Publications by authors named "Linda Mindeholm"

10 Publications

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Osteoporosis and fracture risk associated with inhaled corticosteroid use among Swedish COPD patients: the ARCTIC study.

Eur Respir J 2021 02 17;57(2). Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Intergrative Toxicology, National Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.

The effect of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) on the risk of osteoporosis and fracture in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to assess this risk in patients with COPD.Electronic medical record data linked to National Health Registries were collected from COPD patients and matched reference controls at 52 Swedish primary care centres from 2000 to 2014. The outcomes analysed were the effect of ICS on all fractures, fractures typically related to osteoporosis, recorded osteoporosis diagnosis, prescriptions of drugs for osteoporosis and a combined measure of any osteoporosis-related event. The COPD patients were stratified by the level of ICS exposure.A total of 9651 patients with COPD and 59 454 matched reference controls were analysed. During the follow-up, 19.9% of COPD patients had at least one osteoporosis-related event compared with 12.9% of reference controls (p<0.0001). Multivariate analysis in the COPD population demonstrated a dose-effect relationship, with high-dose ICS being significantly associated with any osteoporosis-related event (risk ratio 1.52 (95% CI 1.24-1.62)), while the corresponding estimate for low-dose ICS was 1.27 (95% CI 1.13-1.56) compared with COPD patients not using ICS. A similar dose-related adverse effect was found for all four of the specific osteoporosis-related events: all fractures, fractures typically related to osteoporosis, prescriptions of drugs for osteoporosis and diagnosis of osteoporosis.We conclude that patients with COPD have a greater risk of bone fractures and osteoporosis, and high-dose ICS use increased this risk further.
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February 2021

Effects of Interleukin-1β Inhibition on Incident Hip and Knee Replacement : Exploratory Analyses From a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

Ann Intern Med 2020 10 4;173(7):509-515. Epub 2020 Aug 4.

Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (D.H.S., P.M.R.).

Background: Osteoarthritis is a common inflammatory disorder with no disease-modifying therapies. Whether inhibition of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) can reduce the consequences of large joint osteoarthritis is unclear.

Objective: To determine whether IL-1β inhibition with canakinumab reduces incident total hip or knee replacement (THR/TKR).

Design: Exploratory analysis of a randomized trial. ( NCT01327846).

Setting: 1091 clinical sites in 39 countries.

Participants: 10 061 CANTOS (Canakinumab Anti-inflammatory Thrombosis Outcomes Study) participants.

Intervention: Random allocation to placebo or canakinumab (50, 150, or 300 mg) subcutaneously once every 3 months.

Measurements: The primary and secondary outcomes were time to first incident THR/TKR and time to first occurrence of an osteoarthritis-related adverse event (AE). Data were obtained through blinded ascertainment of trial clinical and safety databases.

Results: Median follow-up was 3.7 years. For the individual canakinumab dose groups, compared with placebo, hazard ratios (HRs) for incident THR/TKR during follow-up were 0.60 (95% CI, 0.38 to 0.95) for the 50-mg group, 0.53 (CI, 0.33 to 0.84) for the 150-mg group, and 0.60 (CI, 0.38 to 0.93) for the 300-mg group. Thus, in the pooled canakinumab groups, compared with the placebo group, incidence rates for THR/TKR were 0.31 and 0.54 events per 100 person-years (HR, 0.58 [CI, 0.42 to 0.80];  = 0.001), respectively. The HR for the secondary end point of osteoarthritis-related AEs was 0.73 (CI, 0.61 to 0.87). Similar findings were observed in analyses restricted to participants with a history of osteoarthritis.

Limitation: Because the parent trial was not designed to examine the efficacy of IL-1β inhibitors in osteoarthritis, information on structural joint outcomes was not collected.

Conclusion: Findings from this exploratory analysis of a randomized controlled trial support further investigation of IL-1β inhibition for treatment of large joint osteoarthritis.

Primary Funding Source: Novartis Pharmaceuticals.
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October 2020

AXT914 a novel, orally-active parathyroid hormone-releasing drug in two early studies of healthy volunteers and postmenopausal women.

Bone 2014 Jul 24;64:204-10. Epub 2014 Apr 24.

Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, Basel, Switzerland and Cambridge, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Antagonism of the calcium-sensing receptor in the parathyroid gland leads to parathyroid hormone (PTH) release. Calcilytics are a new class of molecules designed to exploit this mechanism. In order to mimic the known bone-anabolic pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of s.c. administered PTH, such molecules must trigger sharp, transient and robust release of PTH. The results of two early clinical studies with the orally-active calcilytic AXT914, a quinazolin-2ne derivative are reported. These were GCP-compliant, single and multiple dose studies of PK/PD and tolerability in healthy volunteers and postmenopausal women. The first study, examined single ascending doses (4 to 120 mg) and limited multiple doses (60 or 120 mgq.d. for 12 days) of AXT914. The second study was a randomized, double-blind, active- and placebo-controlled, 4-week repeat-dose parallel group study of healthy postmenopausal women (45 and 60 mg AXT914, placebo, 20 μg Forteo/teriparatide/PTH(1-34) fragment). AXT914 was well tolerated at all doses and reproducibly induced the desired PTH-release profiles. Yet, 4 weeks of 45 or 60 mg AXT914 did not result in the expected changes in circulating bone biomarkers seen with teriparatide. However total serum calcium levels increased above baseline in the 45 and 60 mg AXT914 treatment groups (8.0% and 10.7%, respectively), compared to that in the teriparatide and placebo groups (1.3% and 1.0%, respectively). Thus the trial was terminated after a planned interim analysis due to lack of effect on bone formation biomarkers and dose-limiting effects on serum calcium. In conclusion, AXT914 was well tolerated but the observed transient and reproducible PTH-release after repeat oral administration of AXT914 which showed an exposure profile close to that of s c. PTH, did not translate into a bone anabolic response and was associated with a persistent dose-related increase in serum calcium concentrations.
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July 2014

The single dose pharmacokinetic profile of a novel oral human parathyroid hormone formulation in healthy postmenopausal women.

Bone 2012 Apr 25;50(4):965-73. Epub 2012 Jan 25.

Novartis Pharma AG, Integrated Hospital Care Franchise, Basel, Switzerland.

Parathyroid hormone (PTH), currently the only marketed anabolic treatment for osteoporosis, is available as the full-length hormone, human PTH1-84, or as the human PTH1-34 fragment (teriparatide). Both must be administered as a daily subcutaneous (sc) injection. A new oral formulation of human PTH1-34 (PTH134) is being developed as a more convenient option for patients. In this single-center, partially-blinded, incomplete cross-over study, the safety, tolerability, and exposure of oral PTH134 (teriparatide combined with 2 different quantities of the absorption enhancer 5-CNAC) were assessed in 32 healthy postmenopausal women. 16 subjects were randomized to receive 4 single doses out of 6 different treatments: placebo, teriparatide 20 μg sc, or 1, 2.5, 5 or 10 mg of oral PTH134 formulated with 200 mg 5-CNAC. Subsequently, another 16 subjects were randomized to receive 4 out of 6 different treatments: placebo, teriparatide 20 μg sc, or 2.5 or 5 mg of oral PTH134 formulated with either 100 or 200 mg 5-CNAC. Doses were given ≥6 days apart. All doses of PTH134 were rapidly absorbed, and showed robust blood concentrations in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, PTH1-34 disappeared from blood faster after oral than after sc administration. Specifically, 2.5 and 5 mg PTH134 (containing 200 mg 5-CNAC) demonstrated Cmax and AUC0-last values closest to those of sc teriparatide 20 μg (Forsteo®). Mean+/-SD hPTH134 Cmax values were, respectively, 74+/-59, 138+/-101, 717+/-496, and 1624+/-1579 pg/mL for 1, 2.5, 5, and 10 mg doses of this peptide administered with 200 mg 5-CNAC; while mean+/-SD AUC (0-last) values were, respectively, 30+/-40, 62+/-69, 320+/-269, and 627+/-633 h*pg/mL. The corresponding estimates for teriparatide 20 μg sc were 149+/-35 for Cmax and 236+/-58 for AUC (0-last) Ionized calcium remained within normal limits in all treatment groups except for 3 isolated events. Nine subjects withdrew due to treatment-related AEs. Of those, seven were taking PTH134 2.5 or 5 mg: three withdrew for symptomatic hypotension (two of whom were in the 200 mg 5-CNAC group), three because of delayed vomiting (two from the 200 mg 5-CNAC group), one was proactively withdrawn by the investigator for symptomatic hypercalcemia (receiving 2.5 mg/100 mg 5-CNAC) at slightly supra-normal total calcium but normal ionized serum calcium levels. One subject receiving teriparatide and one receiving placebo withdrew for symptomatic hypotension. No serious AEs were reported. In conclusion, the study demonstrated potential therapeutically relevant PTH1-34 systemic exposure levels after oral administration of PTH1-34 formulated with the absorption enhancer 5-CNAC. Doses of 2.5 and 5 mg of oral PTH134 achieved exposure levels closest to those of teriparatide 20 μg sc, with a comparable incidence of AEs in healthy postmenopausal women.
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April 2012

Morphea-like skin reactions in patients treated with the cathepsin K inhibitor balicatib.

J Am Acad Dermatol 2012 Mar 14;66(3):e89-96. Epub 2011 May 14.

Department of Dermatology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA.

Background: In a multicenter clinical trial in North America and Europe that tested the cathepsin K (catK) inhibitor balicatib for the treatment of osteoporosis, several patients developed hardening of the skin.

Objective: We sought to characterize these observed adverse events.

Methods: Patients with skin hardening were examined by a local dermatologist. All of those patients except one had at least one biopsy specimen taken from affected skin, which was read by local and two central dermatopathologists. Workup was directed for consideration of systemic scleroderma.

Results: Nine patients of 709 treated with balicatib developed skin hardening and were given a diagnosis of morphea-like skin changes. No such events were observed in patients taking placebo or the lowest balicatib dose. After discontinuation of balicatib, skin changes resolved completely in 8 and partially in one patient.

Limitations: Each patient was seen by a different dermatologist in 6 different countries.

Conclusions: These observations are likely dose-related adverse effects of balicatib. Although catK was originally thought to be expressed only in osteoclasts, it has more recently also been found in lung and dermal fibroblasts and been implicated in the degradation of the extracellular matrix in the lung and the skin. It is therefore plausible that the observed dermal fibrosis in balicatib-treated patients is a result of impaired degradation of extracellular matrix proteins and may represent a class effect of catK inhibitors. We recommend that further exploration of catK inhibition for the treatment of osteoporosis or cancer should include monitoring for similar adverse effects.
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March 2012

The cathepsin K inhibitor AAE581 induces morphological changes in osteoclasts of treated patients.

Microsc Res Tech 2010 Jul;73(7):726-32

INSERM, U922-LHEA, Faculté de Médecine, Angers Cédex, France.

Inhibitors of Cathepsin K (Cat-K) are recognized as an interesting way to inhibit osteoclast (OC) activity. OCs from patients treated with the anticathepsin-K inhibitor AAE581 (balicatib) were found enlarged. They contained numerous vacuoles filled with tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAcP), an intracellular enzyme that terminates the degradation of collagen internalized in OC transcytotic vesicles. In a phase 2 clinical study, 675 patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis received the Cat-K inhibitor AAE581 at 0, 5, 10, 25, or 50 mg/D during 1 year. Eleven patients had a transiliac bone biopsy, studied undecalcified. Histoenzymatic detection of TRAcP was used to identify and count OC number. The histomorphometrist was not aware of the randomization of patients at the time of analysis. OC were unstained in one patient because of a failure in the fixation protocol, but easily observable in the 10 remaining patients. Whatever the received dose, treated patients exhibited a characteristic aspect of the OC cytoplasm which appeared filled of deeply-stained brown vacuoles, making cells looking like bunches of grape. These round vacuoles, evidenced on TRAcP-stained sections, were due to the accumulation of intracytoplasmic TRAcP. This led to a moderate enlargement of the OC size when compared to a series of control osteoporotic patients. AAE581 did not induce OC apoptosis at any dosage but it modified OC morphology. Cat-K inhibition (inhibiting the extracellular collagen breakdown) is associated with a compensatory accumulation of intracellular TRAcP that could not be used to complete protein degradation. TRAcP is also known to be degraded by Cat-K.
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July 2010

Oral salmon calcitonin reduces Lequesne's algofunctional index scores and decreases urinary and serum levels of biomarkers of joint metabolism in knee osteoarthritis.

Arthritis Rheum 2006 Oct;54(10):3205-11

St. Luc University Hospital and Christian de Duve Institute of Cellular Pathology, Université Catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium.

Objective: To evaluate the effects of oral salmon calcitonin (sCT) on Lequesne's algofunctional index scores and on biomarkers of joint metabolism in knee osteoarthritis.

Methods: In this randomized, double-blind trial, patients received either placebo (n = 18), 0.5 mg of sCT (n = 17), or 1 mg of sCT (n = 18) daily for 84 days. Biomarkers included C-telopeptide of type II collagen (CTX-II), type II collagen neoepitope C2C, collagenases (matrix metalloproteinase 1 [MMP-1], MMP-8, and MMP-13), stromelysin (MMP-3), tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases 1 and 2, and hyaluronan. Statistical analysis included nonparametric tests.

Results: A total of 41 patients completed the study (13 in the group receiving 0.5 mg of sCT and 14 in each of the other 2 other groups). Although, on day 84, patients in both the placebo group and the group receiving 1 mg of sCT exhibited a similar significant decrease in pain scores, a significant reduction in the function score was observed only in the 2 sCT groups. On day 84, there was no significant decrease in biomarker levels in the placebo group, whereas significant reductions in the levels of both MMP-3 and hyaluronan were observed in the 2 sCT groups. The group of patients receiving 1 mg of sCT exhibited significant decreases in the levels of CTX-II, C2C, and MMP-13.

Conclusion: By improving functional disability and by reducing levels of biomarkers that are thought to be predictive of joint space narrowing (and thus cartilage loss), oral sCT at a dose of 1 mg might be a useful pharmacologic agent in human knee OA.
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October 2006

Effects of salmon calcitonin on trabecular microarchitecture as determined by magnetic resonance imaging: results from the QUEST study.

J Bone Miner Res 2005 Sep 27;20(9):1548-61. Epub 2005 Apr 27.

Osteoporosis Research Group, Department of Radiology (UWMC-ORG), University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, Washington 98105-4631, USA.

Unlabelled: The unique noninvasive MRI technique was used to assess trabecular microarchitecture at multiple skeletal sites in 91 postmenopausal osteoporotic women receiving nasal spray salmon calcitonin (CT-NS) or placebo over 2 years. In the distal radius and lower trochanter of the hip, individuals treated with CT-NS exhibited significant preservation of trabecular bone microarchitecture compared with placebo, where significant deterioration was shown. MRI analyses of os calcis or microCT/histomorphometric analyses of bone biopsies did not reveal consistent differences in architecture between CT-NS and placebo.

Introduction: It is postulated that the reduction in osteoporotic fracture risk in response to certain antiresorptive osteoporosis therapies is caused less by effects on bone quantity than on bone quality (specifically trabecular microarchitecture). To test this hypothesis, the QUEST study was conducted to assess the effects of nasal spray salmon calcitonin (CT-NS) or placebo on parameters of trabecular microarchitecture at multiple skeletal sites using noninvasive MRI technology and iliac crest bone biopsies by microCT/histomorphometry.

Materials And Methods: Ninety-one postmenopausal osteoporotic women were followed for 2 years (n = 46 for CT-NS, n = 45 for placebo); all women received 500 mg calcium daily. MRI measurements at distal radius, hip (T2 relaxation time [T2*]), and os calcis (obtained yearly), iliac crest bone biopsies with 2D histomorphometry and 3D microCT (obtained at study onset and conclusion), DXA-BMD at spine/hip/wrist/os calcis (obtained yearly), and markers of bone turnover (obtained at 2-week to 12-month intervals) were analyzed, with an analysis of covariance model used to assess treatment effect for parameters of interest.

Results And Conclusions: MRI assessment of trabecular microarchitecture at individual regions of the distal radius revealed significant improvement, or preservation (no significant loss), in the CT-NS-treated group compared with significant deterioration in the placebo control group, as reflected in apparent BV/TV (p < 0.03), apparent trabecular number (p < 0.01), and apparent trabecular spacing (p < 0.01). Also, at the hip, the CT-NS group exhibited preservation of trabecular microarchitecture at the lower trochanter (p < 0.05) as determined by T2* MRI technology. Significant deterioration of trabecular bone architecture was noted in the placebo group at the femoral neck, Ward's triangle, and lower trochanteric sites. Apart from a significant increase in apparent trabecular number in the CT-NS group, significant changes within or between groups were not noted at the os calcis. Combined microCT/histomorphometric analysis of iliac crest bone biopsies did not reveal significant differences between treated and placebo groups. In the CT-NS group, regardless of the change in BMD (gain or loss) at the spine, hip, or distal radius, preservation of parameters of trabecular microarchitecture was noted, whereas in the placebo group, regardless of the change in BMD (gain or loss) at the spine, hip, or distal radius, loss or preservation was noted; however, changes in DXA/BMD (of the spine, hip, wrist, os calcis) between CT-NS and placebo groups were not significant. Serum C-telopeptide (S-CTx), a specific bone resorption marker, was reduced by 22.5% at 24 months (p = 0.056). The results of the QUEST study suggest therapeutic benefit of CT-NS compared with placebo in maintaining trabecular microarchitecture at multiple skeletal sites and support the use of MRI technology for assessment of trabecular microarchitecture in clinical research trials. However, the results also highlight site specific differences in response to antiresorptive therapies and the importance of sufficiently large sampling volumes (areas) to obtain reliable assessment of bone architecture.
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September 2005

Oral salmon calcitonin induced suppression of urinary collagen type II degradation in postmenopausal women: a new potential treatment of osteoarthritis.

Bone 2005 Sep;37(3):425-30

Center for Clinical and Basic Research, Ballerup Byvej 222, DK-2750 Ballerup, Denmark.

Objective: To assess the efficacy of 3 months of oral salmon calcitonin (sCT) on cartilage degradation as estimated by the changes in the urinary excretion of C-terminal telopeptide of collagen type II (CTX-II), and to investigate whether the response of oral sCT to urinary CTX-II depends on the baseline level of cartilage turnover.

Methods: This was a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical setting including 152 Danish postmenopausal women aged 55-85. The subjects received treatment with the different doses of sCT (0.15, 0.4, 1.0, or 2.5 mg) combined with Eligen technology-based carrier molecule (200 mg), or placebo for 3 months. The efficacy parameter was the changes in the 24-h excretion of urinary CTX-I/II corrected for creatinine excretion at month 3.

Results: sCT induced a significant dose-dependent decrease in 24-h urinary CTX-II excretion. Similar dose-dependent responses were found in 24-h urinary CTX-I. When stratifying the study population into tertiles of baseline urinary CTX-II, the present osteoarthritic symptoms and definite cases of osteoarthritis (OA) were significantly more frequent in women in the highest tertile of CTX-II (mean 391 +/- 18 ng/mmol). Women who received 1.0 mg of sCT and had the highest cartilage turnover presented the greatest decrease in urinary CTX-II after 3 months of treatment.

Conclusion: In addition to its pronounced effect on bone resorption, this novel oral sCT formulation may also reduce cartilage degradation and thereby provide therapeutic benefit in terms of chondroprotection. Women with high cartilage turnover are more likely to benefit from oral sCT treatment.
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September 2005

Safety and efficacy of a novel salmon calcitonin (sCT) technology-based oral formulation in healthy postmenopausal women: acute and 3-month effects on biomarkers of bone turnover.

J Bone Miner Res 2004 Sep 26;19(9):1531-8. Epub 2004 Jul 26.

Center for Clinical and Basic Research, Ballerup, Denmark.

Unlabelled: Oral administration of calcitonin could improve compliance to long-term treatment. Efficacy and safety of a novel oral formulation was assessed on 277 postmenopausal women. The results show (1) effective enteral absorption, (2) marked inhibition of bone resorption with minimal alteration of formation, and (3) reproducibility of responses over 3 months.

Introduction: We have recently introduced an Eligen technology-based oral formulation of salmon calcitonin (sCT) that effectively delivers the hormone to the circulation. The efficacy and safety during longer-term administration, however, has not been investigated in the target population.

Materials And Methods: This was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging clinical trial including 277 healthy postmenopausal women 55-85 years of age. Women received treatment with either daily (0.15, 0.4, 1.0, or 2.5 mg) or intermittent doses (1.0 mg, every other day) of sCT combined with the delivery agent (8-[N-2-hydroxi-5-chloro-benzoyl]-amino-caprylic acid, 200 mg) or placebo for 3 months. All participants received 1,000 mg calcium plus 400 IU vitamin D daily throughout the study. Efficacy parameters were the acute and/or pre-dose changes in serum and urinary C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTx), N-mid osteocalcin (OC), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSALP), calcium, and parathyroid hormone (PTH) measured by established immunoassays.

Results: After the first dose, sCT evoked dose-dependent decreases in serum CTx (-60.8% to -81.8% from baseline) compared with placebo, reaching nadirs 2-3 h after drug intake, after which, gradual increases were observed. The simultaneous acute changes in OC were statistically nonsignificant. Area under the curve (AUC) of serum CTx responses at months 1 and 3 showed strong correlation with those at baseline (both r = 0.78, p < 0.001). At month 3, the placebo-corrected changes in the pre-dose value of serum and urinary CTx were significant only in the 1.0-mg dose group (-18.9% and -20.5%, respectively, p < 0.05). The placebo-corrected change in OC was -8.6 (p = 0.09), whereas the change in BSALP was -7.3 (p = 0.02). The oral formulation was well tolerated, with mild to moderate gastrointestinal and skin manifestations apparent mainly in the high-dose groups.

Conclusion: The results of this 3-month trial show that the novel Eligen technology-based oral formulation of sCT has potential to become a safe and effective treatment for postmenopausal bone loss. Future trials are needed to assess the impact of long-term administration on changes in BMD and fracture risk.
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September 2004