Publications by authors named "Lindsay C Burrage"

75 Publications

De novo variants in CACNA1E found in patients with intellectual disability, developmental regression and social cognition deficit but no seizures.

Mol Autism 2021 Oct 26;12(1):69. Epub 2021 Oct 26.

Division of Genetic Medicine, Lausanne University Hospital (CHUV) and University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Background: De novo variants in the voltage-gated calcium channel subunit α1 E gene (CACNA1E) have been described as causative of epileptic encephalopathy with contractures, macrocephaly and dyskinesias.

Methods: Following the observation of an index patient with developmental delay and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) without seizures who had a de novo deleterious CACNA1E variant, we screened GeneMatcher for other individuals with CACNA1E variants and neurodevelopmental phenotypes without epilepsy. The spectrum of pathogenic CACNA1E variants was compared to the mutational landscape of variants in the gnomAD control population database.

Results: We identified seven unrelated individuals with intellectual disability, developmental regression and ASD-like behavioral profile, and notably without epilepsy, who had de novo heterozygous putatively pathogenic variants in CACNA1E. Age of onset of clinical manifestation, presence or absence of regression and degree of severity were variable, and no clear-cut genotype-phenotype association could be recognized. The analysis of disease-associated variants and their comparison to benign variants from the control population allowed for the identification of regions in the CACNA1E protein that seem to be intolerant to substitutions and thus more likely to harbor pathogenic variants. As in a few reported cases with CACNA1E variants and epilepsy, one patient showed a positive clinical behavioral response to topiramate, a specific calcium channel modulator.

Limitations: The significance of our study is limited by the absence of functional experiments of the effect of identified variants, the small sample size and the lack of systematic ASD assessment in all participants. Moreover, topiramate was given to one patient only and for a short period of time.

Conclusions: Our results indicate that CACNA1E variants may result in neurodevelopmental disorders without epilepsy and expand the mutational and phenotypic spectrum of this gene. CACNA1E deserves to be included in gene panels for non-specific developmental disorders, including ASD, and not limited to patients with seizures, to improve diagnostic recognition and explore the possible efficacy of topiramate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13229-021-00473-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8547031PMC
October 2021

COPB2 loss of function causes a coatopathy with osteoporosis and developmental delay.

Am J Hum Genet 2021 09 26;108(9):1710-1724. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

Coatomer complexes function in the sorting and trafficking of proteins between subcellular organelles. Pathogenic variants in coatomer subunits or associated factors have been reported in multi-systemic disorders, i.e., coatopathies, that can affect the skeletal and central nervous systems. We have identified loss-of-function variants in COPB2, a component of the coatomer complex I (COPI), in individuals presenting with osteoporosis, fractures, and developmental delay of variable severity. Electron microscopy of COPB2-deficient subjects' fibroblasts showed dilated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) with granular material, prominent rough ER, and vacuoles, consistent with an intracellular trafficking defect. We studied the effect of COPB2 deficiency on collagen trafficking because of the critical role of collagen secretion in bone biology. COPB2 siRNA-treated fibroblasts showed delayed collagen secretion with retention of type I collagen in the ER and Golgi and altered distribution of Golgi markers. copb2-null zebrafish embryos showed retention of type II collagen, disorganization of the ER and Golgi, and early larval lethality. Copb2 mice exhibited low bone mass, and consistent with the findings in human cells and zebrafish, studies in Copb2 mouse fibroblasts suggest ER stress and a Golgi defect. Interestingly, ascorbic acid treatment partially rescued the zebrafish developmental phenotype and the cellular phenotype in Copb2 mouse fibroblasts. This work identifies a form of coatopathy due to COPB2 haploinsufficiency, explores a potential therapeutic approach for this disorder, and highlights the role of the COPI complex as a regulator of skeletal homeostasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2021.08.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8456174PMC
September 2021

Phenotypic expansion of CACNA1C-associated disorders to include isolated neurological manifestations.

Genet Med 2021 10 23;23(10):1922-1932. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Rare Diseases and Medical Genetic Unit, IRCCS Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, Rome, Italy.

Purpose: CACNA1C encodes the alpha-1-subunit of a voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel expressed in human heart and brain. Heterozygous variants in CACNA1C have previously been reported in association with Timothy syndrome and long QT syndrome. Several case reports have suggested that CACNA1C variation may also be associated with a primarily neurological phenotype.

Methods: We describe 25 individuals from 22 families with heterozygous variants in CACNA1C, who present with predominantly neurological manifestations.

Results: Fourteen individuals have de novo, nontruncating variants and present variably with developmental delays, intellectual disability, autism, hypotonia, ataxia, and epilepsy. Functional studies of a subgroup of missense variants via patch clamp experiments demonstrated differential effects on channel function in vitro, including loss of function (p.Leu1408Val), neutral effect (p.Leu614Arg), and gain of function (p.Leu657Phe, p.Leu614Pro). The remaining 11 individuals from eight families have truncating variants in CACNA1C. The majority of these individuals have expressive language deficits, and half have autism.

Conclusion: We expand the phenotype associated with CACNA1C variants to include neurodevelopmental abnormalities and epilepsy, in the absence of classic features of Timothy syndrome or long QT syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-021-01232-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8488020PMC
October 2021

Immune Dysregulation Mimicking Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in a Patient With Lysinuric Protein Intolerance: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

Front Pediatr 2021 20;9:673957. Epub 2021 May 20.

Facultad de Medicina Universidad del Desarrollo-Clínica Alemana, Santiago, Chile.

Lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI) is an inborn error of metabolism caused by defective transport of cationic amino acids in epithelial cells of intestines, kidneys and other tissues as well as non-epithelial cells including macrophages. LPI is caused by biallelic, pathogenic variants in . The clinical phenotype of LPI includes failure to thrive and multi-system disease including hematologic, neurologic, pulmonary and renal manifestations. Individual presentations are extremely variable, often leading to misdiagnosis or delayed diagnosis. Here we describe a patient that clinically presented with immune dysregulation in the setting of early-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), including renal involvement, in whom an LPI diagnosis was suspected post-mortem based on exome sequencing analysis. A review of the literature was performed to provide an overview of the clinical spectrum and immune mechanisms involved in this disease. The precise mechanism by which ineffective amino acid transport triggers systemic inflammatory features is not yet understood. However, LPI should be considered in the differential diagnosis of early-onset SLE, particularly in the absence of response to immunosuppressive therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2021.673957DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8172984PMC
May 2021

CSNK2B: A broad spectrum of neurodevelopmental disability and epilepsy severity.

Epilepsia 2021 07 26;62(7):e103-e109. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Neuropediatrics, APHP Sorbonne University, Trousseau Hospital, Paris, France.

CSNK2B has recently been implicated as a disease gene for neurodevelopmental disability (NDD) and epilepsy. Information about developmental outcomes has been limited by the young age and short follow-up for many of the previously reported cases, and further delineation of the spectrum of associated phenotypes is needed. We present 25 new patients with variants in CSNK2B and refine the associated NDD and epilepsy phenotypes. CSNK2B variants were identified by research or clinical exome sequencing, and investigators from different centers were connected via GeneMatcher. Most individuals had developmental delay and generalized epilepsy with onset in the first 2 years. However, we found a broad spectrum of phenotypic severity, ranging from early normal development with pharmacoresponsive seizures to profound intellectual disability with intractable epilepsy and recurrent refractory status epilepticus. These findings suggest that CSNK2B should be considered in the diagnostic evaluation of patients with a broad range of NDD with treatable or intractable seizures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/epi.16931DOI Listing
July 2021

A novel de novo intronic variant in ITPR1 causes Gillespie syndrome.

Am J Med Genet A 2021 08 5;185(8):2315-2324. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA.

Gillespie syndrome (GLSP) is characterized by bilateral symmetric partial aplasia of the iris presenting as a fixed and large pupil, cerebellar hypoplasia with ataxia, congenital hypotonia, and varying levels of intellectual disability. GLSP is caused by either biallelic or heterozygous, dominant-negative, pathogenic variants in ITPR1. Here, we present a 5-year-old male with GLSP who was found to have a heterozygous, de novo intronic variant in ITPR1 (NM_001168272.1:c.5935-17G > A) through genome sequencing (GS). Sanger sequencing of cDNA from this individual's fibroblasts showed the retention of 15 nucleotides from intron 45, which is predicted to cause an in-frame insertion of five amino acids near the C-terminal transmembrane domain of ITPR1. In addition, qPCR and cDNA sequencing demonstrated reduced expression of both ITPR1 alleles in fibroblasts when compared to parental samples. Given the close proximity of the predicted in-frame amino acid insertion to the site of previously described heterozygous, de novo, dominant-negative, pathogenic variants in GLSP, we predict that this variant also has a dominant-negative effect on ITPR1 channel function. Overall, this is the first report of a de novo intronic variant causing GLSP, which emphasizes the utility of GS and cDNA studies for diagnosing patients with a clinical presentation of GLSP and negative clinical exome sequencing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.62232DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8562426PMC
August 2021

Heterozygous variants in SPTBN1 cause intellectual disability and autism.

Am J Med Genet A 2021 07 13;185(7):2037-2045. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA.

Spectrins are common components of cytoskeletons, binding to cytoskeletal elements and the plasma membrane, allowing proper localization of essential membrane proteins, signal transduction, and cellular scaffolding. Spectrins are assembled from α and β subunits, encoded by SPTA1 and SPTAN1 (α) and SPTB, SPTBN1, SPTBN2, SPTBN4, and SPTBN5 (β). Pathogenic variants in various spectrin genes are associated with erythroid cell disorders (SPTA1, SPTB) and neurologic disorders (SPTAN1, SPTBN2, and SPTBN4), but no phenotypes have been definitively associated with variants in SPTBN1 or SPTBN5. Through exome sequencing and case matching, we identified seven unrelated individuals with heterozygous SPTBN1 variants: two with de novo missense variants and five with predicted loss-of-function variants (found to be de novo in two, while one was inherited from a mother with a history of learning disabilities). Common features include global developmental delays, intellectual disability, and behavioral disturbances. Autistic features (4/6) and epilepsy (2/7) or abnormal electroencephalogram without overt seizures (1/7) were present in a subset. Identification of loss-of-function variants suggests a haploinsufficiency mechanism, but additional functional studies are required to fully elucidate disease pathogenesis. Our findings support the essential roles of SPTBN1 in human neurodevelopment and expand the knowledge of human spectrinopathy disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.62201DOI Listing
July 2021

Biomarkers for liver disease in urea cycle disorders.

Mol Genet Metab 2021 06 8;133(2):148-156. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Molecular & Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA; Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, TX, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Urea cycle disorders (UCDs) are among the most common inborn errors of liver metabolism. As therapies for hyperammonemia associated with urea cycle dysfunction have improved, chronic complications, such as liver disease, have become increasingly apparent in individuals with UCDs. Liver disease in UCDs may be associated with hepatic inflammation, hepatic fibrosis, portal hypertension, liver cancer and even liver failure. However, except for monitoring serum aminotransferases, there are no clear guidelines for screening and/or monitoring individuals with UCDs for liver disease. Thus, we systematically evaluated the potential utility of several non-invasive biomarkers for liver fibrosis in UCDs.

Methods: We evaluated grey-scale ultrasonography, liver stiffness obtained from shear wave elastography (SWE), and various serum biomarkers for hepatic fibrosis and necroinflammation, in a cohort of 28 children and adults with various UCDs.

Results: Overall, we demonstrate a high burden of liver disease in our participants with 46% of participants having abnormal grey-scale ultrasound pattern of the liver parenchyma, and 52% of individuals having increased liver stiffness. The analysis of serum biomarkers revealed that 32% of participants had elevated FibroTest™ score, a marker for hepatic fibrosis, and 25% of participants had increased ActiTest™ score, a marker for necroinflammation. Interestingly, liver stiffness did not correlate with ultrasound appearance or FibroTest™.

Conclusion: Overall, our results demonstrate the high overall burden of liver disease in UCDs and highlights the need for further studies exploring new tools for identifying and monitoring individuals with UCDs who are at risk for this complication.

Trial Registration: This study has been registered in ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03721367).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymgme.2021.04.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8195846PMC
June 2021

A deep intronic variant is a common cause of OTC deficiency in individuals with previously negative genetic testing.

Mol Genet Metab Rep 2021 Mar 8;26:100706. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

National Urea Cycle Disorders Foundation, Pasadena, CA, USA.

Pathogenic variants in non-coding regions of genes encoding enzymes or transporters of the urea cycle can lead to urea cycle disorders (UCDs). However, not all commercially available testing platforms interrogate these regions. Here, we used a gene panel based on massively parallel sequencing (MPS) in 10 individuals with clinical or pedigree-based evidence of a proximal UCD but without a molecular confirmation of the diagnosis. We identified causal variant(s) in 5 of 10 individuals, including in 3 of 7 individuals in whom prior molecular testing was unrevealing. We show that a deep-intronic pathogenic variant in , c.540+265G>A, is an important cause of ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymgmr.2020.100706DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7809430PMC
March 2021

Nitric oxide modulates bone anabolism through regulation of osteoblast glycolysis and differentiation.

J Clin Invest 2021 03;131(5)

Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA.

Previous studies have shown that nitric oxide (NO) supplements may prevent bone loss and fractures in preclinical models of estrogen deficiency. However, the mechanisms by which NO modulates bone anabolism remain largely unclear. Argininosuccinate lyase (ASL) is the only mammalian enzyme capable of synthesizing arginine, the sole precursor for nitric oxide synthase-dependent (NOS-dependent) NO synthesis. Moreover, ASL is also required for channeling extracellular arginine to NOS for NO production. ASL deficiency (ASLD) is thus a model to study cell-autonomous, NOS-dependent NO deficiency. Here, we report that loss of ASL led to decreased NO production and impairment of osteoblast differentiation. Mechanistically, the bone phenotype was at least in part driven by the loss of NO-mediated activation of the glycolysis pathway in osteoblasts that led to decreased osteoblast differentiation and function. Heterozygous deletion of caveolin 1, a negative regulator of NO synthesis, restored NO production, osteoblast differentiation, glycolysis, and bone mass in a hypomorphic mouse model of ASLD. The translational significance of these preclinical studies was further reiterated by studies conducted in induced pluripotent stem cells from an individual with ASLD. Taken together, our findings suggest that ASLD is a unique genetic model for studying NO-dependent osteoblast function and that the NO/glycolysis pathway may be a new target to modulate bone anabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI138935DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7919726PMC
March 2021

Transcriptome-directed analysis for Mendelian disease diagnosis overcomes limitations of conventional genomic testing.

J Clin Invest 2021 01;131(1)

Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine (BCM), Houston, Texas, USA.

BACKGROUNDTranscriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) improves diagnostic rates in individuals with suspected Mendelian conditions to varying degrees, primarily by directing the prioritization of candidate DNA variants identified on exome or genome sequencing (ES/GS). Here we implemented an RNA-seq-guided method to diagnose individuals across a wide range of ages and clinical phenotypes.METHODSOne hundred fifteen undiagnosed adult and pediatric patients with diverse phenotypes and 67 family members (182 total individuals) underwent RNA-seq from whole blood and skin fibroblasts at the Baylor College of Medicine (BCM) Undiagnosed Diseases Network clinical site from 2014 to 2020. We implemented a workflow to detect outliers in gene expression and splicing for cases that remained undiagnosed despite standard genomic and transcriptomic analysis.RESULTSThe transcriptome-directed approach resulted in a diagnostic rate of 12% across the entire cohort, or 17% after excluding cases solved on ES/GS alone. Newly diagnosed conditions included Koolen-de Vries syndrome (KANSL1), Renpenning syndrome (PQBP1), TBCK-associated encephalopathy, NSD2- and CLTC-related intellectual disability, and others, all with negative conventional genomic testing, including ES and chromosomal microarray (CMA). Skin fibroblasts exhibited higher and more consistent expression of clinically relevant genes than whole blood. In solved cases with RNA-seq from both tissues, the causative defect was missed in blood in half the cases but none from fibroblasts.CONCLUSIONSFor our cohort of undiagnosed individuals with suspected Mendelian conditions, transcriptome-directed genomic analysis facilitated diagnoses, primarily through the identification of variants missed on ES and CMA.TRIAL REGISTRATIONNot applicable.FUNDINGNIH Common Fund, BCM Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities Research Center, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI141500DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7773386PMC
January 2021

Missed diagnoses: Clinically relevant lessons learned through medical mysteries solved by the Undiagnosed Diseases Network.

Mol Genet Genomic Med 2020 10 30;8(10):e1397. Epub 2020 Jul 30.

Division of Medical Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA.

Background: Resources within the Undiagnosed Diseases Network (UDN), such as genome sequencing (GS) and model organisms aid in diagnosis and identification of new disease genes, but are currently difficult to access by clinical providers. While these resources do contribute to diagnoses in many cases, they are not always necessary to reach diagnostic resolution. The UDN experience has been that participants can also receive diagnoses through the thoughtful and customized application of approaches and resources that are readily available in clinical settings.

Methods: The UDN Genetic Counseling and Testing Working Group collected case vignettes that illustrated how clinically available methods resulted in diagnoses. The case vignettes were classified into three themes; phenotypic considerations, selection of genetic testing, and evaluating exome/GS variants and data.

Results: We present 12 participants that illustrate how clinical practices such as phenotype-driven genomic investigations, consideration of variable expressivity, selecting the relevant tissue of interest for testing, utilizing updated testing platforms, and recognition of alternate transcript nomenclature resulted in diagnoses.

Conclusion: These examples demonstrate that when a diagnosis is elusive, an iterative patient-specific approach utilizing assessment options available to clinical providers may solve a portion of cases. However, this does require increased provider time commitment, a particular challenge in the current practice of genomics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mgg3.1397DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7549585PMC
October 2020

A global Slc7a7 knockout mouse model demonstrates characteristic phenotypes of human lysinuric protein intolerance.

Hum Mol Genet 2020 08;29(13):2171-2184

Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

Lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI) is an inborn error of cationic amino acid (arginine, lysine, ornithine) transport caused by biallelic pathogenic variants in SLC7A7, which encodes the light subunit of the y+LAT1 transporter. Treatments for the complications of LPI, including growth failure, renal disease, pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, autoimmune disorders and osteoporosis, are limited. Given the early lethality of the only published global Slc7a7 knockout mouse model, a viable animal model to investigate global SLC7A7 deficiency is needed. Hence, we generated two mouse models with global Slc7a7 deficiency (Slc7a7em1Lbu/em1Lbu; Slc7a7Lbu/Lbu and Slc7a7em1(IMPC)Bay/em1(IMPC)Bay; Slc7a7Bay/Bay) using CRISPR/Cas9 technology by introducing a deletion of exons 3 and 4. Perinatal lethality was observed in Slc7a7Lbu/Lbu and Slc7a7Bay/Bay mice on the C57BL/6 and C57BL/6NJ inbred genetic backgrounds, respectively. We noted improved survival of Slc7a7Lbu/Lbu mice on the 129 Sv/Ev × C57BL/6 F2 background, but postnatal growth failure occurred. Consistent with human LPI, these Slc7a7Lbu/Lbu mice exhibited reduced plasma and increased urinary concentrations of the cationic amino acids. Histopathological assessment revealed loss of brush border and lipid vacuolation in the renal cortex of Slc7a7Lbu/Lbu mice, which combined with aminoaciduria suggests proximal tubular dysfunction. Micro-computed tomography of L4 vertebrae and skeletal radiographs showed delayed skeletal development and suggested decreased mineralization in Slc7a7Lbu/Lbu mice, respectively. In addition to delayed skeletal development and delayed development in the kidneys, the lungs and liver were observed based on histopathological assessment. Overall, our Slc7a7Lbu/Lbu mouse model on the F2 mixed background recapitulates multiple human LPI phenotypes and may be useful for future studies of LPI pathology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddaa107DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7399531PMC
August 2020

De Novo Variants in CDK19 Are Associated with a Syndrome Involving Intellectual Disability and Epileptic Encephalopathy.

Am J Hum Genet 2020 05 23;106(5):717-725. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Neurology Department, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008, China. Electronic address:

We identified three unrelated individuals with de novo missense variants in CDK19, encoding a cyclin-dependent kinase protein family member that predominantly regulates gene transcription. These individuals presented with hypotonia, global developmental delay, epileptic encephalopathy, and dysmorphic features. CDK19 is conserved between vertebrate and invertebrate model organisms, but currently abnormalities in CDK19 are not known to be associated with a human disorder. Loss of Cdk8, the fly homolog of CDK19, causes larval lethality, which is suppressed by expression of human CDK19 reference cDNA. In contrast, the CDK19 p.Tyr32His and p.Thr196Ala variants identified in the affected individuals fail to rescue the loss of Cdk8 and behave as null alleles. Additionally, neuronal RNAi-mediated knockdown of Cdk8 in flies results in semi-lethality. The few eclosing flies exhibit severe seizures and a reduced lifespan. Both phenotypes are fully suppressed by moderate expression of the CDK19 reference cDNA but not by expression of the two variants. Finally, loss of Cdk8 causes an obvious loss of boutons and synapses at larval neuromuscular junctions (NMJs). Together, our findings demonstrate that human CDK19 fully replaces the function of Cdk8 in the fly, the human disease-associated CDK19 variants behave as strong loss-of-function variants, and deleterious CDK19 variants underlie a syndromic neurodevelopmental disorder.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2020.04.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7212481PMC
May 2020

Dominant-negative mutations in human IL6ST underlie hyper-IgE syndrome.

J Exp Med 2020 06;217(6)

Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX.

Autosomal dominant hyper-IgE syndrome (AD-HIES) is typically caused by dominant-negative (DN) STAT3 mutations. Patients suffer from cold staphylococcal lesions and mucocutaneous candidiasis, severe allergy, and skeletal abnormalities. We report 12 patients from 8 unrelated kindreds with AD-HIES due to DN IL6ST mutations. We identified seven different truncating mutations, one of which was recurrent. The mutant alleles encode GP130 receptors bearing the transmembrane domain but lacking both the recycling motif and all four STAT3-recruiting tyrosine residues. Upon overexpression, the mutant proteins accumulate at the cell surface and are loss of function and DN for cellular responses to IL-6, IL-11, LIF, and OSM. Moreover, the patients' heterozygous leukocytes and fibroblasts respond poorly to IL-6 and IL-11. Consistently, patients with STAT3 and IL6ST mutations display infectious and allergic manifestations of IL-6R deficiency, and some of the skeletal abnormalities of IL-11R deficiency. DN STAT3 and IL6ST mutations thus appear to underlie clinical phenocopies through impairment of the IL-6 and IL-11 response pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1084/jem.20191804DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7971136PMC
June 2020

De novo EIF2AK1 and EIF2AK2 Variants Are Associated with Developmental Delay, Leukoencephalopathy, and Neurologic Decompensation.

Am J Hum Genet 2020 04 19;106(4):570-583. Epub 2020 Mar 19.

Stanford Center for Undiagnosed Diseases, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA; Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.

EIF2AK1 and EIF2AK2 encode members of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha kinase (EIF2AK) family that inhibits protein synthesis in response to physiologic stress conditions. EIF2AK2 is also involved in innate immune response and the regulation of signal transduction, apoptosis, cell proliferation, and differentiation. Despite these findings, human disorders associated with deleterious variants in EIF2AK1 and EIF2AK2 have not been reported. Here, we describe the identification of nine unrelated individuals with heterozygous de novo missense variants in EIF2AK1 (1/9) or EIF2AK2 (8/9). Features seen in these nine individuals include white matter alterations (9/9), developmental delay (9/9), impaired language (9/9), cognitive impairment (8/9), ataxia (6/9), dysarthria in probands with verbal ability (6/9), hypotonia (7/9), hypertonia (6/9), and involuntary movements (3/9). Individuals with EIF2AK2 variants also exhibit neurological regression in the setting of febrile illness or infection. We use mammalian cell lines and proband-derived fibroblasts to further confirm the pathogenicity of variants in these genes and found reduced kinase activity. EIF2AKs phosphorylate eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 subunit 1 (EIF2S1, also known as EIF2α), which then inhibits EIF2B activity. Deleterious variants in genes encoding EIF2B proteins cause childhood ataxia with central nervous system hypomyelination/vanishing white matter (CACH/VWM), a leukodystrophy characterized by neurologic regression in the setting of febrile illness and other stressors. Our findings indicate that EIF2AK2 missense variants cause a neurodevelopmental syndrome that may share phenotypic and pathogenic mechanisms with CACH/VWM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2020.02.016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7118694PMC
April 2020

Chronic liver disease and impaired hepatic glycogen metabolism in argininosuccinate lyase deficiency.

JCI Insight 2020 02 27;5(4). Epub 2020 Feb 27.

Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA.

BACKGROUNDLiver disease in urea cycle disorders (UCDs) ranges from hepatomegaly and chronic hepatocellular injury to cirrhosis and end-stage liver disease. However, the prevalence and underlying mechanisms are unclear.METHODSWe estimated the prevalence of chronic hepatocellular injury in UCDs using data from a multicenter, longitudinal, natural history study. We also used ultrasound with shear wave elastography and FibroTest to evaluate liver stiffness and markers of fibrosis in individuals with argininosuccinate lyase deficiency (ASLD), a disorder with high prevalence of elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT). To understand the human observations, we evaluated the hepatic phenotype of the AslNeo/Neo mouse model of ASLD.RESULTSWe demonstrate a high prevalence of elevated ALT in ASLD (37%). Hyperammonemia and use of nitrogen-scavenging agents, 2 markers of disease severity, were significantly (P < 0.001 and P = 0.001, respectively) associated with elevated ALT in ASLD. In addition, ultrasound with shear wave elastography and FibroTest revealed increased echogenicity and liver stiffness, even in individuals with ASLD and normal aminotransferases. The AslNeo/Neo mice mimic the human disorder with hepatomegaly, elevated aminotransferases, and excessive hepatic glycogen noted before death (3-5 weeks of age). This excessive hepatic glycogen is associated with impaired hepatic glycogenolysis and decreased glycogen phosphorylase and is rescued with helper-dependent adenovirus expressing Asl using a liver-specific (ApoE) promoter.CONCLUSIONOur results link urea cycle dysfunction and impaired hepatic glucose metabolism and identify a mouse model of liver disease in the setting of urea cycle dysfunction.TRIAL REGISTRATIONThis study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03721367, NCT00237315).FUNDINGFunding was provided by NIH, Burroughs Wellcome Fund, NUCDF, Genzyme/ACMG Foundation, and CPRIT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.132342DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7101134PMC
February 2020

brain somatic pathogenic variant in an individual with phacomatosis pigmentovascularis.

Neurol Genet 2019 Dec 30;5(6):e366. Epub 2019 Oct 30.

Baylor College of Medicine (J.M.S., S.C.M.), Houston, TX; Texas Children's Hospital (L.Z.R., H.S., G.L., V.R., J.V.H., D.J.C., F.S., A.M.A., I.A., L.C.B., D.M.); Department of Molecular and Human Genetics (L.Z.R., H.S., H.D., F.S., L.C.B., D.M.), Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX; Department of Pediatrics (P.B.), Northwell Health, Division of Human Genetics and Genomics, Great Neck, NY; Department of Pathology and Immunology (Y.-S.L.), Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO; Genetics and Genomic Medicine (S.P., V.K.), UCL GOS Institute of Child Health; Pediatric Dermatology (S.P., V.K.), Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London, UK; Department of Dermatology (G.L., V.R.), Department of Radiology (J.V.H.), and Department of Neurosurgery (D.J.C.), Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX; Joint BCM-CUHK Center of Medical Genetics (F.S.), Prince of Wales Hospital, ShaTin, Hong Kong SAR; Department of Pathology and Immunology (A.M.A), Department of Pediatrics (I.A.), and Department of Neurology (I.A.), Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX; and Department of Pediatrics (D.M.), Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, Safat, Kuwait.

Objective: To describe the findings of histopathology and genotyping studies in affected brain tissue from an individual with phacomatosis pigmentovascularis (PPV).

Methods: A retrospective chart review of a 2-year 10-month-old male with a clinical diagnosis of PPV cesiomarmorata (or type V) was performed. Clinical features, brain imaging and histopathology findings, and genotyping studies in his affected brain tissue are summarized.

Results: The proband had a clinically severe neurologic phenotype characterized by global developmental delay, generalized hypotonia, and recurrent episodes of cardiac asystole in the setting of status epilepticus. A somatic pathogenic variant in (c.547C>T, p.Arg183Cys) was detected in his skin tissue but not in blood (previously published). He underwent an urgent left posterior quadrantectomy for his life-threatening seizures. Histopathology of resected brain tissue showed an increase in leptomeningeal melanocytes and abnormal vasculature, and the exact pathogenic variant in (c.547C>T, p.Arg183Cys), previously isolated from his skin tissue but not blood, was detected in his resected brain tissue.

Conclusions: The finding of this variant in affected skin and brain tissue of our patient with PPV supports a unifying genetic diagnosis of his neurocutaneous features.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/NXG.0000000000000366DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6878837PMC
December 2019

Liver transplantation in propionic and methylmalonic acidemia: A single center study with literature review.

Mol Genet Metab 2019 12 7;128(4):431-443. Epub 2019 Nov 7.

Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA; Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, TX, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Organic acidemias, especially propionic acidemia (PA) and methylmalonic acidemia (MMA), may manifest clinically within the first few hours to days of life. The classic presentation in the newborn period includes metabolic acidosis, hyperlactatemia, and hyperammonemia that is precipitated by unrestricted protein intake. Implementation of newborn screening to diagnose and initiate early treatment has facilitated a reduction in neonatal mortality and improved survival. Despite early diagnosis and appropriate management, these individuals are prone to have recurrent episodes of metabolic acidosis and hyperammonemia resulting in frequent hospitalizations. Liver transplantation (LT) has been proposed as a treatment modality to reduce metabolic decompensations which are not controlled by medical management. Published reports on the outcome of LT show heterogeneous results regarding clinical and biochemical features in the post transplantation period. As a result, we evaluated the outcomes of LT in our institution and compared it to the previously published data.

Study Design/methods: We performed a retrospective chart review of nine individuals with PA or MMA who underwent LT and two individuals with MMA who underwent LT and kidney transplantation (KT). Data including number of hospitalizations, laboratory measures, cardiac and neurological outcomes, dietary protein intake, and growth parameters were collected.

Results: The median age of transplantation for subjects with MMA was 7.2 years with a median follow up of 4.3 years. The median age of transplantation for subjects with PA was 1.9 years with a median follow up of 5.4 years. The survival rate at 1 year and 5 years post-LT was 100%. Most of our subjects did not have any episodes of hyperammonemia or pancreatitis post-LT. There was significant reduction in plasma glycine post-LT. One subject developed mild elevation in ammonia post-LT on an unrestricted protein diet, suggesting that protein restriction may be indicated even after LT.

Conclusion: In a large single center study of LT in MMA and PA, we show that LT may reduce the incidence of metabolic decompensation. Moreover, our data suggest that LT may be associated with reduced number of hospitalizations and improved linear growth in individuals with PA and MMA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymgme.2019.11.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6898966PMC
December 2019

Impact of Diagnosis and Therapy on Cognitive Function in Urea Cycle Disorders.

Ann Neurol 2019 07 13;86(1):116-128. Epub 2019 May 13.

Center for Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, Division of Pediatric Neurology and Metabolic Medicine, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.

Objective: Individuals with urea cycle disorders (UCDs) often present with intellectual and developmental disabilities. The major aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of diagnostic and therapeutic interventions on cognitive outcomes in UCDs.

Methods: This prospective, observational, multicenter study includes data from 503 individuals with UCDs who had comprehensive neurocognitive testing with a cumulative follow-up of 702 patient-years.

Results: The mean cognitive standard deviation score (cSDS) was lower in symptomatic than in asymptomatic (p < 0.001, t test) individuals with UCDs. Intellectual disability (intellectual quotient < 70, cSDS < -2.0) was associated with the respective subtype of UCD and early disease onset, whereas height of the initial peak plasma ammonium concentration was inversely associated with neurocognitive outcomes in mitochondrial (proximal) rather than cytosolic (distal) UCDs. In ornithine transcarbamylase and argininosuccinate synthetase 1 deficiencies, we did not find evidence that monoscavenger therapy with sodium or glycerol phenylbutyrate was superior to sodium benzoate in providing cognitive protection. Early liver transplantation appears to be beneficial for UCDs. It is noteworthy that individuals with argininosuccinate synthetase 1 and argininosuccinate lyase deficiencies identified by newborn screening had better neurocognitive outcomes than those diagnosed after the manifestation of first symptoms.

Interpretation: Cognitive function is related to interventional and non-interventional variables. Early detection by newborn screening and early liver transplantation appear to offer greater cognitive protection, but none of the currently used nitrogen scavengers was superior with regard to long-term neurocognitive outcome. Further confirmation could determine these variables as important clinical indicators of neuroprotection for individuals with UCDs. ANN NEUROL 2019.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ana.25492DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6692656PMC
July 2019

De novo and inherited TCF20 pathogenic variants are associated with intellectual disability, dysmorphic features, hypotonia, and neurological impairments with similarities to Smith-Magenis syndrome.

Genome Med 2019 02 28;11(1):12. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Centre de Génétique Humaine, Université de Franche-Comté, Besançon, France.

Background: Neurodevelopmental disorders are genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous encompassing developmental delay (DD), intellectual disability (ID), autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), structural brain abnormalities, and neurological manifestations with variants in a large number of genes (hundreds) associated. To date, a few de novo mutations potentially disrupting TCF20 function in patients with ID, ASD, and hypotonia have been reported. TCF20 encodes a transcriptional co-regulator structurally related to RAI1, the dosage-sensitive gene responsible for Smith-Magenis syndrome (deletion/haploinsufficiency) and Potocki-Lupski syndrome (duplication/triplosensitivity).

Methods: Genome-wide analyses by exome sequencing (ES) and chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) identified individuals with heterozygous, likely damaging, loss-of-function alleles in TCF20. We implemented further molecular and clinical analyses to determine the inheritance of the pathogenic variant alleles and studied the spectrum of phenotypes.

Results: We report 25 unique inactivating single nucleotide variants/indels (1 missense, 1 canonical splice-site variant, 18 frameshift, and 5 nonsense) and 4 deletions of TCF20. The pathogenic variants were detected in 32 patients and 4 affected parents from 31 unrelated families. Among cases with available parental samples, the variants were de novo in 20 instances and inherited from 4 symptomatic parents in 5, including in one set of monozygotic twins. Two pathogenic loss-of-function variants were recurrent in unrelated families. Patients presented with a phenotype characterized by developmental delay, intellectual disability, hypotonia, variable dysmorphic features, movement disorders, and sleep disturbances.

Conclusions: TCF20 pathogenic variants are associated with a novel syndrome manifesting clinical characteristics similar to those observed in Smith-Magenis syndrome. Together with previously described cases, the clinical entity of TCF20-associated neurodevelopmental disorders (TAND) emerges from a genotype-driven perspective.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13073-019-0623-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6393995PMC
February 2019

Bi-allelic Variants in TONSL Cause SPONASTRIME Dysplasia and a Spectrum of Skeletal Dysplasia Phenotypes.

Am J Hum Genet 2019 03 14;104(3):422-438. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

SPONASTRIME dysplasia is an autosomal-recessive spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia characterized by spine (spondylar) abnormalities, midface hypoplasia with a depressed nasal bridge, metaphyseal striations, and disproportionate short stature. Scoliosis, coxa vara, childhood cataracts, short dental roots, and hypogammaglobulinemia have also been reported in this disorder. Although an autosomal-recessive inheritance pattern has been hypothesized, pathogenic variants in a specific gene have not been discovered in individuals with SPONASTRIME dysplasia. Here, we identified bi-allelic variants in TONSL, which encodes the Tonsoku-like DNA repair protein, in nine subjects (from eight families) with SPONASTRIME dysplasia, and four subjects (from three families) with short stature of varied severity and spondylometaphyseal dysplasia with or without immunologic and hematologic abnormalities, but no definitive metaphyseal striations at diagnosis. The finding of early embryonic lethality in a Tonsl murine model and the discovery of reduced length, spinal abnormalities, reduced numbers of neutrophils, and early lethality in a tonsl zebrafish model both support the hypomorphic nature of the identified TONSL variants. Moreover, functional studies revealed increased amounts of spontaneous replication fork stalling and chromosomal aberrations, as well as fewer camptothecin (CPT)-induced RAD51 foci in subject-derived cell lines. Importantly, these cellular defects were rescued upon re-expression of wild-type (WT) TONSL; this rescue is consistent with the hypothesis that hypomorphic TONSL variants are pathogenic. Overall, our studies in humans, mice, zebrafish, and subject-derived cell lines confirm that pathogenic variants in TONSL impair DNA replication and homologous recombination-dependent repair processes, and they lead to a spectrum of skeletal dysplasia phenotypes with numerous extra-skeletal manifestations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2019.01.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6408318PMC
March 2019

Untargeted metabolomic profiling reveals multiple pathway perturbations and new clinical biomarkers in urea cycle disorders.

Genet Med 2019 09 23;21(9):1977-1986. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.

Purpose: Untargeted metabolomic analysis is increasingly being used in the screening and management of individuals with inborn errors of metabolism (IEM). We aimed to test whether untargeted metabolomic analysis in plasma might be useful for monitoring the disease course and management of urea cycle disorders (UCDs).

Methods: Untargeted mass spectrometry-based metabolomic analysis was used to generate z-scores for more than 900 metabolites in plasma from 48 individuals with various UCDs. Pathway analysis was used to identify common pathways that were perturbed in each UCD.

Results: Our metabolomic analysis in plasma identified multiple potentially neurotoxic metabolites of arginine in arginase deficiency and, thus, may have utility in monitoring the efficacy of treatment in arginase deficiency. In addition, we were also able to detect multiple biochemical perturbations in all UCDs that likely reflect clinical management, including metabolite alterations secondary to dietary and medication management.

Conclusion: In addition to utility in screening for IEM, our results suggest that untargeted metabolomic analysis in plasma may be beneficial for monitoring efficacy of clinical management and off-target effects of medications in UCDs and potentially other IEM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-019-0442-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6650380PMC
September 2019

Microdeletions excluding YWHAE and PAFAH1B1 cause a unique leukoencephalopathy: further delineation of the 17p13.3 microdeletion spectrum.

Genet Med 2019 07 20;21(7):1652-1656. Epub 2018 Dec 20.

Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.

Purpose: Brain malformations caused by 17p13.3 deletions include lissencephaly with deletions of the larger Miller-Dieker syndrome region or smaller deletions of only PAFAH1B1, white matter changes, and a distinct syndrome due to deletions including YWHAE and CRK but sparing PAFAH1B1. We sought to understand the significance of 17p13.3 deletions between the YWHAE/CRK and PAFAH1B1 loci.

Methods: We analyzed the clinical features of six individuals from five families with 17p13.3 deletions between and not including YWHAE/CRK and PAFAH1B1 identified among individuals undergoing clinical chromosomal microarray testing or research genome sequencing.

Results: Five individuals from four families had multifocal white matter lesions while a sixth had a normal magnetic resonance image. A combination of our individuals and a review of those in the literature with white matter changes and deletions in this chromosomal region narrows the overlapping region for this brain phenotype to ~345 kb, including 11 RefSeq genes, with RTN4RL1 haploinsufficiency as the best candidate for causing this phenotype.

Conclusion: While previous literature has hypothesized dysmorphic features and white matter changes related to YWHAE, our cohort contributes evidence to the presence of additional genetic changes within 17p13.3 required for proper brain development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-018-0358-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6586530PMC
July 2019

Pathogenic Variants in Fucokinase Cause a Congenital Disorder of Glycosylation.

Am J Hum Genet 2018 12 29;103(6):1030-1037. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Human Genetics Program, Sanford-Burnham-Prebys Medical Discovery Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Electronic address:

FUK encodes fucokinase, the only enzyme capable of converting L-fucose to fucose-1-phosphate, which will ultimately be used for synthesizing GDP-fucose, the donor substrate for all fucosyltransferases. Although it is essential for fucose salvage, this pathway is thought to make only a minor contribution to the total amount of GDP-fucose. A second pathway, the major de novo pathway, involves conversion of GDP-mannose to GDP-fucose. Here we describe two unrelated individuals who have pathogenic variants in FUK and who presented with severe developmental delays, encephalopathy, intractable seizures, and hypotonia. The first individual was compound heterozygous for c.667T>C (p.Ser223Pro) and c.2047C>T (p.Arg683Cys), and the second individual was homozygous for c.2980A>C (p.Lys994Gln). Skin fibroblasts from the first individual confirmed the variants as loss of function and showed significant decreases in total GDP-[H] fucose and [H] fucose-1-phosphate. There was also a decrease in the incorporation of [5,6-H]-fucose into fucosylated glycoproteins. Lys994 has previously been shown to be an important site for ubiquitin conjugation. Here, we show that loss-of-function variants in FUK cause a congenital glycosylation disorder characterized by a defective fucose-salvage pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2018.10.021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6288200PMC
December 2018

Whole-Exome Sequencing Identifies an Intronic Cryptic Splice Site in Causing Osteogenesis Imperfecta Type VI.

JBMR Plus 2018 Jul 16;2(4):235-239. Epub 2018 Apr 16.

Department of Molecular and Human Genetics Baylor College of Medicine Houston TX USA.

The heritable disorder osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is characterized by bone fragility and low bone mass. OI type VI is an autosomal recessive form of the disorder with moderate to severe bone fragility. OI type VI is caused by mutations in the serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade F, member 1 (), the gene coding for pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF). Here, we report a patient with OI type VI caused by a novel homozygous intronic variant in identified by whole-exome sequencing (WES). The mutation was not identified using a low bone mass gene panel based on next-generation sequencing. This variant creates a novel consensus splice donor site (AGGC to AGGT) in intron 4. Analysis of cDNA generated from fibroblasts revealed retention of a 32-bp intronic fragment between exons 4 and 5 in the cDNA, a result of alternative splicing from the novel splice-donor site. As a result, the aberrant insertion of this intronic fragment generated a frameshift pathogenic variant and induced nonsense-mediated decay. Furthermore, gene expression by quantitative PCR showed expression was dramatically reduced in patient fibroblasts, and PEDF level was also significantly reduced in the patient's plasma. In conclusion, we report a novel homozygous variant that generates an alternative splice-donor in intron 4 of which gives rise to severe bone fragility. The work also demonstrates clinical utility of WES analysis, and consideration of noncoding variants, in the diagnostic setting of rare bone diseases. © 2018 The Authors. is published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbm4.10044DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6124173PMC
July 2018

Novel deletion of 6p21.31p21.1 associated with laryngeal cleft, developmental delay, dysmorphic features and vascular anomaly.

Eur J Med Genet 2019 Jun 22;62(6):103531. Epub 2018 Aug 22.

Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA; Texas Children Hospital, Houston, TX, USA. Electronic address:

Interstitial deletions involving chromosome region 6p21.31p21.2 have not been previously reported in the literature. Here, we present a 2 year old girl with global developmental delay, severe speech delay, dysmorphic features, laryngeal cleft, anterior descending aorta that occluded the left main bronchus and a novel de novo deletion of chromosome 6: arr[hg19] 6p21.31p21.2 (35462950-36725083)x1. The deletion, which was diagnosed by array comparative genomic hybridization and further confirmed with fluorescence in situ hybridization, was approximately 1.26 Mb and contained 28 RefSeq genes. The deleted region includes 24 protein coding genes and 4 non-coding genes. This represents a novel microdeletion that has not been previously reported in the literature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmg.2018.08.012DOI Listing
June 2019
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