Publications by authors named "Lindsay Joseph"

170 Publications

Effectiveness and cardiac safety of bedaquiline-based therapy for drug-resistant tuberculosis: a prospective cohort study.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Wellcome Centre for Infectious Diseases Research in Africa, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, and Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: Bedaquiline improves treatment outcomes in patients with rifampin-resistant TB (RR-TB) but prolongs the QT-interval and carries a black-box warning by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The World Health Organization recommends that all patients with RR-TB receive a regimen containing bedaquiline, yet a phase 3 clinical trial demonstrating its cardiac safety has not been published.

Methods: We conducted an observational cohort study of RR-TB patients from 3 provinces in South Africa who received regimens containing bedaquiline. We performed rigorous cardiac monitoring, including electrocardiograms (ECGs) performed in triplicate at four time points during bedaquiline therapy. Participants were followed until the end of therapy or 24 months. Outcomes included final tuberculosis treatment outcome and QT-prolongation, defined as any QTcF>500 ms or an absolute change from baseline (△ QTcF) >60 ms.

Results: We enrolled 195 eligible participants, of whom 40% had extensively drug-resistant (XDR) TB. Most participants (97%) received concurrent clofazimine. 74% of participants were cured or successfully completed treatment, and outcomes did not differ by HIV status. QTcF continued to increase throughout bedaquiline therapy, with a mean increase of 23.7 (SD 22.7) ms from baseline to month 6. Four participants experienced a QTcF>500 ms and 19 experienced a △QTcF>60 ms. Older age was independently associated with QT-prolongation. QT-prolongation was neither more common nor severe in participants receiving concurrent lopinavir-ritonavir.

Conclusions: Severe QT-prolongation was uncommon and did not require permanent discontinuation of either bedaquiline or clofazimine. Close QT-monitoring may be advisable in older patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciab335DOI Listing
April 2021

The Comprehensive Assessment of Neurodegeneration and Dementia: Canadian Cohort Study.

Can J Neurol Sci 2019 09 16;46(5):499-511. Epub 2019 Jul 16.

Toronto Rehabilitation Institute, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Background: The Comprehensive Assessment of Neurodegeneration and Dementia (COMPASS-ND) cohort study of the Canadian Consortium on Neurodegeneration in Aging (CCNA) is a national initiative to catalyze research on dementia, set up to support the research agendas of CCNA teams. This cross-country longitudinal cohort of 2310 deeply phenotyped subjects with various forms of dementia and mild memory loss or concerns, along with cognitively intact elderly subjects, will test hypotheses generated by these teams.

Methods: The COMPASS-ND protocol, initial grant proposal for funding, fifth semi-annual CCNA Progress Report submitted to the Canadian Institutes of Health Research December 2017, and other documents supplemented by modifications made and lessons learned after implementation were used by the authors to create the description of the study provided here.

Results: The CCNA COMPASS-ND cohort includes participants from across Canada with various cognitive conditions associated with or at risk of neurodegenerative diseases. They will undergo a wide range of experimental, clinical, imaging, and genetic investigation to specifically address the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of these conditions in the aging population. Data derived from clinical and cognitive assessments, biospecimens, brain imaging, genetics, and brain donations will be used to test hypotheses generated by CCNA research teams and other Canadian researchers. The study is the most comprehensive and ambitious Canadian study of dementia. Initial data posting occurred in 2018, with the full cohort to be accrued by 2020.

Conclusion: Availability of data from the COMPASS-ND study will provide a major stimulus for dementia research in Canada in the coming years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/cjn.2019.27DOI Listing
September 2019

Paediatric intensive care admissions during the 2015-2016 Queensland human parechovirus outbreak.

J Paediatr Child Health 2019 Aug 24;55(8):968-974. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Faculty of Medicine, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Aim: The human parechovirus (HPeV) has emerged as a pathogen causing sepsis-like presentations in young infants, but there is a lack of data on HPeV presentations requiring intensive care support. We aimed to characterise the clinical presentation, disease severity, management and outcome of a population-based cohort of children with microbiologically confirmed HPeV infection requiring admission to paediatric intensive care units (PICUs) in Queensland, Australia during a recent outbreak.

Methods: This was a multicentre retrospective study of children admitted to PICU between 1 January 2015 and 31 December 2016 with confirmed HPeV infection.

Results: Thirty infants (median age 20 days) with HPeV genotype 3 were admitted to PICU, representing 16% of all children with HPeV admitted to hospital and 6.4% of non-elective PICU admissions in children <1 year of age. Children requiring PICU admission were younger than children admitted to hospital (P = 0.001). Apnoea, haemodynamic instability with tachycardia and seizures represented the main reasons for PICU admission. Eleven children (37%) required mechanical ventilation for a median duration of 62 h, 22 (73%) received fluid boluses and 7 (23%) were treated with vasoactive agents for a median duration of 53 h. Median length of stay was 2.62 days. A total of 24 children (80%) fulfilled sepsis criteria, 14 (47%) severe sepsis and 7 (23%) septic shock criteria. Eight (27%) had abnormal brain magnetic resonance imaging. No patient died.

Conclusions: We confirm that HPeV infection is an important cause of sepsis-like syndrome in infants with substantial associated morbidity. Optimal management and long-term outcomes require further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jpc.14336DOI Listing
August 2019

Human Parechovirus 3 in Infants: Expanding Our Knowledge of Adverse Outcomes.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2019 01;38(1):1-5

From the Lady Cilento Children's Hospital, Brisbane, Australia.

Background: Human parechovirus particularly genotype 3 (HPeV3) is an emerging infection affecting predominantly young infants. The potential for neurologic sequelae in a vulnerable subset is increasingly apparent. A review of 2 epidemics of human parechovirus (HpeV) infection in 2013 and in 2015 in Queensland, Australia, was undertaken, with an emphasis on identifying adverse neurodevelopmental outcome.

Methods: All hospitalized cases with laboratory-confirmed HPeV infection between October 2013 June 2016 were identified. Clinical, demographic, laboratory and imaging data were collected and correlated with reported developmental outcome.

Results: Laboratory-confirmed HPeV infections were identified in 202 patients across 25 hospitals; 86.6% (n = 175) were younger than 3 months 16.3% (n = 33) received intensive care admission. Of 142 cerebrospinal fluid samples which were HPeV polymerase chain reaction positive, all 89 isolates successfully genotyped were HPeV3. Clinical information was available for 145 children; 53.1% (n = 77) had follow-up from a pediatrician, of whom 14% (n = 11) had neurodevelopmental sequelae, ranging from hypotonia and gross motor delay to spastic quadriplegic cerebral palsy and cortical visual impairment. Of 15 children with initially abnormal brain magnetic resonance imaging, 47% (n = 7) had neurodevelopmental concerns, the remainder had normal development at follow-up between 6 and 15 months of age.

Conclusions: This is the largest cohort of HPeV3 cases with clinical data and pediatrician-assessed neurodevelopmental follow-up to date. Developmental concerns were identified in 11 children at early follow-up. Abnormal magnetic resonance imaging during acute infection did not specifically predict poor neurodevelopmental in short-term follow-up. Continued follow-up of infants and further imaging correlation is needed to explore predictors of long-term morbidity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000002136DOI Listing
January 2019

Patient characteristics in variable left ventricular recovery from Takotsubo syndrome.

Cardiovasc Revasc Med 2018 04 5;19(3 Pt A):247-250. Epub 2017 Oct 5.

Section of Interventional Cardiology, Medstar Washington Hospital Center, Washington DC, United States.

Background: Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) is a heart failure syndrome which is usually reversible. Factors associated with degree of recovery of left ventricular systolic function in TTS are poorly understood.

Materials And Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of 90 TTS patients treated at our institution from 2006 to 2014. Patients were grouped based on recovery of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) on follow-up transthoracic echocardiogram as left ventricular ejection fraction <50% (partial group) or preserved ejection fraction ≥50% (full group). Patient baseline characteristics, comorbidities, biomarkers, electrocardiography, and echocardiogram were collected. We also compared adverse events that occurred during hospitalization.

Results: In comparison to full recovery group patients (n=63), partial recovery patients (n=27) were older (76.9±13 vs. 70.6±13years; P=0.02) and had a higher prevalence of comorbid hypothyroidism (26% vs. 8%; P=0.02). A greater number of patients from the partial group were also taking levothyroxine replacement (22% vs. 3%; P=0.003). We found no significant between-group differences in type of triggering event or cardiac biomarker levels. QT interval was longer in the partial group (540.6±71msec vs. 460.7±35msec; P=0.01). Follow-up LVEF was 37.9±8% in the partial group and 58.0±4% in the full group (P<0.001). There were no statistically significant differences in length of stay or adverse events.

Conclusion: Takotsubo patients with partial myocardial recovery were older, presented with longer QT intervals, and were more likely to have comorbid hypothyroidism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carrev.2017.10.002DOI Listing
April 2018

Ectopic Intralaryngo-Tracheal Thyroid Tissue Causing Neonatal Death.

Fetal Pediatr Pathol 2017 Oct 27;36(5):412-415. Epub 2017 Jul 27.

a Department of Pathology , Mater Health , South Brisbane , Queensland , Australia.

Introduction: Ectopic thyroid tissue can be found anywhere along the embryologic path of thyroid descent. Intralaryngo-tracheal thyroid tissue is the least common site of ectopia and can present with upper airways obstruction. Its presentation in the neonate is exceptional.

Case Report: We describe a term female neonate with subglottic thyroid tissue causing near-total occlusion of the larynx, which led to upper airways obstruction and neonatal death.

Conclusion: This emphasizes the importance of considering intralaryngo-tracheal tumors as a cause of acute and otherwise unexplainable respiratory distress immediately after birth. The cause of this neonatal death would not have been elucidated without careful autopsy examination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15513815.2017.1336659DOI Listing
October 2017

Impact of triggering event in outcomes of stress-induced (Takotsubo) cardiomyopathy.

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care 2017 Apr 17;6(3):280-286. Epub 2016 Feb 17.

Medstar Washington Hospital Center, Washington DC, USA.

Background: Takotsubo syndrome is also known as stress cardiomyopathy because of the regularity with which it has been associated with physical or emotional stress. Such stress may well be a "trigger" of the syndrome.

Aims: This analysis was undertaken to describe our experience with this disorder and in particular to examine the effects of the underlying trigger on outcomes.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of the medical records of 345 consecutive patients treated at our institution from 2006 to 2014. All presented with acute cardiac symptoms, a characteristic left ventricular contraction pattern (typical, atypical), and no major obstructive coronary artery disease. Patients were grouped based on their triggering event: (a) medical illness; (b) post-operative period; (c) emotional distress; or (d) no identified trigger. Baseline demographic characteristics, death in hospital, length of stay in hospital, and cardiac complications were abstracted from the patients' medical records.

Results: The mean±SD age of the population was 72±12 years and 91% were women. No significant difference in baseline characteristics was noted between the groups except for a higher prevalence of African Americans in the group with a medical illness. ST elevation was noted in 13.3% of patients and the average peak troponin level was 5±12 ng/dl. An inotropic drug was required in 49 (14.2%) patients, an intra-aortic balloon pump in 37 (10.7%) patients, and mechanical ventilation in 54 (15.7%) patients; 43.5% required treatment in the intensive care unit. Overall, 12 (3.5%) patients died. In only two (16.7%) patients was a there a direct cardiac cause of death. In those patients in whom the cardiac manifestations seemed to be triggered by a medical illness, the death rate was 7.1% and this was significantly higher than in the other groups ( p=0.03). Medical illness (odds ratio=6.25, p=0.02) and ST elevation (odds ratio=5.71, p=0.04) were both significantly associated with death.

Conclusions: Our study showed that different triggers for Takotsubo syndrome confer different prognoses, with medical illness conferring the worst prognosis. Overall, the in-hospital death rate was low and mostly related to non-cardiac death secondary to the underlying medical illness. Although an unidentified trigger was prevalent in a third of this population, efforts should be made to identify the triggering event to classify the risk group of patients with Takotsubo syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2048872616633881DOI Listing
April 2017

Contemporary Use of Veno-Arterial Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for Refractory Cardiogenic Shock in Acute Coronary Syndrome.

J Invasive Cardiol 2016 Feb 15;28(2):52-7. Epub 2015 Dec 15.

Section of Interventional Cardiology, MedStar Washington Hospital Center/Georgetown University, 110 Irving Street NW, Suite 4B-1, Washington DC, 20010 USA.

Background: Refractory cardiogenic shock (RCS) in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is associated with high rates of mortality. Smaller ventricular assist devices, such as the intraaortic balloon pump, provide limited support. Venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) offers more robust mechanical ventricular support, but is not widely utilized by interventional cardiologists. This study aimed to evaluate the patient characteristics and outcomes of VA-ECMO with RCS in the setting of AMI.

Methods And Results: A retrospective chart review of all VA-ECMO cannulations between 2009 and 2014 was performed, and patients with an indication of RCS in AMI were identified. A total of 15 patients underwent VA-ECMO placement for AMI with RCS. One-third of these patients presented with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, and 60% had ST-elevation myocardial infarction. The Intraaortic balloon pump was placed in addition to VA-ECMO in 60% of patients. Median duration of VA-ECMO support was 45 hours. Successful wean off VA-ECMO was obtained in 50% of the patients, and vascular complications occurred in 53% of patients. The survival rate at discharge was 47%, and all survivors were alive at 30 days post discharge.

Conclusion: VA-ECMO is infrequently used in patients for cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the AMI setting. When used judiciously, it has good clinical outcomes in this group of patients. However, use of VA-ECMO should be individualized based on vascular anatomy for best results. Close cooperation among interventional cardiologists, cardiovascular surgeons, cardiologists, cardiac intensivists, and perfusionists is essential for success of this therapy for RCS in AMI.
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February 2016

Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia in Contemporary Cardiac Surgical Practice and Experience With a Protocol for Early Identification.

Am J Cardiol 2016 Jan 6;117(2):305-9. Epub 2015 Nov 6.

Department of Cardiology, MedStar Heart & Vascular Institute, Medstar Heart Institute, Washington, DC.

This analysis was designed to (1) examine the impact of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) on contemporary cardiac surgical practice and (2) describe the results of a protocol designed for early identification of the presence of the immune mechanisms involved. Consecutive patients who underwent cardiac surgery were screened postoperatively for thrombocytopenia. Patients with thrombocytopenia were tested for antiplatelet factor 4 (PF4)/heparin antibodies by ELISA and clinical evidence of thrombosis sought. Demographics, co-morbidities, operative details, and outcomes were abstracted from the departmental registry. Of 14,415 consecutive patients undergoing cardiac surgery, 1,849 patients (13%) had thrombocytopenia. Of them, 277 patients (15%) had PF4/heparin antibodies and 76 patients (4%) had both antibodies and clinical thrombosis. Antibodies were more frequent: (1) in women (p = 0.01), (2) in patients with an increased body mass index (p <0.01), and (3) in patients with clinical heart failure before surgery (p <0.01). Thirty-day mortality was greatest among the 76 patients with the triad of thrombocytopenia, antibodies, and clinical thrombosis (30%). Of the 1,849 patients with thrombocytopenia, the presence of PF4/heparin antibodies was an independent predictor of 30-day mortality (odds ratio 2.09, 95% CI 1.46 to 2.49; p <0.001). HIT remains an infrequent but very serious complication of heparin therapy in contemporary cardiac surgical practice. The possibility that the presence of HIT antibodies in patients with thrombocytopenia independently increases operative mortality deserves further study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2015.10.047DOI Listing
January 2016

Racial disparities in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue among women: a SEER data analysis.

Oral Oncol 2015 Jun 10;51(6):586-92. Epub 2015 Apr 10.

Department of Hematology and Medical Oncology, The Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University, United States. Electronic address:

Objectives: The incidence of oral tongue cancer (OTC) in the US is increasing in women. To understand this phenomenon, we examined factors influencing OTC incidence and survival.

Materials And Methods: We identified women diagnosed with OTC that were reported to the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program from 1973 to 2010. Incidence and survival rates were compared across metropolitan, urban and rural residential settings and several other demographic categories by calculating rate ratios (RRs) with the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We examined changes in incidence of OTC across racial groups using joinpoint analyses since 1973, and assessed factors associated with survival. Patients diagnosed prior to 1988 were excluded from the survival analysis due to lack of data on treatment.

Results: OTC incidence in white females demonstrated a significant upward trend with 0.53 annual percentage change (APC) between 1973 and 2010. The change seems to be limited to white women under the age of 50years and appears to have become pronounced in the 1990s. For African Americans (AA) on the other hand, the incidence has decreased. Incidence estimates did not differ in metropolitan, small urban and rural setting. The 1-, 5- and 10-year relative survival estimates were 86%, 63% and 54% for white women, and 76%, 46% and 33% for AA women. On multivariable analyses factors significantly associated with better survival included lower stage, younger age, married status, and receipt of surgical treatment, but not race.

Conclusion: The racial disparity in OTC survival is evident, but may be attributable to the differences in stage at diagnosis as well as access to and receipt of care. As the incidence of OTC is increasing in young white women, identifying the risk factors in this group may lead to a better understanding of OTC causes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oraloncology.2015.03.010DOI Listing
June 2015

Prevalence and predictors of left atrial thrombus in patients with atrial fibrillation: is transesophageal echocardiography necessary before cardioversion?

Cardiovasc Revasc Med 2015 Jan-Feb;16(1):12-4. Epub 2014 Dec 27.

Division of Cardiology, Washington Hospital Center, Washington, DC.

Background: Systemic embolization threatens patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). The risk is enhanced at the time of cardioversion. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) prior to cardioversion to screen for left atrial thrombus (LAT), a marker of high risk for embolization, is recommended for many patients with AF.

Objective: To determine clinical and echocardiographic factors associated with LAT formation in AF.

Methods: Data from 600 consecutive patients with AF undergoing TEE prior to cardioversion for the detection of LAT were analyzed. Clinical, laboratory, and echocardiographic parameters were abstracted from the clinical record.

Results: TEE identified LAT in 70 (11.6%) and dense (LA) spontaneous echo contrast (SEC) in 156 (26%). Baseline characteristics and echocardiographic parameters of patients with or without LAT are compared. A prior myocardial infarction, 21 (29.4 %) vs. 31 (5.8), (p < 0.001); hypertension, 60 (85.7%) vs. 386 (72.8), (p 0.02); CHADS(2) ≥ 2, 56 (80%) vs. 308 (58.1%), (p < 0.001) prevalence was higher in patients with LAT. Patients with LAT had lower ejection fraction 38.2 ± 15.6 vs. 46.2 ± 14.5, (p < 0.001); higher LA diameter 4.98 ± 0.7 vs. 4.52 ± 0.7, (p <0.001); dense LA SEC 44 (62.8) vs. 112 (21.1), (p < 0.001); and low LA appendage emptying velocity 21.7 ± 12.9 vs. 37.5 ± 19.4, (p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis was done, and it revealed that low LA emptying velocity had the strongest independent association with LAT (HR 0.89 [CI 0.83-0.96], p value <0.001.

Conclusion: LAT is not an uncommon finding of AF patients prior to cardioversion. The current practice of TEE examination may be justified since neither clinical nor routine 2D echo examinations reliably identify LAT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carrev.2014.12.009DOI Listing
February 2016

Meta-analysis of the effects of lifestyle modifications on coronary and carotid atherosclerotic burden.

Am J Cardiol 2015 Jan 31;115(2):268-75. Epub 2014 Oct 31.

MedStar Georgetown University Hospital/Washington Hospital Center, MedStar Washington Hospital Center, Washington, District of Columbia.

Lifestyle modifications are the crux of atherosclerotic disease management. The goal of this study was to determine the effectiveness of diet and exercise in decreasing coronary and carotid atherosclerotic burden. Randomized controlled trials examining the effects of intensive lifestyle measures on atherosclerotic progression in coronary and carotid arteries as measured by baseline and follow-up quantitative coronary angiogram and ultrasonographic carotid intimal-medial thickness (CIMT), respectively, were included. Studies were excluded if the intervention additionally included a medication. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Controlled Trials Registers, reports, and abstracts from major cardiology meetings were searched by 2 researchers independently and verified by the primary investigator. Standardized mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) was calculated using random-effects model. Publication bias and heterogeneity were assessed. Fourteen trials were included. Seven used quantitative coronary angiogram, and 7 used CIMT; 1,343 lesions in 340 patients in the coronary group and 919 patients in the carotid group were analyzed. Overall, lifestyle modifications were associated with a decrease in coronary atherosclerotic burden in percent stenosis by -0.34 (95% CI -0.48 to -0.21) SMD, with no significant publication bias and heterogeneity (p = 0.21, I(2) = 28.25). Similarly, in the carotids, there was a decrease in the CIMT, in millimeter, by -0.21 (95% CI -0.36 to -0.05) SMD and by -0.13 (95% CI -0.25 to -0.02) SMD, before and after accounting for publication bias and heterogeneity (p = 0.13, I(2) = 39.91; p = 0.54, I(2) = 0), respectively. In conclusion, these results suggest that intensive lifestyle modifications are associated with a decrease in coronary and carotid atherosclerotic burden.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2014.10.035DOI Listing
January 2015

Coronary blood flow in patients with severe aortic stenosis before and after transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

Am J Cardiol 2014 Oct 30;114(8):1264-8. Epub 2014 Jul 30.

Division of Cardiology, MedStar Washington Hospital Center, Washington, DC. Electronic address:

Patients with severe aortic stenosis and no obstructed coronary arteries are reported to have reduced coronary flow. Doppler evaluation of proximal coronary flow is feasible using transesophageal echocardiography. The present study aimed to assess the change in coronary flow in patients with severe aortic stenosis undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). The left main coronary artery was visualized using transesophageal echocardiography in 90 patients undergoing TAVI using the Edwards SAPIEN valve. The peak systolic and diastolic velocities of the coronary flow and the time-velocity integral were obtained before and after TAVI using pulse-wave Doppler. Mean aortic gradients decreased from 47.1 ± 15.7 mm Hg before TAVI to 3.6 ± 2.6 mm Hg after TAVI (p <0.001). The aortic valve area increased from 0.58 ± 0.17 to 1.99 ± 0.35 cm(2) (p <0.001). The cardiac output increased from 3.4 ± 1.1 to 3.8 ± 1.0 L/min (p <0.001). Left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) decreased from 19.8 ± 5.4 to 17.3 ± 4.1 mm Hg (p <0.001). The following coronary flow parameters increased significantly after TAVI: peak systolic velocity 24.2 ± 9.3 to 30.5 ± 14.9 cm/s (p <0.001), peak diastolic velocity 49.8 ± 16.9 to 53.7 ± 22.3 cm/s (p = 0.04), total velocity-time integral 26.7 ± 10.5 to 29.7 ± 14.1 cm (p = 0.002), and systolic velocity-time integral 6.1 ± 3.7 to 7.7 ± 5.0 cm (p = 0.001). Diastolic time-velocity integral increased from 20.6 ± 8.7 to 22.0 ± 10.1 cm (p = 0.04). Total velocity-time integral increased >10% in 43 patients (47.2%). Pearson's correlation coefficient revealed the change in LVEDP as the best correlate of change in coronary flow (R = -0.41, p = 0.003). In conclusion, TAVI resulted in a significant increase in coronary flow. The change in coronary flow was associated mostly with a decrease in LVEDP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2014.07.054DOI Listing
October 2014

The spectrum of electrocardiographic manifestations of acute myocarditis: an expanded understanding.

J Electrocardiol 2014 Nov-Dec;47(6):941-7. Epub 2014 Aug 2.

Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Georgetown University Hospital/Washington Hospital Center, Washington, DC 20010.

Background And Purpose: Descriptions of the significance of ST segment or QRS abnormalities in myocarditis are limited because documentation of the diagnosis has previously required myocardial biopsy. Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) and T2 weighted imaging in the midventricular wall on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) has a very good positive predictive value for the diagnosis of myocarditis. We hypothesized to reexplore the diagnostic value of these electrocardiographic (ECG) changes in myocarditis by utilizing CMRI as the reference standard.

Methods: Data on demographics, clinical presentation, laboratory tests, echocardiograms, coronary angiograms, and computed tomography angiography of 41 consecutive patients with definite midventricular or subepicardial LGE and T2 weighted imaging on CMRI were extracted from the available clinical records. ECGs were blindly examined by two independent readers and divided based on (a) STT changes into: 1. No STT changes, 2. STT changes but no ST elevation, 3. ST elevation (STE); and (b) the presence or absence of QRS abnormalities. Associations of these ECG changes with differences in left ventricular ejection fraction, as measured from CMRI was the main aim of this study. In addition, a complete clinical profile of these patients with myocarditis as identified by CMRI was also created.

Results: 80% of our study population were male with a mean age of 38.6±15.5 and a paucity of traditional cardiovascular risk factors (<30%). 90% presented with chest pain with more than half having dyspnea and a viral prodrome, but fever was infrequent (15%). Peak troponin-I and creatine kinase-MB levels exceeded the upper limit of normal in latest 85%, often by more than 5 times the limit. 18% had a coronary luminal narrowing of ≥50%, while 56% had echocardiographic wall motion abnormalities. The left ventricular ejection fraction averaged 54.3±10.8%. In 24.4% of patients, the ECG was entirely normal; while 39% had STE. STT changes did not detect any differences in the ejection fraction. An abnormal QRS, which was present in 29%, was associated with a lower left ventricular ejection fraction (p=0.005).

Conclusions: Patients with clinical features suggestive of myocarditis and confirmatory CMRI findings, can present with a variety of ECG findings, some of which have the potential to identify those with a worse cardiac function, and potentially with a worse prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jelectrocard.2014.07.018DOI Listing
October 2015

Mortality predicted by preinduction cerebral oxygen saturation after cardiac operation.

Ann Thorac Surg 2014 Jul 9;98(1):91-6. Epub 2014 May 9.

Department of Cardiology, Medstar Washington Hospital Center, Washington, DC.

Background: An intraoperative decline in regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2) has been associated with postoperative injury to the central nervous system. Wide individual variation in steady-state cerebral oxygen saturation limits the clinical use of rSO2 to monitoring during anesthesia and surgical procedures. Recently, low preoperative rSO2 has been proposed as a predictor of adverse postoperative outcomes in cardiovascular operations. We compared the sensitivity and specificity of preinduction rSO2 as a predictor of adverse operative events and compared this to the widely accepted risk index developed by the Society for Thoracic Surgeons.

Methods: 2,097 consecutive white patients who underwent cardiac operations from 2010 through 2012 were included. In 1,496 patients (group 1) the preinduction rSO2 was equal to or greater than 60%, whereas in the remaining 601 patients (group 2) it was below 60%. We compared the predictive accuracy of preinduction rSO2 with that of the STS mortality risk score by means of standard statistical techniques, including a receiver operating curve characteristic analysis.

Results: Patients with a preinduction rSO2 below 60% had significantly higher STS mortality risk scores than did patients with an rSO2 equal to or greater than 60% (2.0 vs 4.0, p<0.001). Those with an rSO2 below 60% experienced higher operative mortality (p<0.001) and after adjustment this determination emerged as an independent predictor of increased mortality (p<0.001). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis demonstrated that the rSO2 was slightly less accurate as a mortality predictor (area under the curve: 0.71 vs 0.85).

Conclusions: Measurement of rSO2 is considerably less complex than calculation of the STS score and is only slightly less accurate as a predictor of operative mortality. It may be useful when the STS mortality risk score cannot be calculated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.athoracsur.2014.03.025DOI Listing
July 2014

Ascending aortic injuries following blunt trauma.

J Card Surg 2013 Nov;28(6):749-55

Department of Cardiac Surgery, MedStar Washington Hospital Center, Washington, District of Columbia.

Background: The diagnosis and the management of traumatic thoracic aortic injuries have undergone significant changes due to new technology and improved prehospital care. Most of the discussions have focused on descending aortic injuries. In this review, we discuss the recent management of ascending aortic injuries.

Methods: We found 5 cohort studies on traumatic aortic injuries and 11 case reports describing ascending aortic injuries between 1998 to the present through Medline research.

Results: Among case reports, 78.9% of cases were caused by motor vehicle accidents (MVA). 42.1% of patients underwent emergent open repair and the operative mortality was 12.5%. 36.8% underwent delayed repair. Associated injuries occurred in 84.2% of patients. Aortic valve injury was concurrent in 26.3% of patients. The incidence of ascending aortic injury ranged 1.9-20% in cohort studies.

Conclusions: Traumatic injuries to the ascending aorta are relatively uncommon among survivors following blunt trauma. Aortography has been replaced by computed tomography and echocardiography as a diagnostic tool. Open repair, either emergent or delayed, remains the treatment of choice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jocs.12237DOI Listing
November 2013

Safety and feasibility of performing staged non-culprit vessel percutaneous coronary intervention within the index hospitalization in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and multivessel disease.

Cardiovasc Revasc Med 2013 Sep-Oct;14(5):258-63

Interventional Cardiology, MedStar Washington Hospital Center, Washington, DC.

Objectives: To determine whether staged percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) within the same hospitalization as primary PCI is safe.

Background: In ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients with multivessel disease undergoing primary PCI, staged non-culprit vessel PCI at a separate session is recommended.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of 282 consecutive STEMI patients with multivessel disease who underwent primary PCI followed by staged PCI of the non-culprit vessel. Patients were categorized into staged PCI in the same hospitalization (n=184) and staged PCI at a separate hospitalization within 8 weeks of primary PCI (n=98).

Results: Baseline characteristics, presentation of STEMI, and procedural characteristics were similar in both groups. Contrast amount was higher in the separate hospitalization group for both index (175 vs. 153 ml, p=0.011) and staged (144 vs. 120 ml, p=0.004) procedures. More staged left main PCI was performed in the separate hospitalization group (3.9 vs. 0.3%, p=0.008). Angiographic success of staged PCI was similar in both groups, with similar rates of vascular complications and major bleeding. Following staged PCI, in-hospital major adverse cardiac events (3.3 vs. 1.0%, p=0.43) and mortality (2.7 vs. 0%, p=0.17) were similar in both groups.

Conclusions: Our study supports the safety and feasibility of staged PCI within the same hospitalization as primary PCI, achieving similar procedural success and in-hospital outcomes as staged PCI at a separate hospitalization. Higher contrast amount used during primary PCI and presence of left main lesion in non-culprit vessels may influence the decision to stage the PCI at a separate hospitalization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carrev.2013.05.005DOI Listing
April 2014

Transesophageal echocardiographic screening before atrial flutter ablation: is it necessary for patient safety?

J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2013 Sep 11;26(9):1099-105. Epub 2013 Jul 11.

Department of Internal Medicine, Georgetown University Hospital, Washington, DC 20007, USA.

Background: Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is commonly used before atrial flutter (AFl) ablation to detect atrial thrombus (AT) and thereby identify a heightened risk for systemic embolism both in patients with their initial episodes of AFl and in those with prior episodes whose anticoagulation has been inadequate. This treatment strategy has been extrapolated from guidelines for atrial fibrillation. In fact, limited data exist regarding the prevalence or clinical associations of AT and spontaneous echocardiographic contrast (SEC) in patients with AFl. Both AT and SEC are believed to represent risk factors for systemic embolization. This study was designed to provide further insight into the prevalence of these and their associated clinical findings.

Methods: The results of transesophageal echocardiographic examinations in 347 consecutive patients with AFl in whom radiofrequency ablation procedures were planned were reviewed. In each case, specific care was taken to identify AT and SEC. The presence of either AT or more than mild SEC was considered to reflect a thrombogenic milieu (TM). Clinical and echocardiographic data were analyzed to determine the frequency and relevant clinical associations of these two markers of increased thromboembolic risk. In addition to determining the prevalence of AT and TM, the study sought to identify predictors of their presence short of TEE that might allow that procedure to be avoided.

Results: AT were found in 19 of the 347 patients (5.4%). TM was present in 39 patients (11.2%). SEC was associated with reduced left atrial appendage emptying velocity (P < .001). History of myocardial infarction (P = .02) was associated with AT. Reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (P = .01), reduced left atrial appendage emptying velocity (P < .001), diabetes mellitus (P = .02), congestive heart failure (P = .04), and chronic renal insufficiency (P = .05) were associated with a TM.

Conclusions: Allowing for multiple comparisons, the significant markers of the risk for systemic embolization could be obtained only from TEE. Although there are several interesting clinical and echocardiographic associations with AT and a TM, none were strong enough to obviate the need for TEE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.echo.2013.05.017DOI Listing
September 2013

Discordant association of C-reactive protein with clinical events and coronary luminal narrowing in postmenopausal women: data from the Women's Angiographic Vitamin and Estrogen (WAVE) study.

Clin Cardiol 2013 Sep 10;36(9):535-41. Epub 2013 Jun 10.

Department of Internal Medicine, Washington Hospital Center, Washington, DC; Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Virginia Commonwealth University Hospital, Richmond, Virginia.

Background: The incidence of cardiovascular events had been shown to be associated with C-reactive protein (CRP). However, it is unclear that the cardiovascular risk associated with CRP is due to progressive coronary narrowing or to other factors such as formation of unstable plaque. This study was designed to determine the effect of baseline CRP on cardiovascular events and on the progression of atherosclerotic narrowing among 423 postmenopausal women with angiographic stenosis between 15% and 75%.

Hypothesis: Baseline CRP levels may affect cardiovascular events and progression of atherosclerotic coronary artery narrowing among postmenopausal women.

Methods: Baseline and follow-up (2.8 years) angiographic data were analyzed among 320 women. Women were stratified into 4 quartiles according to baseline CRP levels. The changes in lumen diameter and clinical events in each quartile were compared.

Results: The annualized changes in minimal and average lumen diameter in diseased and nondiseased coronary segments were not significantly associated with baseline CRP levels. The composite end point of all-cause mortality and myocardial infarction (MI) increased from 3% (3/107) in the first CRP quartile to 14% (14/98) in fourth CRP quartile (P < 0.001). Similar results were found for cardiovascular death and MI (increased from 1% (2/107) in the first quartile to 11% (11/98) in fourth quartile). The difference remained significant even after adjustment for baseline differences and cardiovascular risk factors.

Conclusions: Higher baseline CRP was associated with increased risk of clinical events but was not associated with annualized change in luminal diameters. Thus, increased risk of adverse events among patients with higher baseline CRP events was independent of progression of atherosclerosis as measured by change in minimal or average luminal diameter.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/clc.22155DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6649644PMC
September 2013

Correlation of brain natriuretic peptide levels in patients with severe aortic stenosis undergoing operative valve replacement or percutaneous transcatheter intervention with clinical, echocardiographic, and hemodynamic factors and prognosis.

Am J Cardiol 2013 Aug 16;112(4):574-9. Epub 2013 May 16.

Division of Cardiology, MedStar Washington Hospital Center, Washington, District of Columbia.

Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is a marker of systolic and diastolic dysfunction and a strong predictor of mortality in heart failure patients. The present study aimed to assess the relationship of BNP with aortic stenosis (AS) severity and prognosis. The cohort comprised 289 high-risk patients with severe AS who were referred for transcatheter aortic valve implantation. Patients were divided into tertiles based on BNP level: I (n = 96); II (n = 95), and III (n = 98). Group III patients were more symptomatic, had higher Society of Thoracic Surgeons and EuroSCORE scores, and had a greater prevalence of renal failure, atrial fibrillation, and previous myocardial infarction; lower ejection fraction and cardiac output; and higher pulmonary pressure and left ventricular end diastolic pressure. The degree of AS did not differ among the 3 groups. Stepwise forward multiple regression analysis identifies ejection fraction and pulmonary artery systolic pressure as independent correlates with plasma BNP. Mortality rates during a median follow-up of 319 days (range 110 to 655) were significantly lower in Group I compared with Groups II and III, p <0.001. After multivariable adjustment, the strongest correlates for mortality were renal failure (hazard ratio 1.44, p = 0.05) and medical/balloon aortic valvuloplasty (HR 2.2, p <0.001). Mean BNP decreased immediately after balloon aortic valvuloplasty from 1,595 ± 1,229 to 1,252 ± 1,076, p = 0.001 yet increased to 1,609 ± 1,264, p = 0.9 at 1 to 12 months. After surgical aortic valve replacement, there was a nonsignificant, immediate decrease in BNP level from 928 ± 1,221 to 896 ± 1,217, p = 0.77, continuing up to 12 months 533 ± 213, p = 0.08. After transcatheter aortic valve implantation, there was no significant decrease in BNP immediately after the procedure; however, at 1-year follow-up, the mean BNP level decreased significantly from 568 ± 582 to 301 ± 266 pg/dl, p = 0.03. In conclusion, a high BNP level in high-risk patients with severe AS is not an independent marker for higher mortality. BNP level does not appear to be significantly associated with the degree of AS severity but does reflect heart failure status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2013.04.023DOI Listing
August 2013

Effect of cystatin C levels on angiographic atherosclerosis progression and events among postmenopausal women with angiographically decompensated coronary artery disease (from the Women's Angiographic Vitamin and Estrogen [WAVE] study).

Am J Cardiol 2013 Jun 15;111(12):1681-7. Epub 2013 Mar 15.

Department of Internal Medicine, Washington Hospital Center, Washington, DC, USA.

End-stage renal disease and mild renal insufficiency are associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Cystatin C, a novel marker of kidney function, was found to be associated with a higher frequency of cardiovascular events and mortality independent of glomerular filtration rate. It remained uncertain, however, whether enhanced cardiovascular risk associated with cystatin C is due to accelerated progression of atherosclerosis or to plaque instability. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of baseline cystatin C on annual change in coronary artery narrowing and clinical events in 423 postmenopausal women with angiographically documented coronary artery disease enrolled in the Women's Angiographic Vitamin and Estrogen (WAVE) trial. Baseline and follow-up (mean 2.8 ± 0.9 years) angiography was performed in 320 women. Angiographic progression of disease and clinical events in each cystatin C quartile were compared. Women with cystatin C levels in the highest quartile were older and more likely to have histories of heart failure and stroke. Annualized changes in minimal and average luminal diameters were similar in diseased and nondiseased segments. All-cause death or myocardial infarction (3.6% vs 15.6%, p <0.001), cardiovascular death or myocardial infarction (2.3% vs 13.5%, p <0.001), and cardiovascular events (3.6% vs 13.5%, p <0.001) were significantly higher in women with baseline cystatin C levels in the highest quartile compared with women with cystatin C levels in the lower 3 quartiles. The risk for clinical events associated with cystatin C remained significantly higher in multivariate logistic regression analysis after adjusting for baseline differences and cardiovascular risk factors. The risk for clinical events was also independent of estimated glomerular filtration rate. In conclusion, in postmenopausal women with angiographically documented coronary artery disease, baseline cystatin C levels were associated with worse clinical outcomes without accelerated progression of atherosclerosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2013.02.019DOI Listing
June 2013

Moving mobile: using an open-sourced framework to enable a web-based health application on touch devices.

Stud Health Technol Inform 2013 ;183:238-43

School of Health Information Science, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC.

Computer devices using touch-enabled technology are becoming more prevalent today. The application of a touch screen high definition surgical monitor could allow not only high definition video from an endoscopic camera to be displayed, but also the display and interaction with relevant patient and health related data. However, this technology has not been quickly embraced by all health care organizations. Although traditional keyboard or mouse-based software programs may function flawlessly on a touch-based device, many are not practical due to the usage of small buttons, fonts and very complex menu systems. This paper describes an approach taken to overcome these problems. A real case study was used to demonstrate the novelty and efficiency of the proposed method.
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July 2013

Complexity of the relation between hemoglobin A1C, diabetes mellitus, and progression of coronary narrowing in postmenopausal women.

Am J Cardiol 2013 Mar 5;111(6):793-9. Epub 2013 Jan 5.

The Cardiovascular Research Institute, Medstar Health Research Institute, Washington Hospital Center, Washington, DC, USA.

The aim of this study was to assess the effect of diabetes mellitus (DM) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) on the progression of atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women. A retrospective analysis of the Women's Angiographic and Vitamin and Estrogen (WAVE) trial, a multicenter randomized trial on progression of atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women, was performed. Baseline and follow-up angiography was performed in 320 women. Minimum luminal diameter and average luminal diameter at baseline and follow-up were measured in 1,735 coronary segments. Measurements and adverse events were grouped on the basis of history of DM and HbA1c. DM was associated with more total cardiac events but with similar rates of death or myocardial infarction. There were greater reductions in minimum luminal diameter and average luminal diameter in segments from patients with known DM (p <0.001) and with a baseline HbA1c ≥6.5% (p = 0.002 and p = 0.004, respectively). The greater reductions in minimum luminal diameter and average luminal diameter in the higher HbA1c strata were only in patients with known DM. More new lesions, however, appeared with baseline HbA1c ≥5.7%, irrespective of a history of DM. In conclusion, the relation between DM and the progression of coronary narrowing in postmenopausal women is complex. Clinically apparent DM, not elevated HbA1c alone, appears to promote the progression of established coronary lesions even in HbA1c ranges diagnostic of pre-DM and DM. This raises the possibility that coronary narrowing of existing stenosis in women with DM may be due to negative remodeling, a complex process that might be less dependent on hyperglycemia than new lesion formation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2012.11.057DOI Listing
March 2013

Safety and efficacy of prasugrel use in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention and anticoagulated with bivalirudin.

Am J Cardiol 2013 Feb 4;111(4):516-20. Epub 2012 Dec 4.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, MedStar Washington Hospital Center, Washington, DC, USA.

The randomized TRial to Assess Improvement in Therapeutic Outcomes by Optimizing Platelet InhibitioN with Prasugrel-Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TRITON-TIMI) 38 trial compared prasugrel and clopidogrel in patients with acute coronary syndrome undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Patients treated with prasugrel had fewer ischemic events but more procedure-related bleeding. In the present study, we aimed to determine the effect of bivalirudin on bleeding in patients treated with prasugrel. A total of 692 patients with consecutive acute coronary syndrome underwent PCI with stent implantation and were anticoagulated with bivalirudin. The patients were divided into 2 groups according to the antiplatelet regimen (clopidogrel or prasugrel) chosen during or just after PCI. The bleeding complications during hospitalization were tabulated. Ischemic events were analyzed during hospitalization and at 30 days. Prasugrel was used in 96 patients (13.9%) and clopidogrel in 596 (86.1%). The clinical and procedural characteristics were similar, although the clopidogrel patients more often reported systemic hypertension (p = 0.01), previous PCI (p <0.001), and chronic renal insufficiency (p = 0.05). During hospitalization, the bleeding and ischemic complication rates were similar and low in both groups (major in-hospital complications 4.2% for clopidogrel vs 2.1% for prasugrel, p = 0.6; Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction major bleeding 2.5% vs 2.1%, p = 1.00; Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction minor bleeding 4.2% vs 5.2%, p = 0.6). At 30 days, no differences were found in ischemic events between both groups (target vessel revascularization/major adverse cardiac events 5.4% vs 2.1%, p = 0.2). In conclusion, prasugrel, when given after bivalirudin as the intraprocedural antithrombin agent for patients with acute coronary syndrome undergoing PCI, is as safe and effective as clopidogrel.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2012.10.035DOI Listing
February 2013

Balloon aortic valvuloplasty for severe aortic stenosis as a bridge to transcatheter/surgical aortic valve replacement.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2013 Oct 8;82(4):632-7. Epub 2012 Nov 8.

Division of Cardiology, MedStar Washington Hospital Center, Washington, DC.

Objectives: This study aimed to determine success- and complication rates after balloon aortic valvuloplasty (BAV) and the outcome of BAV as a standalone therapy versus BAV as a bridge to transcatheter/surgical aortic valve replacement (T/SAVR).

Background: The introduction of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has led to a revival in BAV as treatment for patients with severe aortic stenosis.

Methods: A cohort of 472 patients underwent 538 BAV procedures. The cohort was divided into two groups: BAV alone 387 (81.9%) and BAV as a bridge 85 (18.1%) to (n = 65, TAVR; n = 20, surgery). Clinical, hemodynamic, and follow-up mortality data were collected.

Results: There was no significant difference between the two groups in mean age (81.7 ± 8.3 vs. 83.2 ± 10.9 years, P = 0.18), society of thoracic surgeons score (13.1 ± 6.2 and 12.4 ± 6.4, P = 0.4), logistic EuroSCORE (45.4 ± 22.3 vs. 46.9 ± 21.8, P = 0.43), and other comorbidities. The mean increase in aortic valve area was 0.39 ± 0.25 in the BAV alone group and 0.42 ± 0.26 in the BAV as a bridge group, P = 0.33. The decrease in mean gradient was 24.1 ± 13.1 in the BAV alone group vs. 27.1 ± 13.8 in the BAV as a bridge group, P = 0.06. During a median follow up of 183 days [54-409], the mortality rate was 55.2% (n = 214) in the BAV alone group vs. 22.3% (n = 19) in the BAV as a bridge group during a median follow-up of 378 days [177-690], P < 0.001.

Conclusion: In high-risk patients with aortic stenosis and temporary contraindications to SAVR/TAVR, BAV may be used as a bridge to intervention with good mid-term outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccd.24682DOI Listing
October 2013

Silent brain injury after cardiac surgery: a review: cognitive dysfunction and magnetic resonance imaging diffusion-weighted imaging findings.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2012 Aug;60(9):791-7

Department of Cardiology, Washington Hospital Center, Washington, DC, USA.

The appearance of cognitive dysfunction after cardiac surgery in the absence of focal neurologic signs, a poorly understood but potentially devastating complication, almost certainly results from procedure-related brain injury. Confirmation of the occurrence of perioperative silent brain injury has been developed through advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques. These techniques detect new brain lesions in 25% to 50% of patients after both coronary artery bypass graft and valve surgery. Use of post-operative cognitive dysfunction as a marker of brain injury is problematic because of potential difficulties in ascertainment. It can be hypothesized that post-operative appearance of MRI lesions may serve as a more objective marker of brain injury in research efforts. If MRI examination can be used in this way, then 2 vitally important questions can be addressed. 1) What is the frequency of important, but silent, brain injury during cardiac surgery? 2) Does long-term cognitive impairment ensue? This review briefly discusses clinical features of post-operative cognitive dysfunction and reviews the evidence supporting a possible association with MRI evidence of perioperative brain injury and its potential for long-term dementia. We conclude that this association is plausible, but not yet firmly established.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2012.02.079DOI Listing
August 2012

The independent value of a direct stenting strategy on early and late clinical outcomes in patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2013 May 12;81(6):949-56. Epub 2013 Feb 12.

Division of Cardiology, Washington Hospital Center, Washington, District of Columbia 20010, USA.

Objectives: This study aimed to compare percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with direct stenting (DS) to balloon predilatation (PD) for patients undergoing elective PCI to determine whether there is an independent value for DS with regard to clinical outcomes.

Background: The safety of PCI with DS has been established, but the independent advantages of this technique are not entirely clear.

Methods: Patients undergoing elective PCI from January 2000 to December 2010 were included. The postprocedural and late clinical outcomes of 444 patients who underwent PCI with DS were compared with a propensity-matched population of 444 subjects treated with PD.

Results: The two groups were well matched to 27 baseline clinical, procedural, and angiographic characteristics, thus allowing for a more accurate evaluation of the independent value of the stenting technique. Intravascular ultrasound was used in more than 60% of interventions in both groups. PCI performed with PD were longer (DS 45 ± 19.28 vs. PD 56 ± 23.72 minutes, P = 0.001), used more contrast (DS 154 ± 65.88 vs. PD 186 ± 92.84 cc, P = 0.001), and more frequently used balloon postdilation (DS 0% vs. PD 27.3%, P = 0.001). The incidence of periprocedural myocardial infarction (PPMI) was similar between DS- and PD patients (5.3% vs. 5.4%, P = 0.91). Likewise, the 1-year rates of major adverse cardiac events (8.4% vs. 6.3%, P = 0.25), target lesion revascularization (3.9% vs. 2.5%, P = 0.24), and definite stent thrombosis (0.2% vs. 0.9%, P = 0.37) were similar among DS and PD patients, respectively.

Conclusion: During elective PCI, DS decreases overall procedure time and resource utilization, but fails to reveal an independent clinical advantage as there is no demonstrable benefit in regard to the incidence of PPMI, restenosis, or overall clinical outcomes up to 1-year of follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccd.24581DOI Listing
May 2013

Frequency of conduction disturbances after Edwards SAPIEN percutaneous valve implantation.

Am J Cardiol 2012 Oct 6;110(8):1164-8. Epub 2012 Jul 6.

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Cardiology MedStar Washington Hospital Center, Washington, DC, USA.

Disturbances in atrioventricular conduction and the additional need for a permanent pacemaker are recognized complications after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). We analyzed the incidence of postprocedural conduction disorders and the need for permanent pacemaker implantation in patients undergoing TAVR with the Edwards SAPIEN valve. In 125 consecutive patients with symptomatic, severe aortic stenosis undergoing TAVR, a standard 12-lead electrocardiogram was obtained before and serially after the procedure. The cohort was divided into 2 groups with regard to the post-TAVR appearance of conduction disturbances, defined as left bundle branch block, right bundle branch block, fascicular hemiblock, atrioventricular block, and the need for a permanent pacemaker. The patients with and without conduction disturbances were compared. After TAVR, 19 patients (15.2%) met the study definition of a "new conduction defect" and 5 patients (4%) required a permanent pacemaker because of an advanced atrioventricular block. New left bundle branch block appeared in 5 patients (4%) and left anterior hemiblock in 9 (7.2%). No new right bundle branch block or left posterior hemiblock was observed. Although most baseline, echocardiographic, and procedural characteristics were equally distributed, the patients with new conduction disturbances more often had diabetes mellitus and peripheral vascular disease. Also, they more often were taking an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin II receptor blocker, and the procedure was performed more often with apical access (12 [63.2%] vs 7 with femoral access [36.8%], p = 0.002). In conclusion, although the incidence of conduction disturbances was high after TAVR using the Edwards SAPIEN valve, with a significant increase in the rate of left bundle branch block and left anterior hemiblock, the need for permanent pacemaker implantation after TAVR with this valve remained low.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2012.05.057DOI Listing
October 2012

Outcomes of patients with severe aortic stenosis at high surgical risk evaluated in a trial of transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

Am J Cardiol 2012 Oct 19;110(7):1008-14. Epub 2012 Jun 19.

Division of Cardiology, Washington Hospital Center, Washington, District of Columbia, USA.

Recent randomized clinical trials have demonstrated that transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) reduces mortality in high-risk patients with aortic stenosis who are not candidates for aortic valve replacement (AVR). In similar patients who are acceptable candidates for AVR, TAVI provides equivalent outcomes to AVR. In this study, 900 patients with severe aortic stenosis at high surgical risk were evaluated as possible candidates for TAVI. Of these, 595 (66.1%) had neither TAVI nor AVR and constituted the medical arm. In addition to the best available conservative care, 345 patients (39.3%) in this group had balloon aortic valvuloplasty. The AVR arm consisted of 146 patients (16.2%) and the TAVI arm of 159 patients (17.6%). The AVR group had significantly lower clinical risk compared to the medical and TAVI groups, with lower mean age, Society of Thoracic Surgeons score, and logistic European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation score. Patients in the medical and balloon aortic valvuloplasty group had significantly higher B-type natriuretic peptide levels compared to those in the AVR and TAVI groups and had, on average, lower ejection fractions. The medical and balloon aortic valvuloplasty group was followed for a median of 206 days; the mortality rate was 46.6% (n = 277). The AVR group was followed for 628 days; 39 patients died (26.7%). In 399 days of follow-up, the mortality rate in the TAVI group was 30.8% (n = 49). In conclusion, patients with severe AS who did not undergo TAVI or AVR had high mortality. In properly selected patients, TAVI and AVR improve outcomes. Renal failure is the strongest correlate for adverse outcomes, irrespective of treatment group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2012.05.034DOI Listing
October 2012