Publications by authors named "Linda M Liao"

88 Publications

Dairy foods, calcium, and risk of breast cancer overall and for subtypes defined by estrogen receptor status: a pooled analysis of 21 cohort studies.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Background: Epidemiologic studies examining the relations between dairy product and calcium intakes and breast cancer have been inconclusive, especially for tumor subtypes.

Objective: To evaluate the associations between intakes of specific dairy products and calcium and risk of breast cancer overall and for subtypes defined by estrogen receptor (ER) status.

Method: We pooled the individual-level data of over 1 million women who were followed for a maximum of 8-20 years across studies. Associations were evaluated for dairy product and calcium intakes and risk of incident invasive breast cancer overall (n = 37,861 cases) and by subtypes defined by ER status. Study-specific multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated and then combined using random-effects models.

Results: Overall, no clear association was observed between the consumption of specific dairy foods, dietary (from foods only) calcium, and total (from foods and supplements) calcium, and risk of overall breast cancer. Although each dairy product showed a null or very weak inverse association with risk of overall breast cancer (P, test for trend >0.05 for all), differences by ER status were suggested for yogurt and cottage/ricotta cheese with associations observed for ER-negative tumors only (pooled HR = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.83, 0.98 comparing ≥60 g/d with <1 g/d of yogurt and 0.85, 95% CI: 0.76, 0.95 comparing ≥25 g/d with <1 g/d of cottage/ricotta cheese). Dietary calcium intake was only weakly associated with breast cancer risk (pooled HR = 0.98, 95% CI: 0.97, 0.99 per 350 mg/d).

Conclusion: Our study shows that adult dairy or calcium consumption is unlikely to associate with a higher risk of breast cancer and that higher yogurt and cottage/ricotta cheese intakes were inversely associated with the risk of ER-negative breast cancer, a less hormonally dependent subtype with poor prognosis. Future studies on fermented dairy products, earlier life exposures, ER-negative breast cancer, and different racial/ethnic populations may further elucidate the relation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqab097DOI Listing
May 2021

Association of the Age at Menarche with Site-Specific Cancer Risks in Pooled Data from Nine Cohorts.

Cancer Res 2021 Apr 5;81(8):2246-2255. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, Maryland.

The average age at menarche declined in European and U.S. populations during the 19th and 20th centuries. The timing of pubertal events may have broad implications for chronic disease risks in aging women. Here we tested for associations of recalled menarcheal age with risks of 19 cancers in 536,450 women [median age, 60 years (range, 31-39 years)] in nine prospective U.S. and European cohorts that enrolled participants from 1981 to 1998. Cox regression estimated multivariable-adjusted HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for associations of the age at menarche with risk of each cancer in each cohort and random-effects meta-analysis was used to generate summary estimates for each cancer. Over a median 10 years of follow-up, 60,968 women were diagnosed with a first primary incident cancer. Inverse linear associations were observed for seven of 19 cancers studied. Each additional year in the age at menarche was associated with reduced risks of endometrial cancer (HR = 0.91; 95% CI, 0.89-0.94), liver cancer (HR = 0.92; 95% CI, 0.85-0.99), melanoma (HR = 0.95; 95% CI, 0.93-0.98), bladder cancer (HR = 0.96; 95% CI, 0.93-0.99), and cancers of the colon (HR = 0.97; 95% CI, 0.96-0.99), lung (HR = 0.98; 95% CI, 0.96-0.99), and breast (HR = 0.98; 95% CI, 0.93-0.99). All but one of these associations remained statistically significant following adjustment for baseline body mass index. Similarities in the observed associations between menarche and seven cancers suggest shared underlying causes rooted early in life. We propose as a testable hypothesis that early exposure to sex hormones increases mid-life cancer risks by altering functional capacities of stem cells with roles in systemic energy balance and tissue homeostasis. SIGNIFICANCE: Age at menarche is associated with risk for seven cancers in middle-aged women, and understanding the shared underlying causal pathways across these cancers may suggest new avenues for cancer prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-19-3093DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8137527PMC
April 2021

Prevalent diabetes and risk of total, colorectal, prostate and breast cancers in an ageing population: meta-analysis of individual participant data from cohorts of the CHANCES consortium.

Br J Cancer 2021 May 26;124(11):1882-1890. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC/WHO), Nutrition and Metabolism Branch, Lyon, France.

Background: We investigated whether associations between prevalent diabetes and cancer risk are pertinent to older adults and whether associations differ across subgroups of age, body weight status or levels of physical activity.

Methods: We harmonised data from seven prospective cohort studies of older individuals in Europe and the United States participating in the CHANCES consortium. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to estimate the associations of prevalent diabetes with cancer risk (all cancers combined, and for colorectum, prostate and breast). We calculated summary risk estimates across cohorts using pooled analysis and random-effects meta-analysis.

Results: A total of 667,916 individuals were included with an overall median (P25-P75) age at recruitment of 62.3 (57-67) years. During a median follow-up time of 10.5 years, 114,404 total cancer cases were ascertained. Diabetes was not associated with the risk of all cancers combined (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.94; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.86-1.04; I = 63.3%). Diabetes was positively associated with colorectal cancer risk in men (HR = 1.17; 95% CI: 1.08-1.26; I = 0%) and a similar HR in women (1.13; 95% CI: 0.82-1.56; I = 46%), but with a confidence interval including the null. Diabetes was inversely associated with prostate cancer risk (HR = 0.81; 95% CI: 0.77-0.85; I = 0%), but not with postmenopausal breast cancer (HR = 0.96; 95% CI: 0.89-1.03; I = 0%). In exploratory subgroup analyses, diabetes was inversely associated with prostate cancer risk only in men with overweight or obesity.

Conclusions: Prevalent diabetes was positively associated with colorectal cancer risk and inversely associated with prostate cancer risk in older Europeans and Americans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-021-01347-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8144608PMC
May 2021

Evaluation of a commercial database to estimate residence histories in the los angeles ultrafines study.

Environ Res 2021 Jun 6;197:110986. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Occupational and Environmental Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States.

Background: Commercial databases can be used to identify participant addresses over time, but their quality and impact on environmental exposure assessment is uncertain.

Objective: To evaluate the performance of a commercial database to find residences and estimate environmental exposures for study participants.

Methods: We searched LexisNexis® for participant addresses in the Los Angeles Ultrafines Study, a prospective cohort of men and women aged 50-71 years. At enrollment (1995-1996) and follow-up (2004-2005), we evaluated attainment (address found for the corresponding time period) and match rates to survey addresses by participant characteristics. We compared geographically-referenced predictors and estimates of ultrafine particulate matter (UFP) exposure from a land use regression model using LexisNexis and survey addresses at enrollment.

Results: LexisNexis identified an address for 69% of participants at enrollment (N = 50,320) and 95% of participants at follow-up (N = 24,432). Attainment rate at enrollment modestly differed (≥5%) by age, smoking status, education, and residential mobility between surveys. The match rate at both survey periods was high (82-86%) and similar across characteristics. When using LexisNexis versus survey addresses, correlations were high for continuous values of UFP exposure and its predictors (rho = 0.86-0.92).

Significance: Time period and population characteristics influenced the attainment of addresses from a commercial database, but accuracy and subsequent estimation of specific air pollution exposures were high in our older study population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2021.110986DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8187285PMC
June 2021

Coffee consumption and risk of renal cell carcinoma in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study.

Int J Epidemiol 2021 Feb 24. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, Occupational and Environmental Epidemiology Branch, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, MD, USA.

Background: Coffee consumption has been associated with a reduced risk of some cancers, but the evidence for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is inconclusive. We investigated the relationship between coffee and RCC within a large cohort.

Methods: Coffee intake was assessed at baseline in the National Institutes of Health-American Association of Retired Persons Diet and Health Study. Among 420 118 participants eligible for analysis, 2674 incident cases were identified. We fitted Cox-regression models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for coffee consumption vs non-drinkers.

Results: We observed HRs of 0.94 (95% CI 0.81, 1.09), 0.94 (0.81, 1.09), 0.80 (0.70, 0.92) and 0.77 (0.66, 0.90) for usual coffee intake of <1, 1, 2-3 and ≥4 cups/day, respectively (Ptrend = 0.00003). This relationship was observed among never-smokers (≥4 cups/day: HR 0.62, 95% CI 0.46, 0.83; Ptrend = 0.000003) but not ever-smokers (HR 0.85, 95% CI 0.70, 1.05; Ptrend = 0.35; Pinteraction = 0.0009) and remained in analyses restricted to cases diagnosed >10 years after baseline (HR 0.65, 95% CI 0.51, 0.82; Ptrend = 0.0005). Associations were similar between subgroups who drank predominately caffeinated or decaffeinated coffee (Pinteraction = 0.74).

Conclusion: In this investigation of coffee and RCC, to our knowledge the largest to date, we observed a 20% reduced risk for intake of ≥2 cups/day vs not drinking. Our findings add RCC to the growing list of cancers for which coffee consumption may be protective.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyab011DOI Listing
February 2021

Circulating MicroRNAs in Relation to Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Diagnosis and Survival.

Dig Dis Sci 2021 Jan 6. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, NIH, DHHS, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Background And Aims: Tissue miRNA can discriminate between esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) and normal epithelium. However, no studies have examined a comprehensive panel of circulating miRNAs in relation to EA diagnosis and survival.

Methods: We used all 62 EA cases from the US Multi-Center case-control study with available serum matched 1:1 to controls. Cases were followed for vital status. MiRNAs (n = 2064) were assessed using the HTG EdgeSeq miRNA Whole Transcriptome Assay. Differential expression analysis of miRNAs in relation to case-control status was conducted. In cases, Cox regression models were fit to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for all-cause mortality. P values were adjusted using the Benjamini-Hochberg (BH) procedure for false discovery rate control. Predictive performance was assessed using cross-validation.

Results: Sixty-eight distinct miRNAs were significantly upregulated between cases and controls (e.g., miR-1255b-2-3p fold change = 1.74, BH-adjusted P = 0.01). Assessing the predictive performance of these significantly upregulated miRNAs yielded 60% sensitivity, 65% specificity, and 0.62 AUC. miR-4253 and miR-1238-5p were associated with risk of mortality after EA diagnosis (HR = 4.85, 95% CI: 2.30-10.23, BH-adjusted P = 0.04 and HR = 3.81, 95% CI: 2.02-7.19, BH-adjusted P = 0.04, respectively).

Conclusions: While they require replication, these findings suggest that circulating miRNAs may be associated with EA diagnosis and survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10620-020-06740-2DOI Listing
January 2021

Fatherhood status in relation to prostate cancer risks in two large U.S.-based prospective cohort studies.

Cancer Med 2021 01 21;10(1):405-415. Epub 2020 Nov 21.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, NIH, DHHS, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Background: Despite the high incidence and mortality of prostate cancer (PCa) in the Unites States, few risk factors have been consistently linked with these PCa outcomes. Assessing proxies of reproductive factors may offer insights into PCa pathogenesis. In this study, we examined fatherhood status as a proxy of fertility in relation to total, nonaggressive, aggressive, and fatal PCa.

Methods: We examined participants of two cohorts, the NIH-AARP Diet and Health (NIH-AARP) Study and Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals of associations between fatherhood status and number of children sired in relation to PCa incidence.

Results: Fatherhood status (one or more children vs. childless) was positively associated with total PCa risk in NIH-AARP or PLCO, but was not statistically significant (p = 0.06 and 0.55, respectively). Number of children sired indicated a slightly elevated risk of total PCa, but HRs were rarely significant and were of a fairly constant magnitude with no discernable trend relative to the childless referent group. Associations were similar for nonaggressive and aggressive PCa. The trend test for fatal PCa was statistically significant in NIH-AARP (p  < 0.01), despite none of the individual categorical point estimates reaching this threshold.

Conclusion: This study provides tentative evidence that fathering children is associated with a slightly increased PCa risk. Future research should strive to assess better proxies of reproductive function in relation to aggressive and fatal PCa to provide more specific evidence for this putative relationship.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.3606DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7826462PMC
January 2021

Body size and weight change over adulthood and risk of breast cancer by menopausal and hormone receptor status: a pooled analysis of 20 prospective cohort studies.

Eur J Epidemiol 2021 Jan 30;36(1):37-55. Epub 2020 Oct 30.

Epidemiology and Prevention Group, Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center, Tokyo, Japan.

Associations between anthropometric factors and breast cancer (BC) risk have varied inconsistently by estrogen and/or progesterone receptor (ER/PR) status. Associations between prediagnostic anthropometric factors and risk of premenopausal and postmenopausal BC overall and ER/PR status subtypes were investigated in a pooled analysis of 20 prospective cohorts, including 36,297 BC cases among 1,061,915 women, using multivariable Cox regression analyses, controlling for reproductive factors, diet and other risk factors. We estimated dose-response relationships and tested for nonlinear associations using restricted cubic splines. Height showed positive, linear associations for premenopausal and postmenopausal BC risk (6-7% RR increase per 5 cm increment), with stronger associations for receptor-positive subtypes. Body mass index (BMI) at cohort baseline was strongly inversely associated with premenopausal BC risk, and strongly positively-and nonlinearly-associated with postmenopausal BC (especially among women who never used hormone replacement therapy). This was primarily observed for receptor-positive subtypes. Early adult BMI (at 18-20 years) showed inverse, linear associations for premenopausal and postmenopausal BC risk (21% and 11% RR decrease per 5 kg/m, respectively) with stronger associations for receptor-negative subtypes. Adult weight gain since 18-20 years was positively associated with postmenopausal BC risk, stronger for receptor-positive subtypes, and among women who were leaner in early adulthood. Women heavier in early adulthood generally had reduced premenopausal BC risk, independent of later weight gain. Positive associations between height, baseline (adult) BMI, adult weight gain and postmenopausal BC risk were substantially stronger for hormone receptor-positive versus negative subtypes. Premenopausal BC risk was positively associated with height, but inversely with baseline BMI and weight gain (mostly in receptor-positive subtypes). Inverse associations with early adult BMI seemed stronger in receptor-negative subtypes of premenopausal and postmenopausal BC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10654-020-00688-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7847460PMC
January 2021

Immunoproteomic Profiles in Gastric Cancer.

J Proteome Res 2021 01 27;20(1):409-419. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, Maryland 20892-2590, United States.

Chronic infection is the major risk factor for gastric cancer (GC). However, only some infected individuals develop this neoplasia. Previous serology studies have been limited by investigating small numbers of candidate antigens. Therefore, we evaluated humoral responses to a nearly complete immunoproteome (1527 proteins) among 50 GC cases and 50 controls using Nucleic Acid Programmable Protein Array (NAPPA). Seropositivity was defined as median normalized intensity ≥2 on NAPPA, and 53 anti- antibodies had >10% seroprevalence. Anti-GroEL exhibited the greatest seroprevalence (77% overall), which agreed well with ELISA using whole-cell lysates of cells. After an initial screen by -NAPPA, we discovered and verified that 12 antibodies by ELISA in controls had ≥15% of samples with an optical reading value exceeding the 95th percentile of the GC group. ELISA-verified antibodies were validated blindly in an independent set of 100 case-control pairs. As expected, anti-CagA seropositivity was positively associated with GC (odds ratio, OR = 5.5; < 0.05). After validation, six anti- antibodies showed lower seropositivity in GC, with ORs ranging from 0.44 to 0.12 ( < 0.05): anti-HP1118/Ggt, anti-HP0516/HsIU, anti-HP0243/NapA, anti-HP1293/RpoA, anti-HP0371/FabE, and anti-HP0875/KatA. Among all combinations, a model with anti-Ggt, anti-HslU, anti-NapA, and anti-CagA had an area under the curve of 0.73 for discriminating GC . controls. This study represents the first comprehensive assessment of anti- humoral profiles in GC. Decreased responses to multiple proteins in GC may reflect mucosal damage and decreased bacterial burden. The higher prevalence of specific anti- antibodies in controls may suggest immune protection against GC development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jproteome.0c00466DOI Listing
January 2021

Diet and Risk of Myeloproliferative Neoplasms in Older Individuals from the NIH-AARP Cohort.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2020 11 31;29(11):2343-2350. Epub 2020 Aug 31.

Department of Chronic Disease Epidemiology, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, Connecticut.

Background: The etiology of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) is obscure, and no previous studies have evaluated the role of diet.

Methods: In the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, a prospective cohort of 463,049 participants ages 50 to 71 years at baseline (1995-1996), we identified 490 MPN cases after a median follow-up of 15.5 years, including 190 with polycythemia vera (PV) and 146 with essential thrombocythemia (ET). We examined possible associations between various dietary factors and the risk of MPN as a group, as well as PV and ET, using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) and adjust for potential confounding variables.

Results: An increased risk was observed between fruit consumption and the risk of MPN overall (third tertile vs. first tertile, HR = 1.32; 95% CI, 1.04-1.67; = 0.02) and PV (third tertile vs. first tertile, HR = 2.00; 95% CI, 1.35-2.95; < 0.01). Increased risk of PV was also observed among those with high intake of sugar (HR = 1.77; 95% CI, 1.12-2.79), sugar from natural sources (HR = 1.77; 95% CI, 1.16-2.71), sugar from natural beverage sources (HR = 1.57; 95% CI, 1.08-2.29), and fructose (HR = 1.84; 95% CI, 1.21-2.79).

Conclusions: The intake of fat and protein did not appear to influence PV risk-neither did meat or vegetable consumption. None of the dietary factors studied was associated with the risk of ET. The role of sugar intake in the etiology of PV in older individuals warrants further investigation.

Impact: Our results indicate that high sugar intake is associated with an increased risk of polycythemia vera.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-0592DOI Listing
November 2020

Association between Citrus Consumption and Melanoma Risk in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study.

Nutr Cancer 2020 Aug 13:1-8. Epub 2020 Aug 13.

Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut, USA.

It has been hypothesized that consumption of citrus, a group of foods particularly rich in a class of photoactive compounds known as furocoumarins, may increase the risk of malignant melanoma. However, this hypothesis has not been rigorously studied in a general sample of US men and women. This study examined the relationship between citrus intake and melanoma risk in subjects of the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. Among 388,467 adults, 3,894 melanoma cases were identified during a median follow-up of 15.5 years. After adjustment for relevant potential confounders, total citrus consumption was not significantly associated with melanoma risk in this cohort. Among those with higher estimated exposure to ultraviolet radiation, and among those aged 60+ years at baseline, there were significant trends toward increased melanoma risk associated with whole citrus fruit consumption ( trends = 0.01 and 0.02, respectively), but the hazard ratios of the top consumers (2+ cups per week) vs. nonconsumers were nonsignificant. Further research is needed to explore associations of citrus with melanoma risk among older adults and those with high sun exposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01635581.2020.1803933DOI Listing
August 2020

Association Between Plant and Animal Protein Intake and Overall and Cause-Specific Mortality.

JAMA Intern Med 2020 09;180(9):1173-1184

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, Maryland.

Importance: Although emphasis has recently been placed on the importance of high-protein diets to overall health, a comprehensive analysis of long-term cause-specific mortality in association with the intake of plant protein and animal protein has not been reported.

Objective: To examine the associations between overall mortality and cause-specific mortality and plant protein intake.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This prospective cohort study analyzed data from 416 104 men and women in the US National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study from 1995 to 2011. Data were analyzed from October 2018 through April 2020.

Exposures: Validated baseline food frequency questionnaire dietary information, including intake of plant protein and animal protein.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Hazard ratios and 16-year absolute risk differences for overall mortality and cause-specific mortality.

Results: The final analytic cohort included 237 036 men (57%) and 179 068 women. Their overall median (SD) ages were 62.2 (5.4) years for men and 62.0 (5.4) years for women. Based on 6 009 748 person-years of observation, 77 614 deaths (18.7%; 49 297 men and 28 317 women) were analyzed. Adjusting for several important clinical and other risk factors, greater dietary plant protein intake was associated with reduced overall mortality in both sexes (hazard ratio per 1 SD was 0.95 [95% CI, 0.94-0.97] for men and 0.95 [95% CI, 0.93-0.96] for women; adjusted absolute risk difference per 1 SD was -0.36% [95% CI, -0.48% to -0.25%] for men and -0.33% [95% CI, -0.48% to -0.21%] for women; hazard ratio per 10 g/1000 kcal was 0.88 [95% CI, 0.84-0.91] for men and 0.86 [95% CI, 0.82-0.90] for women; adjusted absolute risk difference per 10 g/1000 kcal was -0.95% [95% CI, -1.3% to -0.68%] for men and -0.86% [95% CI, -1.3% to -0.55%] for women; all P < .001). The association between plant protein intake and overall mortality was similar across the subgroups of smoking status, diabetes, fruit consumption, vitamin supplement use, and self-reported health status. Replacement of 3% energy from animal protein with plant protein was inversely associated with overall mortality (risk decreased 10% in both men and women) and cardiovascular disease mortality (11% lower risk in men and 12% lower risk in women). In particular, the lower overall mortality was attributable primarily to substitution of plant protein for egg protein (24% lower risk in men and 21% lower risk in women) and red meat protein (13% lower risk in men and 15% lower risk in women).

Conclusions And Relevance: In this large prospective cohort, higher plant protein intake was associated with small reductions in risk of overall and cardiovascular disease mortality. Our findings provide evidence that dietary modification in choice of protein sources may influence health and longevity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.2790DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7358979PMC
September 2020

Whole grain and dietary fiber intake and risk of colorectal cancer in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study cohort.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 09;112(3):603-612

Division of Cancer Epidemiology & Genetics, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Background: Whole grains and other foods containing fiber are thought to be inversely related to colorectal cancer (CRC). However, whether these associations reflect fiber or fiber source remains unclear.

Objectives: We evaluated associations of whole grain and dietary fiber intake with CRC risk in the large NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study.

Methods: We used Cox proportional hazard models to estimate HRs and 95% CIs for whole grain and dietary fiber intake and risk of CRC among 478,994 US adults, aged 50-71 y. Diet was assessed using a self-administered FFQ at baseline in 1995-1996, and 10,200 incident CRC cases occurred over 16 y and 6,464,527 person-years of follow-up. We used 24-h dietary recall data, collected on a subset of participants, to evaluate the impact of measurement error on risk estimates.

Results: After multivariable adjustment for potential confounders, including folate, we observed an inverse association for intake of whole grains (HRQ5 vs.Q1 : 0.84; 95% CI: 0.79, 0.90; P-trend < 0.001), but not dietary fiber (HRQ5 vs. Q1: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.88, 1.04; P-trend = 0.40), with CRC incidence. Intake of whole grains was inversely associated with all CRC cancer subsites, particularly rectal cancer (HRQ5 vs. Q1: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.67, 0.87; P-trend < 0.001). Fiber from grains, but not other sources, was associated with lower incidence of CRC (HRQ5 vs. Q1: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.83, 0.96; P-trend < 0.001), particularly distal colon (HRQ5 vs. Q1: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.73, 0.96; P-trend = 0.005) and rectal cancer (HRQ5 vs. Q1: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.66, 0.88; P-trend < 0.001).

Conclusions: Dietary guidance for CRC prevention should focus on intake of whole grains as a source of fiber.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa161DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7458778PMC
September 2020

Associations between reproductive factors and biliary tract cancers in women from the Biliary Tract Cancers Pooling Project.

J Hepatol 2020 10 11;73(4):863-872. Epub 2020 May 11.

Epidemiology Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA.

Background & Aims: Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is known to have a female predominance while other biliary tract cancers (BTCs) have a male predominance. However, the role of female reproductive factors in BTC etiology remains unclear.

Methods: We pooled data from 19 studies of >1.5 million women participating in the Biliary Tract Cancers Pooling Project to examine the associations of parity, age at menarche, reproductive years, and age at menopause with BTC. Associations for age at menarche and reproductive years with BTC were analyzed separately for Asian and non-Asian women. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models, stratified by study.

Results: During 21,681,798 person-years of follow-up, 875 cases of GBC, 379 of intrahepatic bile duct cancer (IHBDC), 450 of extrahepatic bile duct cancer (EHBDC), and 261 of ampulla of Vater cancer (AVC) occurred. High parity was associated with risk of GBC (HR ≥5 vs. 0 births 1.72; 95% CI 1.25-2.38). Age at menarche (HR per year increase 1.15; 95% CI 1.06-1.24) was associated with GBC risk in Asian women while reproductive years were associated with GBC risk (HR per 5 years 1.13; 95% CI 1.04-1.22) in non-Asian women. Later age at menarche was associated with IHBDC (HR 1.19; 95% CI 1.09-1.31) and EHBDC (HR 1.11; 95% CI 1.01-1.22) in Asian women only.

Conclusion: We observed an increased risk of GBC with increasing parity. Among Asian women, older age at menarche was associated with increased risk for GBC, IHBDC, and EHBDC, while increasing reproductive years was associated with GBC in non-Asian women. These results suggest that sex hormones have distinct effects on cancers across the biliary tract that vary by geography.

Lay Summary: Our findings show that the risk of gallbladder cancer is increased among women who have given birth (especially women with 5 or more children). In women from Asian countries, later age at menarche increases the risk of gallbladder cancer, intrahepatic bile duct cancer and extrahepatic bile duct cancer. We did not see this same association in women from Western countries. Age at menopause was not associated with the risk of any biliary tract cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2020.04.046DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7901003PMC
October 2020

Exogenous hormone use, reproductive factors and risk of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma among women: results from cohort studies in the Liver Cancer Pooling Project and the UK Biobank.

Br J Cancer 2020 07 7;123(2):316-324. Epub 2020 May 7.

Division of Medical Oncology, National Cancer Centre, Singapore, Singapore.

Background: Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) arises from cholangiocytes in the intrahepatic bile duct and is the second most common type of liver cancer. Cholangiocytes express both oestrogen receptor-α and -β, and oestrogens positively modulate cholangiocyte proliferation. Studies in women and men have reported higher circulating oestradiol is associated with increased ICC risk, further supporting a hormonal aetiology. However, no observational studies have examined the associations between exogenous hormone use and reproductive factors, as proxies of endogenous hormone levels, and risk of ICC.

Methods: We harmonised data from 1,107,498 women who enroled in 12 North American-based cohort studies (in the Liver Cancer Pooling Project, LCPP) and the UK Biobank between 1980-1998 and 2006-2010, respectively. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to generate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence internals (CI). Then, meta-analytic techniques were used to combine the estimates from the LCPP (n = 180 cases) and the UK Biobank (n = 57 cases).

Results: Hysterectomy was associated with a doubling of ICC risk (HR = 1.98, 95% CI: 1.27-3.09), compared to women aged 50-54 at natural menopause. Long-term oral contraceptive use (9+ years) was associated with a 62% increased ICC risk (HR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.03-2.55). There was no association between ICC risk and other exogenous hormone use or reproductive factors.

Conclusions: This study suggests that hysterectomy and long-term oral contraceptive use may be associated with an increased ICC risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-0835-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7374167PMC
July 2020

One-carbon metabolism-related micronutrients intake and risk for hepatocellular carcinoma: A prospective cohort study.

Int J Cancer 2020 10 25;147(8):2075-2090. Epub 2020 Apr 25.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, The National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

Deficient intake of micronutrients involved in one-carbon metabolism (eg, choline, methionine, vitamin B and folic acid) leads to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development in rodents, but is under-investigated in humans. We investigated the association between one-carbon metabolism-related micronutrient intake and HCC risk in a prospective cohort of 494 860 participants with 16 years of follow-up in the NIH-AARP study. Dietary intakes and supplement use were ascertained at baseline using a food-frequency questionnaire. Total intake (diet plus supplements) of the following one-carbon metabolism-related micronutrients were calculated: folate, methionine and vitamins B (riboflavin), B (niacin), B and B . These micronutrients were examined both individually and simultaneously, with adjustment for covariates. Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Over the 16-year follow-up period, 647 incident HCC cases were diagnosed. When examined individually, higher total vitamin B intake was associated with a lower HCC risk (HR = 0.60; 95% CI = 0.42-0.85; P = .008), and the association remained significant when all six micronutrients were examined simultaneously (HR = 0.32; 95% CI = 0.18-0.55; P < .0001). Among participants with >3 years of follow-up, higher total vitamin B intake was again associated with lower risk (HR = 0.37; 95% CI = 0.20-0.68; P = .001), whereas higher total vitamin B intake was associated with higher risk (HR = 2.04; 95% CI = 1.02-4.07; P = .04). Restricted cubic spline analyses showed a dose-response inverse association between total vitamin B intake and HCC risk, and dose-response positive association between total vitamin B intake and HCC risk. The study suggests that higher vitamin B intake is associated with lower HCC risk, whereas higher vitamin B intake is associated with increased risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.33007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7875463PMC
October 2020

Reply to comments on: Lifestyles and myeloproliferative neoplasms with special reference to coffee consumption.

Int J Cancer 2020 06 30;146(12):3523. Epub 2020 Mar 30.

Department of Chronic Disease Epidemiology, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, CT, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.32974DOI Listing
June 2020

Dietary Polyunsaturated Fat Intake in Relation to Head and Neck, Esophageal, and Gastric Cancer Incidence in the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study.

Am J Epidemiol 2020 10;189(10):1096-1113

Recent epidemiologic studies have examined the association of fish consumption with upper gastrointestinal cancer risk, but the associations with n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) subtypes remain unclear. Using the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study (United States, 1995-2011), we prospectively investigated the associations of PUFA subtypes, ratios, and fish with the incidence of head and neck cancer (HNC; n = 2,453), esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA; n = 855), esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (n = 267), and gastric cancer (cardia: n = 603; noncardia: n = 631) among 468,952 participants (median follow-up, 15.5 years). A food frequency questionnaire assessed diet. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression. A Benjamini-Hochberg (BH) procedure was used for false-discovery control. Long-chain n-3 PUFAs were associated with a 20% decreased HNC and EA risk (for HNC, quintile5 vs. 1 hazard ratio = 0.81, 95% confidence interval: 0.71, 0.92, and BH-adjusted Ptrend = 0.001; and for EA, quintile5 vs. 1 hazard ratio = 0.79, 95% confidence interval: 0.64, 0.98, and BH-adjusted Ptrend = 0.1). Similar associations were observed for nonfried fish but only for high intake. Further, the ratio of long-chain n-3:n-6 was associated with a decreased HNC and EA risk. No consistent associations were observed for gastric cancer. Our results indicate that dietary long-chain n-3 PUFA and nonfried fish intake are associated with lower HNC and EA risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwaa024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7666417PMC
October 2020

Association between coffee drinking and telomere length in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial.

PLoS One 2020 8;15(1):e0226972. Epub 2020 Jan 8.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States of America.

Mounting evidence indicates that coffee, a commonly consumed beverage worldwide, is inversely associated with various chronic diseases and overall mortality. Few studies have evaluated the effect of coffee drinking on telomere length, a biomarker of chromosomal integrity, and results have been inconsistent. Understanding this association may provide mechanistic insight into associations of coffee with health. The aim of our study was to test the hypothesis that heavier coffee intake is associated with greater likelihood of having above-median telomere length. We evaluated the cross-sectional association between coffee intake and relative telomere length using data from 1,638 controls from four previously conducted case-control studies nested in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. Coffee intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire, and relative telomere length was measured from buffy-coat, blood, or buccal cells. We used unconditional logistic regression models to generate multivariable-adjusted, study-specific odds ratios for the association between coffee intake and relative telomere length. We then conducted a random-effects meta-analysis to determine summary odds ratios. We found that neither summary continuous (OR = 1.01, 95% CI = 0.99-1.03) nor categorical (OR <3 cups/day vs. none = 1.37, 95% CI = 0.71-2.65; OR ≥3 cups/day vs. none = 1.47, 95% CI = 0.81-2.66) odds ratio estimates of coffee drinking and relative telomere length were statistically significant. However, in the largest of the four contributing studies, moderate (<3 cups/day) and heavy coffee drinkers (≥3 cups/day) were 2.10 times (95% CI = 1.25, 3.54) and 1.93 times as likely (95% CI = 1.17, 3.18) as nondrinkers to have above-median telomere length, respectively. In conclusion, we found no evidence that coffee drinking is associated with telomere length. Thus, it is unlikely that telomere length plays a role in potential coffee-disease associations.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0226972PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6948744PMC
April 2020

Lifestyle factors and risk of myeloproliferative neoplasms in the NIH-AARP diet and health study.

Int J Cancer 2020 08 29;147(4):948-957. Epub 2020 Jan 29.

Department of Chronic Disease Epidemiology, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, CT.

The etiology of Philadelphia chromosome-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) is largely unknown. We assessed potential associations between lifestyle factors and MPN risk in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. In this prospective cohort with 463,049 participants aged 50-71 years at baseline (1995-1996) and a median follow-up of 15.5 years, we identified 490 MPN cases, including 190 with polycythemia vera (PV) and 146 with essential thrombocythemia (ET). Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Smoking was not associated with MPN risk in the overall cohort, but analyses stratified by sex suggested that smoking increased the risk of MPN in women (former smoker vs. nonsmokers, HR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.03-2.00, p = 0.03; current smokers vs. nonsmokers, HR = 1.71, 95% CI: 1.08-2.71, p = 0.02). Coffee consumption was inversely associated with the risk of PV (high vs. low intake, HR = 0.53, 95% CI: 0.33-0.84, p-trend < 0.01), but not the risk of ET or MPN overall. Further analysis revealed an inverse association between the amount of caffeine intake and PV risk (high vs. low intake, HR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.39-0.79, p-trend < 0.01). While the consumption of caffeinated coffee appeared to confer a protective effect against PV, the consumption of decaffeinated coffee did not. This large prospective study identified smoking as a risk factor for MPN in women and suggests that caffeine intake is associated with a lower risk of PV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.32853DOI Listing
August 2020

Associations Between Prediagnostic Concentrations of Circulating Sex Steroid Hormones and Liver Cancer Among Postmenopausal Women.

Hepatology 2020 08;72(2):535-547

Division of Medical Oncology, National Cancer Centre Singapore, Singapore.

Background And Aims: In almost all countries, incidence rates of liver cancer (LC) are 100%-200% higher in males than in females. However, this difference is predominantly driven by hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which accounts for 75% of LC cases. Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) accounts for 12% of cases and has rates only 30% higher in males. Hormones are hypothesized to underlie observed sex differences. We investigated whether prediagnostic circulating hormone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels were associated with LC risk, overall and by histology, by leveraging resources from five prospective cohorts.

Approach And Results: Seven sex steroid hormones and SHBG were quantitated using gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry and competitive electrochemiluminescence immunoassay, respectively, from baseline serum/plasma samples of 191 postmenopausal female LC cases (HCC, n = 83; ICC, n = 56) and 426 controls, matched on sex, cohort, age, race/ethnicity, and blood collection date. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between a one-unit increase in log hormone value (approximate doubling of circulating concentration) and LC were calculated using multivariable-adjusted conditional logistic regression. A doubling in the concentration of 4-androstenedione (4-dione) was associated with a 50% decreased LC risk (OR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.30-0.82), whereas SHBG was associated with a 31% increased risk (OR = 1.31; 95% CI = 1.05-1.63). Examining histology, a doubling of estradiol was associated with a 40% increased risk of ICC (OR = 1.40; 95% CI = 1.05-1.89), but not HCC (OR = 1.12; 95% CI = 0.81-1.54).

Conclusions: This study provides evidence that higher levels of 4-dione may be associated with lower, and SHBG with higher, LC risk in women. However, this study does not support the hypothesis that higher estrogen levels decrease LC risk. Indeed, estradiol may be associated with an increased ICC risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.31057DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7391790PMC
August 2020

Circulating Antibodies against Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) and p53 in EBV-Positive and -Negative Gastric Cancer.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2020 02 12;29(2):414-419. Epub 2019 Nov 12.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, Maryland.

Background: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive gastric cancers have clinicopathologic differences from EBV-negative tumors and lack mutation. Serologic profiles may inform viral contribution to carcinogenesis.

Methods: We compared humoral responses of EBV-positive ( = 67) and EBV-negative ( = 137) patients with gastric cancer from the International EBV-Gastric Cancer Consortium. Serum antibodies against four EBV proteins, nuclear (EBNA), viral capsid (VCA), early-diffuse (EA-D), and Zta replication activator (ZEBRA), and to p53 were assessed by multiplex assays. OR of antibody level tertiles (T1-T3) were adjusted by logistic regression. We also conducted a meta-analysis of reported anti-p53 seropositivity in gastric cancer.

Results: Consistent with EBV's ubiquity, 99% of patients were seropositive for anti-EBNA and 98% for anti-VCA, without difference by tumor EBV status. Seropositivity varied between patients with EBV-positive and EBV-negative tumors for anti-EA-D (97% vs. 67%, respectively, < 0.001) and anti-ZEBRA (97% vs. 85%, respectively, = 0.009). Adjusted ORs (vs. T1) for patients with EBV-positive versus EBV-negative tumors were significantly elevated for higher antibodies against EBNA (2.6 for T2 and 13 for T3), VCA (1.8 for T2 and 2.4 for T3), EA-D (6.0 for T2 and 44 for T3), and ZEBRA (4.6 for T2 and 12 for T3). Antibodies to p53 were inversely associated with EBV positivity (3% vs. 15%; adjusted OR = 0.16, = 0.021). Anti-p53 prevalence from the literature was 15%.

Conclusions: These serologic patterns suggest viral reactivation in EBV-positive cancers and identify variation of p53 seropositivity by subtype.

Impact: Anti-EBV and anti-p53 antibodies are differentially associated with tumor EBV positivity. Serology may identify EBV-positive gastric cancer for targeted therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-19-0790DOI Listing
February 2020

Abdominal and gluteofemoral size and risk of liver cancer: The liver cancer pooling project.

Int J Cancer 2020 08 23;147(3):675-685. Epub 2019 Dec 23.

Behavioral and Epidemiology Research Group, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA.

Obesity is known to be associated with primary liver cancer (PLC), but the separate effects of excess abdominal and gluteofemoral size are unclear. Thus, we examined the association between waist and hip circumference with risk of PLC overall and by histologic type-hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). The Liver Cancer Pooling Project is a consortium of prospective cohort studies that include data from 1,167,244 individuals (PLC n = 2,208, HCC n = 1,154, ICC n = 335). Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using proportional hazards regression. Waist circumference, per 5 cm increase, was associated with an 11% increased PLC risk (HR = 1.11, 95%CI: 1.09-1.14), including when adjusted for hip circumference (HR = 1.12, 95%CI: 1.08-1.17) and also when restricted to individuals in a normal body mass index (BMI) range (18.5 to <25 kg/m ; HR = 1.14, 95%CI: 1.07-1.21). Hip circumference, per 5 cm increase, was associated with a 9% increased PLC risk (HR = 1.09, 95%CI: 1.06-1.12), but no association remained after adjustment for waist circumference (HR = 0.99, 95%CI: 0.94-1.03). HCC and ICC results were similar. These findings suggest that excess abdominal size is associated with an increased risk of liver cancer, even among individuals considered to have a normal BMI. However, excess gluteofemoral size alone confers no increased risk. Our findings extend prior analyses, which found an association between excess adiposity and risk of liver cancer, by disentangling the separate effects of excess abdominal and gluteofemoral size through utilization of both waist and hip circumference measurements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.32760DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7391795PMC
August 2020

Association of lifestyle and clinical characteristics with receipt of radiotherapy treatment among women diagnosed with DCIS in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study.

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2020 Jan 17;179(2):445-457. Epub 2019 Oct 17.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Purpose: The long-term risks and benefits of radiotherapy for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) remain unclear. Recent data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) registries showed that DCIS-associated radiotherapy treatment significantly increased risk of second non-breast cancers including lung cancer. To help understand those observations and whether breast cancer risk factors are related to radiotherapy treatment decision-making, we examined associations between lifestyle and clinical factors with DCIS radiotherapy receipt.

Methods: Among 1628 participants from the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, diagnosed with incident DCIS (1995-2011), we examined associations between lifestyle and clinical factors with radiotherapy receipt. Radiotherapy and clinical information were ascertained from state cancer registries. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for radiotherapy receipt (yes/no) were estimated from multivariable logistic regression.

Results: Overall, 45% (n = 730) received radiotherapy. No relationships were observed for most lifestyle factors and radiotherapy receipt, including current smoking (OR 0.97, 95%CI 0.70, 1.34). However positive associations were observed for moderate alcohol consumption and infrequent physical activity. The strongest associations were observed for radiotherapy receipt and more recent diagnoses (2005-2011 vs. 1995-1999; OR 1.60, 95%CI 1.14, 2.25), poorly versus well-differentiated tumors (OR 1.69, 95%CI 1.16, 2.46) and endocrine therapy (OR 3.37, 95%CI 2.56, 4.44).

Conclusions: Clinical characteristics were the strongest determinants of DCIS radiotherapy. Receipt was largely unrelated to lifestyle factors suggesting that the previously observed associations in SEER were likely not confounded by these lifestyle factors. Further studies are needed to understand mechanisms driving radiotherapy-associated second malignancies following DCIS, to identify prevention opportunities for this growing population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10549-019-05436-0DOI Listing
January 2020

Diabetes in relation to Barrett's esophagus and adenocarcinomas of the esophagus: A pooled study from the International Barrett's and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Consortium.

Cancer 2019 12 6;125(23):4210-4223. Epub 2019 Sep 6.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland.

Background: Diabetes is positively associated with various cancers, but its relationship with tumors of the esophagus/esophagogastric junction remains unclear.

Methods: Data were harmonized across 13 studies in the International Barrett's and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Consortium, comprising 2309 esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) cases, 1938 esophagogastric junction adenocarcinoma (EGJA) cases, 1728 Barrett's esophagus (BE) cases, and 16,354 controls. Logistic regression was used to estimate study-specific odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs for self-reported diabetes in association with EA, EGJA, and BE. Adjusted ORs were then combined using random-effects meta-analysis.

Results: Diabetes was associated with a 34% increased risk of EA (OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.00-1.80; I  = 48.8% [where 0% indicates no heterogeneity, and larger values indicate increasing heterogeneity between studies]), 27% for EGJA (OR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.05-1.55; I  = 0.0%), and 30% for EA/EGJA combined (OR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.06-1.58; I  = 34.9%). Regurgitation symptoms modified the diabetes-EA/EGJA association (P for interaction = .04) with a 63% increased risk among participants with regurgitation (OR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.19-2.22), but not among those without regurgitation (OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.74-1.43). No consistent association was found between diabetes and BE.

Conclusions: Diabetes was associated with increased EA and EGJA risk, which was confined to individuals with regurgitation symptoms. Lack of an association between diabetes and BE suggests that diabetes may influence progression of BE to cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.32444DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7001889PMC
December 2019

Pre-diagnosis body mass index, physical activity and ovarian cancer mortality.

Gynecol Oncol 2019 10 2;155(1):105-111. Epub 2019 Aug 2.

Division of Public Health Sciences, Department of Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States of America. Electronic address:

Background: Ovarian cancer is the deadliest gynecologic malignancy, yet the effects on survival of modifiable pre-diagnosis lifestyle factors, such as obesity and physical activity, remain largely unexplored. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of pre-diagnosis BMI and physical activity on ovarian cancer mortality using prospectively collected data.

Methods: Data on women who developed ovarian cancer after enrollment into the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study were analyzed. Cancer incidence was ascertained through linkage state cancer registries and consisted of 741 cases of epithelial ovarian cancer.

Results: Higher pre-diagnosis BMI was associated with increased overall and ovarian cancer-specific mortality. Comparing women with BMI 25-29.9, 30-34.9 and ≥ 35 to normal weight women, the HRs of overall mortality were 1.18 (95%CI 0.96-1.45), 1.05 (0.82-1.36) and 1.59 (1.14-2.18, p-trend = 0.02). The findings were similar for ovarian cancer-specific mortality comparing women with BMI ≥ 35 to normal weight women (BMI <25) with a HR of 1.47 (95%CI 1.03-2.09, p-trend 0.08). Pre-diagnosis physical activity was not associated with mortality, with HRs for overall mortality of 1.06 (95%CI 0.79-1.43), 0.94 (0.72-1.23), 0.98 (0.76-1.25), and 0.98 (0.75-1.28, p-trend = 0.91), comparing women who engaged in vigorous physical activity 1-3 times/month, 1-2 times/week, 3-4 times/week and 5 times/week, respectively, with those who never/rarely engaged in such activity.

Conclusions: Women who were obese before developing ovarian cancer had increased mortality than those who were normal weight, but physical activity before diagnosis was not associated with mortality in this study population. These results suggest that maintaining a healthy weight is a powerful preventative tool.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2019.07.025DOI Listing
October 2019

Substitution of dietary protein sources in relation to colorectal cancer risk in the NIH-AARP cohort study.

Cancer Causes Control 2019 Oct 20;30(10):1127-1135. Epub 2019 Jul 20.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Purpose: To evaluate the substitution effect of plant for animal protein with risk of CRC in the large prospective National Institutes of Health-AARP cohort study.

Methods: Protein intake was assessed at baseline using a food frequency questionnaire. HRs and 95% CIs were estimated using multivariable adjusted hazard ratios from Cox proportional hazards models. We used a substitution model with total protein intake held constant, so that an increase in plant protein was offset by an equal decrease in animal protein.

Results: Among 489,625 individuals, we identified 8,995 incident CRCs after a median follow-up of 15.5 years. Substituting plant protein for animal protein was associated with a reduced risk of CRC (HR for highest vs. lowest fifth 0.91; 95% CI 0.83-0.99). This reduction in CRC risk appeared to be primarily due to substituting plant protein for red meat protein (HR 0.89; 95% CI 0.81-0.97), not white meat protein (HR 0.96; 95% CI 0.88-1.05) or other animal protein (HR 0.94; 95% CI 0.86-1.03). When further evaluated by source, reduction in CRC risk was limited to the substitution of protein from bread, cereal, and pasta for red meat protein (HR 0.86; 95% CI 0.80-0.93); this association was stronger for distal colon (HR 0.78; 95% CI 0.67-0.90) and rectal cancer (HR 0.79; 95% CI 0.68-0.91) but null for proximal colon (HR 0.99; 95% CI 0.88-1.11).

Conclusions: This study shows that substituting plant protein for animal protein, especially red meat protein, is associated with a reduced risk of CRC, and suggests that protein source impacts CRC risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10552-019-01210-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6736766PMC
October 2019

Smoking, Alcohol, and Biliary Tract Cancer Risk: A Pooling Project of 26 Prospective Studies.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2019 12;111(12):1263-1278

Background: Tobacco and alcohol are well-established risk factors for numerous cancers, yet their relationship to biliary tract cancers remains unclear.

Methods: We pooled data from 26 prospective studies to evaluate associations of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption with biliary tract cancer risk. Study-specific hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations with smoking and alcohol consumption were calculated. Random-effects meta-analysis produced summary estimates. All statistical tests were two-sided.

Results: Over a period of 38 369 156 person-years of follow-up, 1391 gallbladder, 758 intrahepatic bile duct, 1208 extrahepatic bile duct, and 623 ampulla of Vater cancer cases were identified. Ever, former, and current smoking were associated with increased extrahepatic bile duct and ampulla of Vater cancers risk (eg, current vs never smokers HR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.34 to 2.13 and 2.22, 95% CI = 1.69 to 2.92, respectively), with dose-response effects for smoking pack-years, duration, and intensity (all Ptrend < .01). Current smoking and smoking intensity were also associated with intrahepatic bile duct cancer (eg, >40 cigarettes per day vs never smokers HR = 2.15, 95 % CI = 1.15 to 4.00; Ptrend = .001). No convincing association was observed between smoking and gallbladder cancer. Alcohol consumption was only associated with intrahepatic bile duct cancer, with increased risk for individuals consuming five or more vs zero drinks per day (HR = 2.35, 95%CI = 1.46 to 3.78; Ptrend = .04). There was evidence of statistical heterogeneity among several cancer sites, particularly between gallbladder cancer and the other biliary tract cancers.

Conclusions: Smoking appears to increase the risk of developing all biliary tract cancers except gallbladder cancer. Alcohol may increase the risk of intrahepatic bile duct cancer. Findings highlight etiologic heterogeneity across the biliary tract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djz103DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6910180PMC
December 2019

Anthropometric Risk Factors for Cancers of the Biliary Tract in the Biliary Tract Cancers Pooling Project.

Cancer Res 2019 08 21;79(15):3973-3982. Epub 2019 May 21.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Indiana University Bloomington, Bloomington, Indiana.

Biliary tract cancers are rare but highly fatal with poorly understood etiology. Identifying potentially modifiable risk factors for these cancers is essential for prevention. Here we estimated the relationship between adiposity and cancer across the biliary tract, including cancers of the gallbladder (GBC), intrahepatic bile ducts (IHBDC), extrahepatic bile ducts (EHBDC), and the ampulla of Vater (AVC). We pooled data from 27 prospective cohorts with over 2.7 million adults. Adiposity was measured using baseline body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip, and waist-to-height ratios. HRs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for sex, education, race, smoking, and alcohol consumption with age as the time metric and the baseline hazard stratified by study. During 37,883,648 person-years of follow-up, 1,343 GBC cases, 1,194 EHBDC cases, 784 IHBDC cases, and 623 AVC cases occurred. For each 5 kg/m increase in BMI, there were risk increases for GBC (HR = 1.27; 95% CI, 1.19-1.36), IHBDC (HR = 1.32; 95% CI, 1.21-1.45), and EHBDC (HR = 1.13; 95% CI, 1.03-1.23), but not AVC (HR = 0.99; 95% CI, 0.88-1.11). Increasing waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, and waist-to-height ratio were associated with GBC and IHBDC but not EHBDC or AVC. These results indicate that adult adiposity is associated with an increased risk of biliary tract cancer, particularly GBC and IHBDC. Moreover, they provide evidence for recommending weight maintenance programs to reduce the risk of developing these cancers. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings identify a correlation between adiposity and biliary tract cancers, indicating that weight management programs may help minimize the risk of these diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-19-0459DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6759233PMC
August 2019

Potato consumption and the risk of overall and cause specific mortality in the NIH-AARP study.

PLoS One 2019 7;14(5):e0216348. Epub 2019 May 7.

Metabolic Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, United States of America.

Background: Potato consumption has been hypothesized to be associated with higher risk of hypertension, diabetes, and colorectal cancer.

Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the association between potato consumption and the risk of overall and cause specific mortality in the large prospective National Institutes of Health-AARP (NIH-AARP) Study.

Design: The NIH-AARP study recruited 566,407 persons, aged 50-72 years in 1995-1996. We excluded subjects that reported a history of chronic disease at baseline. Potato consumption data from a validated food frequency questionnaire completed at baseline was used in Cox proportional hazard models to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for overall and cause specific mortality. Final models were adjusted for potential risk factors for mortality.

Results: Among 410,701 participants included in this analysis, 76,921 persons died during the 15.6 years of follow-up. Eating baked, boiled, or mashed potatoes, French fries or potato salad seven or more times per week was associated with higher risk of overall mortality, in models adjusted only for age and sex (HR C4 vs C1 = 1.17, 95%CI = 1.13, 1.21). These results were attenuated in fully adjusted models (HR C4 vs C1 = 1.02, 95%CI = 0.97, 1.06). Potato consumption was not associated with risk of mortality caused by cancer (HR C4 vs C1 = 1.04, 95%CI = 0.97, 1.11), heart disease (HR C4 vs C1 = 1.00, 95%CI = 0.93, 1.09), respiratory disease (HR C4 vs C1 = 1.16, 95%CI = 0.99, 1.37), or diabetes (HR C4 vs C1 = 0.91, 95%CI = 0.71, 1.19). We tested for an association with different preparation methods and found limited evidence for differences by preparation method. The only statistically significant association was that for French fry consumption with cancer-related mortality (HR C4 vs C1 = 1.27, 95%CI = 1.02, 1.59), a finding for which uncontrolled confounding could not be ruled out.

Conclusion: We find little evidence that potato consumption is associated with all-cause or cause-specific mortality.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0216348PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6504095PMC
January 2020