of Cx43 was upregulated in septic myocardial tissue, and APN downregulated Cx43 expression in septic myocardial tissue. In conclusion, both and , the data demonstrated that APN can protect against LPS-induced apoptosis during sepsis by modifying the Cx43 and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.644225DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8167433PMC
May 2021

Akt3-mTOR regulates hippocampal neurogenesis in adult mouse.

J Neurochem 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Physiology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Akt signaling has been associated with adult neurogenesis in hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). We reported cognitive dysfunction in Akt3 knockout (Akt3-KO) mice with the downregulation of mTOR activation. However, little is known about the effects of Akt3 signaling on hippocampal neurogenesis. Herein, we show that progenitor cells, neuroblasts and mature newborn neurons in hippocampal DG expressed Akt3 protein. The Akt3 phosphorylation in hippocampal DG was increased after voluntary wheel running for 7 days in wild-type mice (running WT mice), but not in Akt3-KO mice (running Akt3-KO mice). Subsequently, we observed that the proliferation of progenitor cells was suppressed in Akt3-KO mice and the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin-treated mice, whereas enhanced in running WT mice rather than running Akt3-KO mice. Neurite growth of neuroblasts was impaired in Akt3-KO mice and rapamycin-treated mice. By contrast, neither differentiation of progenitor cells nor migrating of newly generated neurons was altered in Akt3-KO mice or running WT mice. Levels of p70S6K and 4EBP1 phosphorylation were declined in Akt3-KO mice and elevated in running WT mice depending on mTOR activation. Furthermore, telomerase activity,telomerelengthandexpressionoftelomerasereverse transcriptase (TERT) were decreased in Akt3-KO mice, but increased in running WT mice rather than running Akt3-KO mice, which required the mTOR activation. The study provides in vivo evidence that Akt3-mTOR signaling plays an important role in the proliferation of progenitor cells and neurite growth through positive regulated TERT expression and activation of p70S6K and 4EBP1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jnc.15441DOI Listing
June 2021

Modulation of Antiviral Immunity and Therapeutic Efficacy by 25-Hydroxycholesterol in Chronically SIV-Infected, ART-Treated Rhesus Macaques.

Virol Sin 2021 May 31. Epub 2021 May 31.

School of Public Health (Shenzhen), Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangdong, 518107, China.

Cholesterol-25-hydroxylase (CH25H) and its enzymatic product 25-hydroxycholesterol (25HC) exert broadly antiviral activity including inhibiting HIV-1 infection. However, their antiviral immunity and therapeutic efficacy in a nonhuman primate model are unknown. Here, we report that the regimen of 25HC combined with antiretroviral therapy (ART), provides profound immunological modulation towards inhibiting viral replication in chronically SIV-infected rhesus macaques (RMs). Compared to the ART alone, this regimen more effectively controlled SIV replication, enhanced SIV-specific cellular immune responses, restored the ratio of CD4/CD8 cells, reversed the hyperactivation state of CD4 T cells, and inhibited the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines by CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes in chronically SIV-infected RMs. Furthermore, the in vivo safety and the preliminary pharmacokinetics of the 25HC compound were assessed in this RM model. Taken together, these assessments help explain the profound relationship between cholesterol metabolism, immune modulation, and antiviral activities by 25HC. These results provide insight for developing novel therapeutic drug candidates against HIV-1 infection and other related diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12250-021-00407-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8165512PMC
May 2021

Update of Clown Nose-Like Lesion, a Underrecognized Manifestation of Metastatic Malignancies and Genetic Cancer Predisposition Syndromes.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 13;8:673336. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Dermatology, Institute of Dermatology and Venereology, Sichuan Academy of Medical Sciences & Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital, Chengdu, China.

Clown nose-like lesion refers to the manifestation of a reddish or skin-colored bulge on the tip of the nose or the manifestation of bulbous tip of the nose. More and more clinical cases show that clown nose-like lesion can also be the indication of some genetic syndromes, not just the manifestation of metastatic visceral tumor as it initially proposed. However, the clinical features of clown nose-like lesion indicated by metastatic malignancies, genetic cancer predisposition syndromes or primary diseases involving the nasal tip are lacking. In this study, patients with clown nose-like lesion in our clinical practices and from published literatures were collected and reviewed. We found that clown nose-like lesions caused by metastatic malignancies including lung cancer are often solitary and more common in male (24/31) older individuals (average age 62.3, ranging 40-78 years old). In addition, they usually appear for a short time, and are prone to be misdiagnosed as primary nasal diseases, leading to a poor prognosis (all patients with data available died within 4 months). Clown nose-like lesions associated with genetic cancer predisposition syndromes usually develop at a young age (mean age 15.3) with female preference (9/10). They are accompanied by multiple-systemic involvements, including low hair volume, developmental delay, cancer predisposition or neurological diseases. They show slow development and often positive family history (6/10). These two kinds of clown nose-like lesions are often asymptomatic, which delays the diagnosis and treatment of underlying malignancies or syndromes. In brief, the term of clown nose-like lesion is underrecognized, and should be updated. Clown nose-like lesions can serve as indicators to at least three categories of clinical issues: metastatic visceral tumors, genetic syndromes, and primary diseases involving the nasal tip. Increased awareness of clinical features of updated clown nose-like lesions can alert physicians to these underlying malignancies or syndromes, render earlier detection of associated medical issues, and allow for genetic counseling of family members.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2021.673336DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8155271PMC
May 2021

Urinary C-peptide/creatinine ratio: A useful biomarker of insulin resistance and refined classification of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

J Diabetes 2021 May 29. Epub 2021 May 29.

Departments of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Peking University People's Hospital, Peking University Diabetes Center, Beijing, China.

Background: The urinary C-peptide/creatinine ratio (UCPCR) is low in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus, but it has not been well characterized in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We aimed to measure the UCPCRs in patients with T2DM and explore the relationships among UCPCR, insulin resistance (IR), and chronic vascular complications of diabetes.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed of 1299 Chinese hospitalized patients with T2DM. Binary logistic regression was used to evaluate the relationships between the chronic vascular complications of diabetes and UCPCR. K-means analysis was used to allocate participants to subgroups with five to six variables (age at diagnosis, body mass index [BMI], glycosylated hemoglobin, homoeostasis model assessment 2-estimated beta-cell function (HOMA2-B), and HOMA2-insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR), with or without UCPCR).

Results: UCPCR positively correlated with HOMA2-IR (r = 0.448, P < .001). After adjustment for sex, age, duration of diabetes, and other cardiovascular risk factors, UCPCR was positively associated with diabetic kidney disease (DKD) (odds ratio [OR] = 1.198, 95% CI 1.019-1.408, P = .029) and coronary heart disease (CHD) (OR = 1.312, 95% CI 1.079-1.594, P = .006). When UCPCR was added, cluster analysis using the six variables identified five subgroups of T2DM, characterized by differing age at diagnosis, BMI, beta-cell function, IR, and prevalence of vascular complications.

Conclusions: UCPCR is positively associated with IR, DKD, and CHD and represents a promising biomarker that could refine the classification of T2DM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1753-0407.13203DOI Listing
May 2021

Clinical performance of intraoral digital impression for fixed prosthodontics: a Meta-analysis.

Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2021 Jun;39(3):306-312

The Affiliated Stomatology Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedical Research of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou 310006, China.

Objectives: To analyze the clinical performance of the intraoral digital impression (IDI) in the fixed prosthodontics.

Methods: Databases of Medline (Ovid), EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and CNKI were searched for randomized controlled trial (RCT) on the use of IDI in fixed prosthodontics until May 2020. Two reviewers independently screened literature, extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias of included studies. A Meta-analysis was conducted when available.

Results: Eleven RCTs involving 618 patients were included in this study. A total of 2 and 3 studies had low and high risks of bias, respectively, and other included studies had a medium risk of bias. Results illustrated that the IDI group could shorten the impression-taken time [SMD=-5.63, 95%CI (-11.25, -0.01), =0.05] and improve the accuracy of the marginal fit [SMD=-0.53, 95%CI (-0.84, -0.22), =0.000 7] compared with the conventional impression group. However, no significant difference was observed in the internal fit.

Conclusions: Evidence indicated a good clinical performance of IDI for fixed prosthodontics. Notably, high-quality studies are expected to further support the conclusion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7518/hxkq.2021.03.010DOI Listing
June 2021

Microplastics in different tissues of a pelagic squid (Dosidicus gigas) in the northern Humboldt Current ecosystem.

Mar Pollut Bull 2021 May 21;169:112509. Epub 2021 May 21.

College of Marine Sciences, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai, China; Key Laboratory of Sustainable Exploitation of Oceanic Fisheries Resources, Ministry of Education, Shanghai, China; National Engineering Research Centre for Oceanic Fisheries, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai, China; Key Laboratory of Oceanic Fisheries Exploration, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Shanghai, China.

Microplastics (MPs) found in marine invertebrates have aroused great concern, but MP ingestion by cephalopods is rare. To evaluate MP contamination in commercially important pelagic squids, we examined the abundance and characteristics of MPs in the gill, intestine, and stomach of jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas (30.9 to 65.0 cm mantle length), collected from the northern Humboldt Current. The average abundance ranged from 4.0 to 7.4 items/individual and 0.2 to 0.7 items/g wet weight for the three tissues. The MPs were sized 80.75 to 4632.27 μm, with larger MPs generally found in the stomach. The majority of MPs were fibrous in shape, blue or black-gray in color, and cellophane in composition. These results revealed the MP distribution in D. gigas and could be driven by its movement pattern and habitat use. Furthermore, this study provides evidence that adherence to gills is probably an alternative means by which pelagic squid accumulate MPs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2021.112509DOI Listing
May 2021

Activation of monoaminergic system contributes to the antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like effects of J147.

Behav Brain Res 2021 May 21;411:113374. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacology, The Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, China. Electronic address:

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a severe mental disorder, which is closely related to the deficiency of monoamine neurotransmitters. Our previous study suggested that acute treatment with J147, a novel curcumin derivative, produced antidepressant-like effects in mouse model of depression by regulation of 5-HT receptor subtypes. However, it is still unknown whether the antidepressant-like effects of J147 are involved in activation of central monoaminergic system. In this study, a series of classical behavior tests were employed to assess the involvement of monoaminergic system in antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like effects after sub-acute treatment of mice with J147 for 3 days. The results suggested that J147 at 10 mg/kg significantly reduced the immobility time in both the tail suspension and forced swimming tests, but didn't show effects in the sucrose preference test. Similarly, sub-acute treatment of J147 did not induce amelioration in novelty suppressed feeding test. J147 increased duration and crossing time in the central area, but did not show significant change in rearing counts in the open field test. In neurochemical assays, studies suggested that serotonin and noradrenaline levels were significantly increased in the frontal cortex and hippocampus after treatment of J147 by the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with an electrochemical detector. Moreover, J147-induced significant inhibition of monoamine oxidase A activity. These findings suggest that the antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like effects of J147 might be related to the monoaminergic system by the evidence that high dose of J147 inhibits monoamine oxidase (MAO)-A activity and increases synaptic monoamines in the mouse brain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2021.113374DOI Listing
May 2021

The Y-STR landscape of coastal southeastern Han: Forensic characteristics, haplotype analyses, mutation rates, and population genetics.

Electrophoresis 2021 May 21. Epub 2021 May 21.

School of Forensic Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, P. R. China.

The Y-STR landscape of Coastal Southeastern Han (CSEH) living in Chinese southeast areas (including Guangdong, Fujian, and Zhejiang provinces) is still unclear. We investigated 62 Y-STR markers in a reasonably large number of 1021 unrelated males and 1027 DNA-confirmed father-son pairs to broaden the genetic backgrounds of CSEH. In total, 85 null alleles, 121 off-ladder alleles, and 95 copy number variants were observed, and 1012 distinct haplotypes were determined with the overall HD and DC values of 0.999974 and 0.9912. We observed 369 mutations in 76 099 meiotic transfers, and the average estimated Y-STR mutation rate was 4.85 × 10 (95% CI, 4.4 × 10 -5.4 × 10 ). The Spearman correlation analyses indicated that GD values (R = 0.6548) and average allele sizes (R = 0.5989) have positive correlations with Y-STR mutation rates. Our RM Y-STR set including 8 candidate RM Y-STRs, of which DYS534, DYS630, and DYS713 are new candidates in CSEH, distinguished 18.52% of father-son pairs. This study also clarified the population structures of CSEH which isolated in population-mixed South China relatively. The strategy, SM Y-STRs for familial searching and RM Y-STRs for individual identification regionally, could be applicable based on enough knowledge of the Y-STR mutability of different populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/elps.202100037DOI Listing
May 2021

Increased miR‑187‑3p expression after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion induces apoptosis via initiation of endoplasmic reticulum stress.

Neurosci Lett 2021 May 17;759:135947. Epub 2021 May 17.

Key Laboratory of Endemic and Ethnic Diseases, Ministry of Education, School of Basic Medical Science, Guizhou Medical University, China; Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Biology, Guizhou Medical University, Guiyang, Guizhou, 550004, China. Electronic address:

Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury induces activation of the endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) pathway, accompanied by an increase in apoptosis. Multiple microRNAs (miRNAs/miRs) are dysregulated during I/R and contribute to I/R-induced injury. miRNAs act as suppressors of gene expression and negatively regulate gene expression by targeting the protein-coding sequence (CDS) of specific target mRNAs. Seipin is an endoplasmic reticulum protein that has recently been associated with ERS. We previously reported that seipin is the target gene of miR‑187‑3p. Therefore, we explored the involvement of miR-187-3p in I/R-induced ERS via the regulation of seipin. A rat MCAO/R model was established by 1 h of occlusion and 24 h reperfusion. Neurological deficits and infarction area were examined. PC12 cells were exposed to oxygen‑glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) to model I/R. Expression levels of miR-187-3p and proteins related to ERS and apoptosis were measured using RT-PCR, western blotting, immunofluorescence, and immunohistochemistry, respectively. TUNEL staining was used to assay apoptosis. MCAO/R-induced morphological changes were analyzed with Nissl staining and Hematoxylin-eosin staining. I/R-induced ERS was closely associated with an increase in miR-1873p and a decrease in seipin expression. miR-187-3p agomir further activated the ERS pathway and promoted apoptosis but decreased seipin expression levels; these effects were reversed by miR-187-3p antagomir. Moreover, seipin knockdown aggravated ERS in PC12 cells after OGD/R, and this change was rescued by seipin overexpression. miR-187-3p antagomir did not suppress ERS and apoptosis in seipin knockdown PC12 cells after OGD/R. Our findings demonstrate that the inhibition of miR‑187‑3p attenuated I/R‑induced cerebral injury by regulating seipin-mediated ERS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2021.135947DOI Listing
May 2021

Extracellular vesicle TGF-β1 is linked to cardiopulmonary dysfunction in HIV.

Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2021 May 20. Epub 2021 May 20.

University of Kansas Medical Center, 21638, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, Kansas City, Kansas, United States;

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have emerged as important mediators in cell-cell communication, however; their relevance in pulmonary hypertension (PH) secondary to HIV infection is yet to be explored. Considering that circulating monocytes are the source of increased perivascular macrophages surrounding the remodeled vessels in PH, this study aimed to identify the role of circulating small EVs and EVs released by HIV-infected human monocyte-derived macrophages in the development of PH. We report significantly higher numbers of plasma-derived EVs carrying higher levels of TGF-β1 in HIV infected individuals with PH compared to without PH. Importantly, levels of these TGF-β1-loaded plasma-derived EVs correlated with pulmonary arterial systolic pressures and CD4 counts, but not with diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) or viral load. Correspondingly, enhanced TGF-β1-dependent pulmonary endothelial injury and smooth muscle hyperplasia were observed. HIV-1-infection of monocyte-derived macrophages in the presence of cocaine resulted in an increased number of TGF-β1 high-EVs and; intravenous injection of these EVs in rats led to increased right ventricle systolic pressure accompanied by myocardial injury and increased levels of serum endothelin-1, TNF-α, and cardiac Troponin-I. Conversely, pretreatment of rats with TGF-β-Receptor 1 inhibitor prevented these EV-mediated changes. Findings define the ability of macrophage-derived small EVs to cause pulmonary vascular modeling and PH via modulation of TGF-β signaling and suggest clinical implications of circulating TGF-β high-EVs as a potential biomarker of HIV-PH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1165/rcmb.2021-0010OCDOI Listing
May 2021

Predictive value of within-visit and visit-to-visit blood pressure variability for all-cause mortality: the Minhang Study.

J Hypertens 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Research Center for Hypertension Management and Prevention in Community, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Hypertension, Shanghai Institute of Hypertension, State Key Laboratory of Medical Genomics, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine Xinzhuang Community Health Service Center, Shanghai, China E.C. and L.C. contributed equally as joint first authors.

Background: Blood pressure variability is a common physiological phenomenon; however, the association between within-visit and visit-to-visit variability in blood pressure and all-cause mortality remains uncertain.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of blood pressure variability among 11 721 adults who underwent blood pressure measurement on three occasions within a period of 6 months. Within-visit and visit-to-visit variability was quantified using the standard deviation and maximum--minimum difference between measures. The predictive effect of this variability on all-cause mortality was evaluated using Kaplan--Meier survival curves and Cox regression analysis.

Results: The incidence of all-cause mortality was significantly higher for participants in the top quintile of within-visit and visit-to-visit blood pressure variability and for those with sustained high within-visit variability. Within-visit variability was not retained as a risk factor after adjustment in Cox regression models. The hazard ratio for mortality increased from 48 to 55% for the top quintile of visit-to-visit blood pressure variability and from 56 to 61% for sustained high within-visit variability. The risk of mortality remained statistically higher even if visit-to-visit blood pressure variability was added to the model, including consistency of within-visit blood pressure variability and vice versa.

Conclusion: Visit-to-visit and sustained high within-visit blood pressure variability were significant positive prognostic factors for all-cause mortality. Our findings underlined the clinical significance of achieving stable blood pressure in an effective plan of hypertension management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0000000000002867DOI Listing
May 2021

The genomic distribution map of human papillomavirus in Western China.

Epidemiol Infect 2021 May 18;149:e135. Epub 2021 May 18.

Clinical Molecular Medicine Testing Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing400016, China.

Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been confirmed as the causative agent for cervical cancer. In this study, a total of 301 880 women were recruited from four different regions of Western China, with 301 880 exfoliated cervical cell samples collected from women for DNA isolation and purification. The HPV genotype was tested by polymerase chain reaction. The overall HPV prevalence rate, high-risk (HR) HPV infection rate, low-risk (LR) HPV infection rate and mixed HPV infection rate was 18.24%, 79.14%, 12.56% and 8.30%, respectively. The four most common HR HPV subtypes were HPV-52, 16, 58 and 53, which accounted for 20.49%, 19.93%, 14.54% and 10.01%, respectively. In LR HPV genotype, HPV-6 ranked the highest (28.17%), followed by HPV-81 (9.09%) and HPV-11 (3.78%). HPV genotype subgroup analysis also showed that single-type infection was the most common (77.26%) among HPV-positive individuals. Among multi-infection genotypes, double infection was the most common with frequencies of 76.04%. The overall prevalence of HPV is high in Western China, whose distribution demonstrates different patterns across different ages and regions. Viral genotypes HPV 53, 6 were frequently detected in this population, which is worth of significant clinical attention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268821001175DOI Listing
May 2021

Proteinuria may be an indicator of adverse pregnancy outcomes in patients with preeclampsia: a retrospective study.

Reprod Biol Endocrinol 2021 May 14;19(1):71. Epub 2021 May 14.

The Center of Experimental Teaching Management, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Background: Proteinuria is one of the common manifestations of patients with preeclampsia (PE), but whether the severity of proteinuria is related to the pregnancy outcome of patients with preeclampsia remains controversial. The present study aimed to determine the relationship between 24-h proteinuria and adverse outcomes in patients with preeclampsia.

Methods: The present retrospective study included 329 pregnant women in Chongqing, China. Patients were divided into PE group and non-PE group. PE group was stratified into three subgroups based on the level of 24-h proteinuria. Correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlation between biochemical indexes and adverse pregnancy outcome, and Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the risk factors of adverse pregnancy outcome. The receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) was used to evaluate the ability of 24-h urinary protein to distinguish the adverse pregnancy outcome in patients with preeclampsia.

Results: (1) Between PE and non-PE group, cesarean section rate in PE group was significantly higher than that in non-PE group (84.4% vs. 25.9%, p <  0.001). Laboratory findings such as uric acid and creatinine level in PE group were higher than those in non-PE group. (2) Among mild (proteinuria < 0.3 g/24 h), moderate (0.3 g/24 h ≦ proteinuria < 2 g/24 h) and massive (proteinuria ≧ 2 g/24 h) groups, the frequencies of induced labor (p = 0.006) and stillbirth (p = 0.002) increased with the increase of 24-h proteinuria. (3) Adverse outcomes were positively correlated with 24-h proteinuria (adverse maternal outcomes: r = 0.239, p = 0.002; adverse fetal outcomes: r = 0.336, p <  0.001). (4) The best 24-h proteinuria cutoff values to determine stillbirth, premature and fetal distress were 3965.0 mg/24 h, 984.75 mg/24 h and 1503.85 mg/24 h and their odds ratio (95% confidence interval) were 12.46 (3.46-44.88), 2.48 (1.15-5.37) and 10.02 (2.14-46.80), respectively.

Conclusions: The severity of 24-h proteinuia may forecast adverse outcomes in women with preeclampsia. We suggest proteinuria should be retained as one of the monitoring indexes in patients with preeclampsia.

Trial Registration: Retrospectively registered. (LTMCMTS202001).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12958-021-00751-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8120921PMC
May 2021

miR-660 promotes liver cancer cell proliferation by targeting PPP2R2A.

Exp Ther Med 2021 Jul 25;22(1):683. Epub 2021 Apr 25.

Department of Biliary-Hepatic Surgery, The Affiliated Hospital of Guizhou Medical University, Guiyang, Guizhou 550025, P.R China.

Liver cancer (LC) is the leading cause for tumor-related death worldwide, and microRNAs (miRs) have been demonstrated to regulate the progression of LC. In the current study, the function of miR-660 in LC cells was investigated, and the results indicated that miR-660 was highly expressed in LC tissues and cells. This increased expression promoted LC cell proliferation and increased the percentage of S phase cells, while miR-660 knockdown inhibited cell proliferation and increased the percentage of G/G phase cells. A Ser/Thr phosphatase protein phosphatase 2 regulatory subunit βα (PPP2R2A) was indicated as the target of miR-660, and miR-660 could inhibit PPP2R2A levels. The luciferase reporter assay suggested that miR-660 directly bound to the 3'-untranslated region of PPP2R2A. Additionally, it was revealed that miR-660 inhibited p21 expression and promoted cyclin D1 expression, confirming that miR-660 regulated LC cell proliferation by regulating cell cycle progression. The double knockdown of miR-660 and PPP2R2A promoted LC cell proliferation, suggesting that miR-660 promoted LC proliferation by targeting PPP2R2A.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2021.10115DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8112136PMC
July 2021

Selective enzymatic α-1,6- monoglucosylation of mogroside IIIE for the bio-creation of α-siamenoside I, a potential high-intensity sweetener.

Food Chem 2021 Oct 23;359:129938. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences and Technology, China Pharmaceutical University, 639 Longmian Road, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 211198, PR China. Electronic address:

A new compound, α-siamenoside I (α-SI), with a glucose unit selectively bound to the 6-hydroxyl group of the 24-O-β-glucosyl moiety of mogroside IIIE by α-1,6-glucosidic bond, was bio-created by two screened cyclodextrin glycosyltransferases with a maximum yield of 59.3%. Compared to mogroside IIIE, α-SI showed a significantly increased sweetness intensity (508 times sweeter than 5% sucrose), which is superior to siamenoside I (SI), the sweetest triterpenoid saponin isolated from Siraitia grosvenorii to date. Sensory evaluation showed that the taste quality of α-SI also was obviously better than mogroside IIIE. In addition to α-SI possessing a good stability similar to that of SI, it also did not cause a significant decrease in cell viability at a concentration of 200 μg/mL and had a negative influence on islets function at 1 μM. All of these preliminarily results pave the way for promoting α-SI as a potential low-calorie sweetener.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.129938DOI Listing
October 2021

Tailoring Acidic Oxygen Reduction Selectivity on Single-Atom Catalysts via Modification of First and Second Coordination Spheres.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 May 13;143(20):7819-7827. Epub 2021 May 13.

School of Chemical Engineering and Advanced Materials, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia.

Product selectivity in multielectron electrocatalytic reactions is crucial to energy conversion efficiency and chemical production. However, a present practical drawback is the limited understanding of actual catalytic active sites. Here, using as a prototype single-atom catalysts (SACs) in acidic oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), we report the structure-property relationship of catalysts and show for the first time that molecular-level local structure, including first and second coordination spheres (CSs), rather than individual active atoms, synergistically determines the electrocatalytic response. ORR selectivity on Co-SACs can be tailored from a four-electron to a two-electron pathway by modifying first (N or/and O coordination) and second (C-O-C groups) CSs. Using combined theoretical predictions and experiments, including X-ray absorption fine structure analyses and in situ infrared spectroscopy, we confirm that the unique selectivity change originates from the structure-dependent shift of active sites from the center Co atom to the O-adjacent C atom. We show this optimizes the electronic structure and *OOH adsorption behavior on active sites to give the present "best" activity and selectivity of >95% for acidic HO electrosynthesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.1c03135DOI Listing
May 2021

Clinical Use of Propranolol Reduces Biomarkers of Proliferation in Gastric Cancer.

Front Oncol 2021 26;11:628613. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Gastric cancer has one of the highest mortality rate in the world, but the treatment is still limited. Building on previous studies, mechanistic studies on propranolol in gastric cancer mice models and gastric cancer patients were performed. Propranolol inhibited the proliferation of gastric cancer cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Consistent findings were observed in MFC tumors engrafted 615 mice, which were treated with propranolol at 10 mg/kg daily for 14 days. Propranolol inhibited the phosphorylation of AKT, MEK, and ERK proteins than control in mice tumor tissues respectively (p-AKT 26.16 vs. 56.82, = 0.0196, p-MEK 28.27 vs. 59.28, = 0.1102, p-ERK 48.2 vs. 107.4, P = 0.0062). Propranolol had antiproliferative activity in gastric cancer patients receiving 60 mg daily for 7 days prior to surgery(ki67 44.8 vs 125.3 for placebo; P = 0.02). Phosphorylated AKT, MEK, and ERK did not differ between propranolol and placebo treatment in gastric cancer patients. The expression of molecules on CD8 T cells was not changed both in mice model and patients nor was there a statistically significant difference in CD8 T cell subsets in patients, although suggestion of an effect was evident. These results prove that propranolol may inhibit the growth of gastric cancer in mice model and patients and the possible mechanism was inhibiting the AKT and MAPK pathways, but the frequency of tumor infiltration CD8 T cells did not increase significantly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.628613DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8108985PMC
April 2021

Prevalence and profile of nocturnal disturbances in Chinese patients with advanced-stage Parkinson's disease: a cross-sectional epidemiology study.

BMC Neurol 2021 May 12;21(1):194. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Neurology, Rui Jin Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Background: The impact of nocturnal disturbance (ND) in Parkinson's disease on quality of life of patients in Western Countries is increasingly understood. Our study aimed to investigate ND prevalence and its quality of life impact in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease in China.

Methods: In a multicenter, tertiary-care hospital, outpatient-based, cross-sectional study, patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (Modified Hoehn & Yahr [H&Y] Stage II-IV with ≥3 h awake "off" time/day) from 10 tertiary hospitals throughout China completed the Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale-2 (PDSS-2) and Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire-39 (PDQ-39). The primary endpoint was the percentage of patients with significant ND (PDSS-2 total score ≥ 15). Additional endpoints were demographic and clinical characteristics, PDSS-2 and PDQ-39 total and subscale scores, correlation between PDSS-2 and PDQ-39, and risk factors for ND and higher PDSS-2 or PDQ-39 scores.

Results: Of 448 patients analyzed (mean age 63.5 years, 47.3% female), 70.92% (95% confidence interval: 66.71, 75.13) had significant ND. Presence of ND and higher PDSS-2 scores were associated with longer disease duration and higher H&Y stage. Presence of ND was also associated with more awake "off" time/day and female sex. PDQ-39 scores were significantly worse for patients with ND versus those without ND; worse scores were associated with more awake "off" time/day, female sex, and higher H&Y stage. PDSS-2 and PDQ-39 total scores were associated: Pearson correlation coefficient 0.62 (p < 0.001).

Conclusions: In China, ND was highly prevalent in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease and adversely impacted quality of life. This study highlights the importance of early diagnosis and optimized management of ND in patients with Parkinson's disease in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12883-021-02217-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8114718PMC
May 2021

Healable and Rearrangeable Networks of Liquid Crystal Elastomers Enabled by Diselenide Bonds.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Institute of Advanced Materials, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu Province Hi-Tech Key Laboratory for Bio-medical Research, Southeast University, Nanjing, 211189, China.

Based on liquid crystal elastomer (LCE) materials, hierarchically structured soft actuators can meet some requirements for "human-friendly" working mode and execute complex tasks with intelligent adaptation to environmental changes. However, few researchers have paid much attention to the preparation methods of multicomponent/hierarchical LCE actuators. In this communication, we demonstrate the successful integration of an exchangeable diselenide chain extender for the preparation of dynamic LCEs, which could be reprogrammed on heating or under visible light illumination. Moreover, the rearrangeable polydiselenide networks could be applied to develop the self-welding technology toward fabricating hierarchically structured LCE actuators with sophisticated deformability without using any auxiliary reagent (adhesive, tape, catalysts or initiator) during the assembling process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202105278DOI Listing
May 2021

Photoinduced Oxidative Alkoxycarbonylation of Alkenes with Alkyl Formates.

Org Lett 2021 May 11;23(10):3939-3943. Epub 2021 May 11.

College of Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, China.

A photoinduced oxidative alkoxycarbonylation of alkenes initiated by intermolecular addition of alkoxycarbonyl radicals has been demonstrated. Employing alkyl formates as alkoxycarbonyl radical sources, a range of α,β-unsaturated esters were obtained with good regioselectivity and selectivity under ambient conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.orglett.1c01096DOI Listing
May 2021

Association of toe-extension movement pattern magnitude and variability during three functional tasks with diabetic foot complications.

Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) 2021 May 3;85:105371. Epub 2021 May 3.

Program in Physical Therapy, Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, 4444 Forest Park Ave, St. Louis, MO 63108, USA. Electronic address:

Background: A toe-extension movement pattern may contribute to metatarsophalangeal joint deformity and ulceration in people with diabetes. We sought to quantify the relationship between toe extension magnitude and variability during three functional tasks (ankle range of motion, sit to stand, walking) with metatarsophalangeal joint deformity, and identify potential mechanisms associated with a toe-extension movement pattern.

Methods: Individuals with diabetes and peripheral neuropathy were included (n = 60). Metatarsophalangeal joint deformity was assessed using computed tomography (CT). Toe-extension movement was quantified using 3-dimensional motion capture. Linear regression was used to investigate the role of toe-extension movement pattern on metatarsophalangeal joint deformity. Regression analysis was used to identify mechanisms (neuropathy severity, foot intrinsic muscle deterioration ratio, ankle dorsiflexion range of motion) contributing to toe-extension movement pattern.

Findings: Toe extension with each functional task as well as the mean and coefficient of variation across all tasks were significantly related to metatarsophalangeal joint deformity (range of correlation coefficients = (-0.386, 0.692), p ≤ 0.001). Ankle dorsiflexion range of motion was associated with mean toe extension across all tasks (r = -0.282, p = 0.029). Neuropathy severity and foot intrinsic muscle deterioration ratio were associated with toe extension variability (r = -0.373, p = 0.003 and r = -0.266, p = 0.043; respectively).

Interpretation: Greater magnitude and lower variability of a toe-extension movement pattern was found to be associated with metatarsophalangeal joint deformity. These findings may support clinical assessment and treatment of movement across more than one task.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2021.105371DOI Listing
May 2021

Systematic characterization of chemical constituents in Mahuang decoction by UHPLC tandem linear ion trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometry coupled with feature-based molecular networking.

J Sep Sci 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

School of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, P. R. China.

Comprehensive characterization of traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions has long been a hurdle due to the chemical complexity and the lack of analytical tools. Mahuang decoction is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine prescription widely used for sweating and relieving the exterior, relieving cough and asthma, but it was insufficiently chemically scrutinized. In this study, the chemical component information of Mahuang decoction was investigated by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography tandem linear ion trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometry. A new data processing tool, feature-based molecular networking, was introduced for grouping and elucidating the compounds. In this way, 156 chemical components were identified or tentatively characterized, including alkaloids, triterpenoid saponins, flavanone-O-glycosides, flavone-C-glycosides, and procyanidins. Thus, this research provides a solid foundation for further development of Mahuang decoction, and the adopted method is expected to be applied to other traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jssc.202100121DOI Listing
May 2021

Qualitative study of musculoskeletal tissues and their radiographic correlates in diabetic neuropathic foot deformity.

Foot (Edinb) 2021 Jun 3;47:101777. Epub 2021 May 3.

Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Musculoskeletal Section, Washington University School of Medicine, Campus Box 8131, St. Louis, MO 63110, United States. Electronic address:

Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) with peripheral neuropathy (PN) results in foot deformity increasing ulceration, joint dislocation, and amputation risk. This study describes the frequency and severity of foot and ankle musculoskeletal abnormalities and their relationship to radiographic alignment in people with DMPN with (DMPN + MCD) and without (DMPN - MCD) medial column deformity (MCD) compared to age- and body mass index-matched controls without DMPN or MDC.

Methods: DMPN + MCD (n = 11), DMPN - MCD (n = 12), and controls (n = 12) were studied. A radiologist scored foot and ankle magnetic resonance images (MRI) for abnormalities in tendons/fascia, ligaments, muscles, joints, and bones. Higher scores represent greater abnormalities. Foot alignment was measured from lateral weightbearing radiographs. Frequency of abnormalities between groups and relationships between abnormalities and foot alignment in the combined group (n = 35) were examined.

Results: DMPN + MCD had higher total muscle, joint, and bone scores compared to controls and higher total joint scores than DMPN - MCD. DMPN - MCD had higher total muscle scores than controls. DMPN + MCD higher bone and joint scores were driven by increased frequency of osteophytes, cartilage damage, focal bone marrow edema, new bone formation, and subchondral cysts. Significant correlations included cuboid height and total bone and joint scores (ρ = -0.37 and ρ = -0.40, respectively) and talar declination angle and total joint score (ρ = 0.38).

Conclusion: High contrast resolution MRI allowed identification of structural lesions of the foot affecting the cartilage surfaces, bone marrow, and soft tissue supports in patients with DMPN + MCD. As expected, the presence of bone and joint lesions on MRI were strongly associated with DMPN + MCD; surprisingly, although the sample is small, lesions of the soft tissue supports were not associated with MCD. While MRI is not done routinely to investigate MCD, opportunistic use of the information from MRI done for the common clinical indications may allow early identification of the structural lesions associated with MCD and facilitate early, aggressive therapy.

Level Of Evidence: III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foot.2021.101777DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8212350PMC
June 2021