Publications by authors named "Lindsey I Black"

26 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Urgent Care Center and Retail Health Clinic Utilization Among Children: United States, 2019.

NCHS Data Brief 2020 Dec(393):1-8

In recent years, urgent care centers and health clinics within grocery or retail stores have been delivering health care services to an increasing number of children and adults (1-3). Urgent care centers and retail health clinics may be able to deliver preventive care, such as routine vaccinations, and nonemergency acute or after-hours care (3-5). This report describes the utilization of urgent care centers or retail health clinics in 2019 among children aged 0-17 years in the past 12 months by selected characteristics.
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December 2020

Comparing prevalence estimates of concussion/head injury in U.S. children and adolescents in national surveys.

Ann Epidemiol 2021 02 21;54:11-20. Epub 2020 Nov 21.

Division of Injury Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA.

Background And Objectives: Reports on pediatric lifetime concussions/head injuries (LCHI) from national surveys have offered estimates on prevalence that range from 2.5% to 18% in the general population. The purpose of this study is to examine national surveys to compare methodologies and limitations pertaining to LCHI data collection.

Methods: Three nationally representative surveys that measure LCHI in children, including the National Survey of Children's Health, the National Health Interview Survey, and the Monitoring the Future Survey were examined. Children were grouped by ages 3-17 years and adolescent ages 13-17 years, stratified by selected demographic characteristics. Participants in the surveys included parents (NSCH and NHIS) and adolescents (MTF survey). The primary outcome measure is an estimate of LCHI in children.

Results: Estimates of prevalence of LCHI ranged from 3.6% to 7.0% for children ages 3-17 years and from 6.5% to 18.3% for adolescents 13-17 years. Survey modality, question wording, and respondent may contribute to differing estimates. Prevalence showed consistent variation by age, sex, and race/ethnicity across surveys. Associations were inconsistent between LCHI and insurance status, parental education, and household primary language.

Conclusions: Although there are methodological differences in capturing pediatric LCHI across surveys, the prevalence estimates and correlational associations generated can offer awareness about the burden of these injuries and insights to research and clinical care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.annepidem.2020.11.006DOI Listing
February 2021

Prevalence of Multiple Chronic Conditions Among US Adults, 2018.

Prev Chronic Dis 2020 09 17;17:E106. Epub 2020 Sep 17.

Division of Health Care Statistics, National Center for Health Statistics, Hyattsville, Maryland.

This analysis provides prevalence estimates of diagnosed single and multiple (≥2) chronic conditions among the noninstitutionalized, civilian US adult population. Data from the 2018 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were used to estimate percentages for US adults by selected demographic characteristics. More than half (51.8%) of adults had at least 1 of 10 selected diagnosed chronic conditions (arthritis, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, coronary heart disease, current asthma, diabetes, hepatitis, hypertension, stroke, and weak or failing kidneys), and 27.2% of US adults had multiple chronic conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5888/pcd17.200130DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7553211PMC
September 2020

Shingles Vaccination Among Adults Aged 60 and Over: United States, 2018.

NCHS Data Brief 2020 Jul(370):1-8

Shingles is a painful rash caused by the varicella zoster virus (1). Persons of all ages are at risk for shingles. However, this risk and the risk of complications increase with age (1,2). Vaccines have been developed to prevent shingles, and beginning in 2017, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended that all adults aged 50 and over be vaccinated (3). Prior to this change, ACIP had recommended that only adults aged 60 and over receive a shingles vaccine (3). This report describes trends in shingles vaccination as well as variation by demographic, socioeconomic, and geographic characteristics among adults aged 60 and over.
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July 2020

Prevalence of Children Aged 3-17 Years With Developmental Disabilities, by Urbanicity: United States, 2015-2018.

Natl Health Stat Report 2020 02(139):1-7

Objective-This report examines the prevalence of developmental disabilities among children in both rural and urban areas as well as service utilization among children with developmental issues in both areas. Methods-Data from the 2015-2018 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were used to examine the prevalence of 10 parent- or guardian-reported developmental disability diagnoses (attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], autism spectrum disorder, blindness, cerebral palsy, moderate to profound hearing loss, learning disability, intellectual disability, seizures, stuttering or stammering, and other developmental delays) and service utilization for their child. Prevalence estimates are presented by urbanicity of residence (urban or rural). Bivariate logistic regressions were used to test for differences by urbanicity. Results-Children living in rural areas were more likely to be diagnosed with a developmental disability than children living in urban areas (19.8% compared with 17.4%). Specifically, children living in rural areas were more likely than those in urban areas to be diagnosed with ADHD (11.4% compared with 9.2%) and cerebral palsy (0.5% compared with 0.2%). However, among children with a developmental disability, children living in rural areas were significantly less likely to have seen a mental health professional, therapist, or had a well-child checkup visit in the past year, compared with children living in urban areas. Children with a developmental disability living in rural areas were also significantly less likely to receive Special Educational or Early Intervention Services compared with those living in urban areas. Conclusion-Findings from this study highlight differences in the prevalence of developmental disabilities and use of services related to developmental disabilities by rural and urban residence.
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February 2020

Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Among Adults Aged 18-26, 2013-2018.

NCHS Data Brief 2020 Jan(354):1-8

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a sexually transmitted infection common among both men and women (1). HPV vaccination, which requires multiple doses, was first recommended for girls in 2006 and for boys in 2011 (2,3). Vaccination is routinely recommended at 11-12 years and can be started at age 9 (4). For those not vaccinated at 11-12 years, vaccination is recommended for all persons through age 26 years (4). Two HPV vaccine doses, given 6 to 12 months apart, are recommended if the series is started before age 15. Three doses, to be completed within 6 months, are recommended for those who started vaccination at age 15 or over (4,5). This report describes trends in selfreported HPV vaccination initiation and completion by selected demographic characteristics among adults aged 18-26.
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January 2020

Vision Testing Among Children Aged 3-5 Years in the United States, 2016-2017.

NCHS Data Brief 2019 Nov(353):1-8

Childhood vision screenings may provide early detection of vision disorders and opportunities for subsequent treatment (1). The United States Preventive Service Task Force recommends that children aged 3-5 years receive a vision screening at least once to detect amblyopia (lazy eye), or its risk factors (2). This report examines the percentage of children aged 3-5 years who have ever had a vision test by selected characteristics using data from the vision supplement included in the 2016-2017 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS).
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November 2019

Prevalence and Trends of Developmental Disabilities among Children in the United States: 2009-2017.

Pediatrics 2019 10;144(4)

National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; and.

Objectives: To study the national prevalence of 10 developmental disabilities in US children aged 3 to 17 years and explore changes over time by associated demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, using the National Health Interview Survey.

Methods: Data come from the 2009 to 2017 National Health Interview Survey, a nationally representative survey of the civilian noninstitutionalized population. Parents reported physician or other health care professional diagnoses of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder; autism spectrum disorder; blindness; cerebral palsy; moderate to profound hearing loss; learning disability; intellectual disability; seizures; stuttering or stammering; and other developmental delays. Weighted percentages for each of the selected developmental disabilities and any developmental disability were calculated and stratified by demographic and socioeconomic characteristics.

Results: From 2009 to 2011 and 2015 to 2017, there were overall significant increases in the prevalence of any developmental disability (16.2%-17.8%, < .001), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (8.5%-9.5%, < .01), autism spectrum disorder (1.1%-2.5%, < .001), and intellectual disability (0.9%-1.2%, < .05), but a significant decrease for any other developmental delay (4.7%-4.1%, < .05). The prevalence of any developmental disability increased among boys, older children, non-Hispanic white and Hispanic children, children with private insurance only, children with birth weight ≥2500 g, and children living in urban areas and with less-educated mothers.

Conclusions: The prevalence of developmental disability among US children aged 3 to 17 years increased between 2009 and 2017. Changes by demographic and socioeconomic subgroups may be related to improvements in awareness and access to health care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2019-0811DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7076808PMC
October 2019

Use of Yoga, Meditation, and Chiropractors Among U.S. Children Aged 4-17 Years.

NCHS Data Brief 2018 Nov(324):1-8

Yoga, meditation, and use of chiropractors are types of complementary health approaches developed outside of mainstream Western medicine (1-2). Although complementary health approaches as a whole are not widely used among children, previous work has established a rise in the use of selected approaches over time (3). This report presents the most recent national estimates of use of the three most prevalent approaches during the past 12 months, among children aged 4-17 years in the United States. Comparable estimates from 2012 are also included to examine changes over time.
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November 2018

Use of Yoga, Meditation, and Chiropractors Among U.S. Adults Aged 18 and Over.

NCHS Data Brief 2018 Nov(325):1-8

Complementary health is the use of holistic or unconventional medicine with mainstream Western medicine for health and wellness (1,2). Past research has identified yoga, meditation, and seeing a chiropractor as some of the most commonly used approaches (3). This report examines changes over time in the percentage of adults who used yoga, meditation, and chiropractors in the past 12 months, as well as variation by sex, age, and race and Hispanic origin.
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November 2018

Chronic School Absenteeism Among Children With Selected Developmental Disabilities: National Health Interview Survey, 2014-2016.

Natl Health Stat Report 2018 09(118):1-7

In the United States, 14% of all public school students are chronically absent from school, missing 15 or more days per year (1). Chronic school absenteeism has been associated with poor academic performance, poor school engagement, and greater school dropout (2,3). Previous research has also found that children with chronic health conditions are more likely to have suboptimal school achievement, such as an inability to complete high school or obtain a GED, when compared with youth who did not have a chronic health condition (4). Past research has explored associations between school attendance and health conditions; however, studies have been limited in size and were not nationally representative (5,6). Further, many studies focused on chronic physical health conditions and few explored relationships for individual developmental disabilities (DDs) (7). This report examines the association between selected DDs and chronic school absenteeism among children aged 5-17 years using the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS).
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September 2018

Concordance between survey reported childhood asthma and linked Medicaid administrative records.

J Asthma 2019 03 17;56(3):285-295. Epub 2018 May 17.

a National Center for Health Statistics , Hyattsville , MD , USA.

Objective: Agreement between administrative and survey data has been shown to vary by the condition of interest and there is limited research dedicated to parental report of asthma among children. The current study assesses the concordance between parent-reported asthma from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) with Medicaid administrative claims data among linkage eligible children from the NHIS.

Methods: Medicaid Analytic eXtract (MAX) files from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) (years 2000-2005) were linked to participants of the NHIS (years 2001-2005). Concordance measures were calculated to assess overall agreement between a claims-based asthma diagnosis and a survey-based asthma diagnosis. Structural equation modeling was used to assess the association between demographic, service utilization, and co-occurring conditions factors and agreement.

Results: Percent agreement between the two data sources was high (90%) with a prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted kappa of 0.80 and Cohen's kappa of 0.55. Agreement varied by demographic characteristics, service utilization characteristics, and the presence of allergies and other health conditions. Structural equation modeling results found the presence of a series of co-occurring conditions, namely allergies, resulted in significantly lower agreement after controlling for demographics and service utilization.

Conclusions: There was general agreement between asthma diagnoses reported in the NHIS when compared to medical claims. Discordance was greatest among children with co-occurring conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02770903.2018.1455854DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6240395PMC
March 2019

Parental Report of Significant Head Injuries in Children Aged 3-17 Years: United States, 2016.

NCHS Data Brief 2018 02(302):1-8

In recent years, there has been increased awareness and prevention efforts toward reducing concussion incidence. Previous research has most often estimated the prevalence of concussions among youth using medical claims data (1–4). In the 2016 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), parents or guardians answered questions about whether their children have ever had a significant head injury or concussion. This report presents estimates of parent-reported lifetime significant head injuries among children aged 3–17 years, providing information about head injuries beyond those that were medically attended.
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February 2018

Estimated Prevalence of Children With Diagnosed Developmental Disabilities in the United States, 2014-2016.

NCHS Data Brief 2017 11(291):1-8

Developmental disabilities are a set of heterogeneous disorders characterized by difficulties in one or more domains, including but not limited to, learning, behavior, and self-care. This report provides the latest prevalence estimates for diagnosed autism spectrum disorder, intellectual disability, and other developmental delay among children aged 3–17 years from the 2014–2016 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). Estimates are also presented for any developmental disability, defined as having had one or more of these three diagnoses. Prevalence estimates are based on parent or guardian report of ever receiving a diagnosis of each developmental disability from a doctor or other health care professional.
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November 2017

Receipt of Selected Preventive Health Services for Women and Men of Reproductive Age - United States, 2011-2013.

MMWR Surveill Summ 2017 10 27;66(20):1-31. Epub 2017 Oct 27.

Office of Population Affairs, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Rockville, Maryland.

Problem/condition: Receipt of key preventive health services among women and men of reproductive age (i.e., 15-44 years) can help them achieve their desired number and spacing of healthy children and improve their overall health. The 2014 publication Providing Quality Family Planning Services: Recommendations of CDC and the U.S. Office of Population Affairs (QFP) establishes standards for providing a core set of preventive services to promote these goals. These services include contraceptive care for persons seeking to prevent or delay pregnancy, pregnancy testing and counseling, basic infertility services for those seeking to achieve pregnancy, sexually transmitted disease (STD) services, and other preconception care and related preventive health services. QFP describes how to provide these services and recommends using family planning and other primary care visits to screen for and offer the full range of these services. This report presents baseline estimates of the use of these preventive services before the publication of QFP that can be used to monitor progress toward improving the quality of preventive care received by women and men of reproductive age.

Period Covered: 2011-2013.

Description Of The System: Three surveillance systems were used to document receipt of preventive health services among women and men of reproductive age as recommended in QFP. The National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) collects data on factors that influence reproductive health in the United States since 1973, with a focus on fertility, sexual activity, contraceptive use, reproductive health care, family formation, child care, and related topics. NSFG uses a stratified, multistage probability sample to produce nationally representative estimates for the U.S. household population of women and men aged 15-44 years. This report uses data from the 2011-2013 NSFG. The Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) is an ongoing, state- and population-based surveillance system designed to monitor selected maternal behaviors and experiences that occur before, during, and shortly after pregnancy among women who deliver live-born infants in the United States. Annual PRAMS data sets are created and used to produce statewide estimates of preconception and perinatal health behaviors and experiences. This report uses PRAMS data for 2011-2012 from 11 states (Hawaii, Maine, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Nebraska, New Jersey, Tennessee, Utah, Vermont, and West Virginia). The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) is a nationally representative survey of noninstitutionalized civilians in the United States. NHIS collects data on a broad range of health topics, including the prevalence, distribution, and effects of illness and disability and the services rendered for or because of such conditions. Households are identified through a multistage probability household sampling design, and estimates are produced using weights that account for the sampling design, nonresponse, and poststratification adjustments. This report uses data from the 2013 NHIS for women aged 18-44 years.

Results: Many preventive health services recommended in QFP were not received by all women and men of reproductive age. For contraceptive services, including contraceptive counseling and advice, 46.5% of women aged 15-44 years at risk for unintended pregnancy received services in the past year, and 4.5% of men who had vaginal intercourse in the past year received services in that year. For sexually transmitted disease (STD) services, among all women aged 15-24 years who had oral, anal, or vaginal sex with an opposite sex partner in the past year, 37.5% were tested for chlamydia in that year. Among persons aged 15-44 years who were at risk because they were not in a mutually monogamous relationship during the past year, 45.3% of women were tested for chlamydia and 32.5% of men were tested for any STD in that year. For preconception care and related preventive health services, data from selected states indicated that 33.2% of women with a recent live birth (i.e., 2-9 months postpartum) talked with a health care professional about improving their health before their most recent pregnancy; of selected preconception counseling topics, the most frequently discussed was taking vitamins with folic acid before pregnancy (81.2%), followed by achieving a healthy weight before pregnancy (62.9%) and how drinking alcohol (60.3%) or smoking (58.2%) during pregnancy can affect a baby. Nationally, among women aged 18-44 years irrespective of pregnancy status, 80.9% had their blood pressure checked by a health care professional and 31.7% received an influenza vaccine in the past year; 54.5% of those with high blood pressure were tested for diabetes, 44.9% of those with obesity had a health care professional talk with them about their diet, and 55.2% of those who were current smokers had a health professional talk with them about their smoking in the past year. Among all women aged 21-44 years, 81.6% received a Papanicolaou (Pap) test in the past 3 years. Receipt of certain preventive services varied by age and race/ethnicity. Among women with a recent live birth, the percentage of those who talked with a health care professional about improving their health before their most recent pregnancy increased with age (range: 25.9% and 25.2% for women aged ≤19 and 20-24 years, respectively, to 35.9% and 37.8% for women aged 25-34 and ≥35 years, respectively). Among women with a recent live birth, the percentage of those who talked with a health care professional about improving their health before their most recent pregnancy was higher for non-Hispanic white (white) (35.2%) compared with non-Hispanic black (black) (30.0%) and Hispanic (26.0%) women. Conversely, across most STD screening services evaluated, testing was highest among black women and men and lowest among their white counterparts. Receipt of many preventive services recommended in QFP increased consistently across categories of family income and continuity of health insurance coverage. Prevalence of service receipt was highest among women in the highest family income category (>400% of federal poverty level [FPL]) and among women with insurance coverage for each of the following: contraceptive services among women at risk for unintended pregnancy; medical services beyond advice to help achieve pregnancy; vaccinations (hepatitis B and human papillomavirus [HPV], ever; tetanus, past 10 years; influenza, past year); discussions with a health care professional about improving health before pregnancy and taking vitamins with folic acid; blood pressure and diabetes screening; discussions with a health care professional in the past year about diet, among those with obesity; discussions with a health care professional in the past year about smoking, among current smokers; Pap tests within the past 3 years; and mammograms within the past 2 years.

Interpretation: Before 2014, many women and men of reproductive age were not receiving several of the preventive services recommended for them in QFP. Although differences existed by age and race/ethnicity, across the range of recommended services, receipt was consistently lower among women and men with lower family income and greater instability in health insurance coverage.

Public Health Action: Information in this report on baseline receipt during 2011-2013 of preventive services for women and men of reproductive age can be used to target improvements in the use of recommended services through the development ofresearch priorities, information for decision makers, and public health practice. Health care administrators and practitioners can use the information to identify subpopulations with the greatest need for preventive services and make informed decisions on resource allocation. Public health researchers can use the information to guide research on the determinants of service use and factors that might increase use of preventive services. Policymakers can use this information to evaluate the impact of policy changes and assess resource needs for effective programs, research, and surveillance on the use of preventive health services for women and men of reproductive age.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.ss6620a1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5879726PMC
October 2017

State and Regional Prevalence of Diagnosed Multiple Chronic Conditions Among Adults Aged ≥18 Years - United States, 2014.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2016 Jul 29;65(29):735-8. Epub 2016 Jul 29.

Division of Health Interview Statistics, National Center for Health Statistics.

The prevalence and care management of multiple (two or more) chronic conditions (MCC) are important public health concerns (1). Approximately 25% of U.S. adults have diagnoses of MCC (2). Care management of MCC presents a challenge to both patients and providers because of the substantial costs associated with treating more than one condition and the traditional care strategies that focus on single conditions as opposed to enhanced care coordination (3,4). Maintaining surveillance, targeting service delivery, and projecting resources are all important to meet this challenge, and these actions can be informed by identifying state and other regional variations in MCC prevalence (5,6). Data from the 2014 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were used to estimate prevalence of MCC (defined as two or more of 10 diagnosed chronic conditions) for each U.S. state and region by age and sex. Significant state and regional variation in MCC prevalence was found, with state-level estimates ranging from 19.0% in Colorado to 38.2% in Kentucky. MCC prevalence also varied by region, ranging from 21.4% in the Pacific region to 34.5% in the East South Central region. The prevalence of MCC was higher among women than among men within certain U.S. regions, and was higher in older persons in all regions. Such findings further the research and surveillance objectives stated in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) publication, Multiple Chronic Conditions: A Strategic Framework (1). Furthermore, geographic disparities in MCC prevalence can inform state-level surveillance programs and groups targeting service delivery or allocating resources for MCC prevention activities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6529a3DOI Listing
July 2016

Health of Non-Hispanic Asian Adults: United States, 2010-2014.

NCHS Data Brief 2016 May(247):1-8

Key Findings: Data from the National Health Interview Survey, 2010-2014 •Non-Hispanic Asian adults were less likely than all U.S. adults to be in fair or poor health, have multiple chronic conditions, have serious psychological distress in the past 30 days, or be limited in work or social participation. •Chinese adults reported better health on all five measures in this report compared with all U.S. adults. •Chinese adults (11.3%) were less likely than Filipino (22.3%), Asian Indian (16.9%), Japanese (16.8%), or Vietnamese (15.6%) adults to have multiple chronic conditions. •Chinese (1.8%) and Asian Indian (1.5%) adults were about one-half as likely as Japanese adults (4.1%) to have a work limitation. •Chinese (2.4%), Japanese (2.2%), and Vietnamese (2.4%) adults were about one-half as likely as Korean adults (4.6%) to be limited in social participation.
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May 2016

Access and Utilization of Selected Preventive Health Services Among Adolescents Aged 10-17.

NCHS Data Brief 2016 May(246):1-8

Key Findings: Data from the National Health Interview Survey •The percentages of adolescents aged 10-17 who did not have a usual place for preventive care, did not receive a well-child checkup in the past 12 months, or did not have a dental visit in the past 12 months decreased from 2008 to 2014. •In 2014, 2% of adolescents aged 10-17 did not have a usual place for preventive care, 21% did not receive a well-child checkup, and 12% did not have a dental visit in the past 12 months. •In 2014, the percentages of adolescents not having a usual place for preventive care, not receiving a well-child checkup, and not having a dental visit were higher for those aged 16-17 compared with those in younger age groups. These percentages also varied by race and ethnicity, poverty status, and insurance status.
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May 2016

State Variation in Health Care Service Utilization: United States, 2014.

NCHS Data Brief 2016 May(245):1-8

Key Findings: Data from the National Health Interview Survey, 2014 •The percentage of adults without a usual place of medical care ranged from 2.8% in Vermont to 26.7% in Nevada. •The percentage of adults who did not have a general doctor visit in the past 12 months ranged from 15.9% in Vermont to 48.1% in Montana. •The percentage of adults without a usual place of medical care was lower in states that expanded Medicaid compared with nonexpansion states. •The percentage of adults without a usual place of medical care or who did not see a general doctor in the past 12 months was lower in states with partnership marketplaces compared with Federally Facilitated Marketplace states. State-level differences in the percentage of uninsured Americans, along with other factors, may affect health care access and utilization (1-4). This report examines the prevalence of two health care utilization measures among adults aged 18-64 by state. Additionally, differences by Medicaid expansion status and state Health Insurance Marketplace type are examined. Estimates are based on the 2014 National Health Interview Survey, a nationally representative sample of the noninstitutionalized U.S.
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May 2016

Reasons for Emergency Room Use Among U.S. Adults Aged 18-64: National Health Interview Survey, 2013 and 2014.

Natl Health Stat Report 2016 Feb(90):1-16

Objective: This report examines the percentage of adults aged 18–64 who had an emergency room (ER) visit and their reasons for the most recent visit.

Methods: Using the 2013 and 2014 National Health Interview Survey, estimates of use in the past year and reasons for most recent ER visit are presented. A hierarchy was created to classify respondents’ reasons for their last ER visit into three mutually exclusive categories: seriousness of the medical problem, doctor’s office or clinic was not open, and lack of access to other providers.

Results: In 2014, 18% of adults visited the ER one or more times. Seriousness of the medical problem was the reason for the most recent ER visit for 77% of adults aged 18–64, 12% because their doctor’s office was not open, and 7% because of a lack of access to other providers (4% did not select any reason). Percentages were similar in 2013. Controlling for other variables, adults with Medicaid were most likely to report that seriousness of the medical problem was the reason for the most recent ER visit. Adults with private coverage were most likely to have used the ER because the doctor’s office was not open. Uninsured adults were more likely than adults with private coverage to have visited the ER because they lacked access to other providers. Differences in reasons for use between demographic groups were also identified.

Conclusions: Few changes in ER use were noted between 2013 and 2014. Differences persist in ER use and reasons for ER use at most recent visit by insurance type as well as sociodemographic characteristics.
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February 2016

Sleep Duration, Quality of Sleep, and Use of Sleep Medication, by Sex and Family Type, 2013-2014.

NCHS Data Brief 2016 Jan(230):1-8

Key Findings: Data from the National Health Interview Survey, 2013-2014. Single parents, especially women, were more likely than adults in other types of families to have short sleep duration, frequently have trouble falling asleep and staying asleep, and frequently wake up feeling not well-rested. Within family types, women were more likely than men to frequently have trouble falling asleep and staying asleep, and to frequently wake up feeling not well-rested. Overall, adults in two-parent families were less likely than adults in other types of families to have taken sleep medication four times or more in the past week.
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January 2016

Estimated Prevalence of Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities Following Questionnaire Changes in the 2014 National Health Interview Survey.

Natl Health Stat Report 2015 Nov(87):1-20

Objectives: The developmental disabilities questions in the 2014 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were changed from previous years, including question reordering and a new approach to asking about autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This report examines survey-based estimates of the lifetime prevalence of ASD, intellectual disability (ID), and any other developmental delay (other DD) following the inclusion of a standalone ASD question, the inclusion of specific diagnoses in the ASD question, and the ASD question preceding the other DD question, and compares them with estimates from previous years.

Methods: In NHIS, one child is randomly selected from each family to be the subject of detailed questions on health conditions, functional limitations, and health care utilization. Parents are asked if a doctor or health professional had ever told them that their child had each of a series of developmental disabilities. Prevalence estimates of ASD, ID, and other DD for children aged 3–17 years were calculated using data collected in 2011–2014.

Results: The estimated prevalence of ASD based on 2014 data was 2.24%, a significant increase from the estimated annualized prevalence of 1.25% based on 2011–2013 data. In contrast, the prevalence of other DD declined significantly from 4.84% based on 2011–2013 data to 3.57% based on 2014 data. The prevalence of ID did not significantly change from 2011–2013 (1.27%) to 2014 (1.10%). The prevalence of having any of the three conditions was constant across survey years.

Conclusions: The revised question ordering and new approach to asking about developmental disabilities in the 2014 NHIS likely affected the prevalence estimates of these conditions. In previous years, it is likely that some parents of children diagnosed with ASD reported this developmental disability as other DD instead of, or in addition to, ASD. Following these changes, the 2014 ASD estimate was more similar to ASD prevalence estimates from other sources.
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November 2015

Wellness-related Use of Common Complementary Health Approaches Among Adults: United States, 2012.

Natl Health Stat Report 2015 Nov(85):1-12

Objective: This report presents national estimates of selected wellness-related reasons for the use of natural product supplements, yoga, and spinal manipulation among U.S. adults in 2012. Self-reported perceived health outcomes were also examined.

Methods: Data from 34,252 adults aged 18 and over collected as part of the 2012 National Health Interview Survey were analyzed for this report. In particular, whether adults who used selected complementary health approaches did so to treat a specific health condition or for any of five wellness-related reasons was examined, as well as whether these adults perceived that this use led to any of nine health-related outcomes. Sampling weights were used to produce national estimates that are representative of the civilian noninstitutionalized U.S. adults population.

Results: Users of natural product supplements and yoga were more likely to have reported using the approach for a wellness reason than for treatment of a specific health condition, whereas more spinal manipulation users reported using it for treatment rather than for wellness. The most common wellness-related reason reported by user of each of the three approaches was for "general wellness or disease prevention." The majority of users of all three health approaches reported that they perceived this use improved their overall health and made them feel better. Yoga users perceived higher rates of all of the self-reported wellness-related health outcomes than users of natural product supplements or spinal manipulation.
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November 2015

Communication Disorders and Use of Intervention Services Among Children Aged 3-17 Years: United States, 2012.

NCHS Data Brief 2015 Jun(205):1-8

Key Findings: Nearly 8% of children aged 3-17 years had a communication disorder during the past 12 months. • Children aged 3-6 years, boys, and non-Hispanic black children were more likely than other children to have had any communication disorder. • Approximately 55% of children aged 3-17 years who had any communication disorder received an intervention service during the past 12 months. • Among those with any communication disorder, younger children, boys, and non-Hispanic white children were more likely than other children to receive an intervention service for their disorder.
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June 2015

Trends in the use of complementary health approaches among adults: United States, 2002-2012.

Natl Health Stat Report 2015 Feb(79):1-16

National Institutes of Health.

Objective: This report presents national estimates of the use of complementary health approaches among adults in the United States across three time points. Trends in the use of selected complementary health approaches are compared for 2002, 2007, and 2012, and differences by selected demographic characteristics are also examined.

Methods: Combined data from 88,962 adults aged 18 and over collected as part of the 2002, 2007, and 2012 National Health Interview Survey were analyzed for this report. Sample data were weighted to produce national estimates that are representative of the civilian noninstitutionalized U.S. adult population. Differences between percentages were evaluated using two-sided significance tests at the 0.05 level.

Results: Although the use of individual approaches varied across the three time points, nonvitamin, nonmineral dietary supplements remained the most popular complementary health approach used. The use of yoga, tai chi, and qi gong increased linearly across the three time points; among these three approaches, yoga accounted for approximately 80% of the prevalence. The use of any complementary health approach also differed by selected sociodemographic characteristics. The most notable observed differences in use were by age and Hispanic or Latino origin and race.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4573565PMC
February 2015

Use of complementary health approaches among children aged 4-17 years in the United States: National Health Interview Survey, 2007-2012.

Natl Health Stat Report 2015 Feb(78):1-19

National Institutes of Health.

Objective: This report presents national estimates of the use of complementary health approaches among children aged 4-17 years in the United States. Selected modalities are compared for 2007 and 2012 to examine changes over time.

Methods: Data from the 2007 and 2012 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were analyzed for this report. The combined sample included 17,321 interviews with knowledgeable adults about children aged 4-17 years. Point estimates and estimates of their variances were calculated using SUDAAN software to account for the complex sampling design of NHIS. Differences between percentages were evaluated using two-sided significance tests at the 0.05 level.

Results: The use of complementary health approaches among children did not change significantly since 2007 (from 12.0% in 2007 to 11.6% in 2012). However, one approach, the use of traditional healers, showed a statistically significant decrease in use, from 1.1% in 2007 to 0.1% in 2012. No other significant decreases were identified. An increase in the use of yoga was observed during this period (from 2.3% in 2007 to 3.1% in 2012). Nonvitamin, nonmineral dietary supplements; chiropractic or osteopathic manipulation; and yoga, tai chi, or qi gong were the most commonly used complementary health approaches in both 2007 and 2012. Also consistent between 2007 and 2012 was that complementary health approaches were most frequently used for back or neck pain, head or chest cold, anxiety or stress, and other musculoskeletal conditions.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4562218PMC
February 2015