Publications by authors named "Linda V Chadwell"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

p53 binding prevents phosphatase-mediated inactivation of diphosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase.

J Biol Chem 2012 May 30;287(21):17554-17567. Epub 2012 Mar 30.

Departments of Biochemistry and The University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, Texas 78229; Greehey Children's Cancer Research Institute, The University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, Texas 78229. Electronic address:

c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) is a serine/threonine phosphotransferase whose sustained activation in response to genotoxic stress promotes apoptosis. In Drosophila, the normally rapid JNK-dependent apoptotic response to genotoxic stress is significantly delayed in Dmp53 (Drosophila p53) mutants. Likewise, the extent of JNK activity after UV irradiation is dependent on p53 in murine embryonic fibroblasts with loss of p53 resulting in diminished JNK activity. Together, these results suggest that p53 potentiates the JNK-dependent response to genotoxic stress; however, the mechanism whereby p53 stimulates JNK activity remains undefined. Here, we demonstrate that both Drosophila and human p53 can directly stimulate JNK activity independently of p53-dependent gene transcription. Furthermore, we demonstrate that both the Drosophila and human p53 orthologs form a physical complex with diphosphorylated JNK ((DP)JNK) both in vivo and in vitro, suggesting that the interaction is evolutionarily conserved. Focusing on human p53, we demonstrate that the interaction maps to the DNA binding domain (hp53(DBD)). Intriguingly, binding of p53(DBD) alone to (DP)JNK prevented its inactivation by MAPK phosphatase (MKP)-5; however, JNK was still able to phosphorylate c-Jun while in a complex with the p53(DBD). Apparent dissociation constants for the p53(DBD)·(DP)JNK (274 ± 14 nm) and MKP-5·(DP)JNK (55 ± 8 nm) complexes were established; however, binding of MKP-5 and p53 to JNK was not mutually exclusive. Together, these results suggest that stress-dependent increases in p53 levels potentiate JNK activation by preventing its rapid dephosphorylation by MKPs and that the simultaneous activation of p53 and JNK may constitute a "fail-safe" switch for the JNK-dependent apoptotic response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M111.319277DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3366850PMC
May 2012

The growth-suppressive function of the polycomb group protein polyhomeotic is mediated by polymerization of its sterile alpha motif (SAM) domain.

J Biol Chem 2012 Mar 24;287(12):8702-13. Epub 2012 Jan 24.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas 78229-3990, USA.

Polyhomeotic (Ph), a member of the Polycomb Group (PcG), is a gene silencer critical for proper development. We present a previously unrecognized way of controlling Ph function through modulation of its sterile alpha motif (SAM) polymerization leading to the identification of a novel target for tuning the activities of proteins. SAM domain containing proteins have been shown to require SAM polymerization for proper function. However, the role of the Ph SAM polymer in PcG-mediated gene silencing was uncertain. Here, we first show that Ph SAM polymerization is indeed required for its gene silencing function. Interestingly, the unstructured linker sequence N-terminal to Ph SAM can shorten the length of polymers compared with when Ph SAM is individually isolated. Substituting the native linker with a random, unstructured sequence (RLink) can still limit polymerization, but not as well as the native linker. Consequently, the increased polymeric Ph RLink exhibits better gene silencing ability. In the Drosophila wing disc, Ph RLink expression suppresses growth compared with no effect for wild-type Ph, and opposite to the overgrowth phenotype observed for polymer-deficient Ph mutants. These data provide the first demonstration that the inherent activity of a protein containing a polymeric SAM can be enhanced by increasing SAM polymerization. Because the SAM linker had not been previously considered important for the function of SAM-containing proteins, our finding opens numerous opportunities to manipulate linker sequences of hundreds of polymeric SAM proteins to regulate a diverse array of intracellular functions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M111.336115DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3308824PMC
March 2012

Polycomb group targeting through different binding partners of RING1B C-terminal domain.

Structure 2010 Aug;18(8):966-75

Department of Biochemistry, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, MSC 7760, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, TX 78229-3990, USA.

RING1B, a Polycomb Group (PcG) protein, binds methylated chromatin through its association with another PcG protein called Polycomb (Pc). However, RING1B can associate with nonmethylated chromatin suggesting an alternate mechanism for RING1B interaction with chromatin. Here, we demonstrate that two proteins with little sequence identity between them, the Pc cbox domain and RYBP, bind the same surface on the C-terminal domain of RING1B (C-RING1B). Pc cbox and RYBP each fold into a nearly identical, intermolecular beta sheet with C-RING1B and a loop structure which are completely different in the two proteins. Both the beta sheet and loop are required for stable binding and transcription repression. Further, a mutation engineered to disrupt binding on the Drosophila dRING1 protein prevents chromatin association and PcG function in vivo. These results suggest that PcG targeting to different chromatin locations relies, in part, on binding partners of C-RING1B that are diverse in sequence and structure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.str.2010.04.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4445678PMC
August 2010

Heterologous expression of limulus rhodopsin.

J Biol Chem 2003 Oct 23;278(42):40493-502. Epub 2003 Jun 23.

Department of Ophthalmology, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York 13210, USA.

Invertebrates such as Drosophila or Limulus assemble their visual pigment into the specialized rhabdomeric membranes of photoreceptors where phototransduction occurs. We have investigated the biosynthesis of rhodopsin from the Limulus lateral eye with three cell culture expression systems: mammalian COS1 cells, insect Sf9 cells, and amphibian Xenopus oocytes. We extracted and affinity-purified epitope-tagged Limulus rhodopsin expressed from a cDNA or cRNA from these systems. We found that all three culture systems could efficiently synthesize the opsin polypeptide in quantities comparable with that found for bovine opsin. However, none of the systems expressed a protein that stably bound 11-cis-retinal. The protein expressed in COS1 and Sf9 cells appeared to be misfolded, improperly localized, and proteolytically degraded. Similarly, Xenopus oocytes injected with Limulus opsin cRNA did not evoke light-sensitive currents after incubation with 11-cis-retinal. However, injecting Xenopus oocytes with mRNA from Limulus lateral eyes yielded light-dependent conductance changes after incubation with 11-cis-retinal. Also, expressing Limulus opsin cDNA in the R1-R6 photoreceptors of transgenic Drosophila yielded a visual pigment that bound retinal, had normal spectral properties, and coupled to the endogenous phototransduction cascade. These results indicate that Limulus opsin may require one or more photoreceptor-specific proteins for correct folding and/or chromophore binding. This may be a general property of invertebrate opsins and may underlie some of the functional differences between invertebrate and vertebrate visual pigments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M304567200DOI Listing
October 2003