Publications by authors named "Linda J B Jeng"

7 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Genetic Variants Associated With Unexplained Sudden Cardiac Death in Adult White and African American Individuals.

JAMA Cardiol 2021 09;6(9):1013-1022

CVPath Institute, Gaithersburg, Maryland.

Importance: Unexplained sudden cardiac death (SCD) describes SCD with no cause identified. Genetic testing helps to diagnose inherited cardiac diseases in unexplained SCD; however, the associations between pathogenic or likely pathogenic (P/LP) variants of inherited cardiomyopathies (CMs) and arrhythmia syndromes and the risk of unexplained SCD in both White and African American adults living the United States has never been systematically examined.

Objective: To investigate cases of unexplained SCD to determine the frequency of P/LP genetic variants of inherited CMs and arrhythmia syndromes.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This genetic association study included 683 African American and White adults who died of unexplained SCD and were included in an autopsy registry. Overall, 413 individuals had DNA of acceptable quality for genetic sequencing. Data were collected from January 1995 to December 2015. A total of 30 CM genes and 38 arrhythmia genes were sequenced, and variants in these genes, curated as P/LP, were examined to study their frequency. Data analysis was performed from June 2018 to March 2021.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The frequency of P/LP variants for CM or arrhythmia in individuals with unexplained SCD.

Results: The median (interquartile range) age at death of the 413 included individuals was 41 (29-48) years, 259 (62.7%) were men, and 208 (50.4%) were African American adults. A total of 76 patients (18.4%) with unexplained SCD carried variants considered P/LP for CM and arrhythmia genes. In total, 52 patients (12.6%) had 49 P/LP variants for CM, 22 (5.3%) carried 23 P/LP variants for arrhythmia, and 2 (0.5%) had P/LP variants for both CM and arrhythmia. Overall, 41 P/LP variants for hypertrophic CM were found in 45 patients (10.9%), 9 P/LP variants for dilated CM were found in 11 patients (2.7%), and 10 P/LP variants for long QT syndrome were found in 11 patients (2.7%). No significant difference was found in clinical and heart characteristics between individuals with or without P/LP variants. African American and White patients were equally likely to harbor P/LP variants.

Conclusions And Relevance: In this large genetic association study of community cases of unexplained SCD, nearly 20% of patients carried P/LP variants, suggesting that genetics may contribute to a significant number of cases of unexplained SCD. Our findings regarding both the association of unexplained SCD with CM genes and race-specific genetic variants suggest new avenues of study for this poorly understood entity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamacardio.2021.1573DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8173469PMC
September 2021

Multisite Investigation of Strategies for the Implementation of CYP2C19 Genotype-Guided Antiplatelet Therapy.

Clin Pharmacol Ther 2018 10 30;104(4):664-674. Epub 2018 Jan 30.

Division of Pharmacotherapy and Experimental Therapeutics, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.

CYP2C19 genotype-guided antiplatelet therapy following percutaneous coronary intervention is increasingly implemented in clinical practice. However, challenges such as selecting a testing platform, communicating test results, building clinical decision support processes, providing patient and provider education, and integrating methods to support the translation of emerging evidence to clinical practice are barriers to broad adoption. In this report, we compare and contrast implementation strategies of 12 early adopters, describing solutions to common problems and initial performance metrics for each program. Key differences between programs included the test result turnaround time and timing of therapy changes, which are both related to the CYP2C19 testing model and platform used. Sites reported the need for new informatics infrastructure, expert clinicians such as pharmacists to interpret results, physician champions, and ongoing education. Consensus lessons learned are presented to provide a path forward for those seeking to implement similar clinical pharmacogenomics programs within their institutions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpt.1006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6019555PMC
October 2018

Asparaginase Erwinia chrysanthemi effectively depletes plasma glutamine in adult patients with relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia.

Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2018 01 8;81(1):217-222. Epub 2017 Nov 8.

University of Maryland Greenebaum Comprehensive Cancer Center, Baltimore, USA.

Depletion of glutamine (Gln) has emerged as a potential therapeutic approach in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), as neoplastic cells require Gln for synthesis of cellular components essential for survival. Asparaginases deplete Gln, and asparaginase derived from Erwinia chrysanthemi (Erwinaze) appears to have the greatest glutaminase activity of the available asparaginases. In this Phase I study, we sought to determine the dose of Erwinaze that safely and effectively depletes plasma Gln levels to ≤ 120 μmol/L in patients with relapsed or refractory (R/R) AML. Five patients were enrolled before the study was halted due to issues with Erwinaze manufacturing supply. All patients received Erwinaze at a dose of 25,000 IU/m intravenously three times weekly for 2 weeks. Median trough plasma Gln level at 48 h after initial Erwinaze administration was 27.6 μmol/L, and 80% (lower limit of 1-sided 95% CI 34%) of patients achieved at least one undetectable plasma Gln value (< 12.5 μmol/L), with the fold reduction (FR) in Gln level at 3 days, relative to baseline, being 0.16 (p < 0.001 for rejecting FR = 1). No dose-limiting toxicities were identified. Two patients responded, one achieved partial remission and one achieved hematologic improvement after six doses of Erwinaze monotherapy. These data suggest asparaginase-induced Gln depletion may have an important role in the management of patients with AML, and support more pharmacologic and clinical studies on the mechanistically designed asparaginase combinations in AML.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00280-017-3459-6DOI Listing
January 2018

Multisite Investigation of Outcomes With Implementation of CYP2C19 Genotype-Guided Antiplatelet Therapy After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2018 01 1;11(2):181-191. Epub 2017 Nov 1.

Department of Medicine, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland.

Objectives: This multicenter pragmatic investigation assessed outcomes following clinical implementation of CYP2C19 genotype-guided antiplatelet therapy after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Background: CYP2C19 loss-of-function alleles impair clopidogrel effectiveness after PCI.

Methods: After clinical genotyping, each institution recommended alternative antiplatelet therapy (prasugrel, ticagrelor) in PCI patients with a loss-of-function allele. Major adverse cardiovascular events (defined as myocardial infarction, stroke, or death) within 12 months of PCI were compared between patients with a loss-of-function allele prescribed clopidogrel versus alternative therapy. Risk was also compared between patients without a loss-of-function allele and loss-of-function allele carriers prescribed alternative therapy. Cox regression was performed, adjusting for group differences with inverse probability of treatment weights.

Results: Among 1,815 patients, 572 (31.5%) had a loss-of-function allele. The risk for major adverse cardiovascular events was significantly higher in patients with a loss-of-function allele prescribed clopidogrel versus alternative therapy (23.4 vs. 8.7 per 100 patient-years; adjusted hazard ratio: 2.26; 95% confidence interval: 1.18 to 4.32; p = 0.013). Similar results were observed among 1,210 patients with acute coronary syndromes at the time of PCI (adjusted hazard ratio: 2.87; 95% confidence interval: 1.35 to 6.09; p = 0.013). There was no difference in major adverse cardiovascular events between patients without a loss-of-function allele and loss-of-function allele carriers prescribed alternative therapy (adjusted hazard ratio: 1.14; 95% confidence interval: 0.69 to 1.88; p = 0.60).

Conclusions: These data from real-world observations demonstrate a higher risk for cardiovascular events in patients with a CYP2C19 loss-of-function allele if clopidogrel versus alternative therapy is prescribed. A future randomized study of genotype-guided antiplatelet therapy may be of value.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcin.2017.07.022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5775044PMC
January 2018

Novel interstitial 2.6 Mb deletion on 9q21 associated with multiple congenital anomalies.

Am J Med Genet A 2014 Jan;164A(1):237-42

Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) is now commonly used to identify copy number changes in individuals with developmental delay, intellectual disabilities, autism spectrum disorders, and/or multiple congenital anomalies. We report on an infant with multiple congenital anomalies and a novel 2.6 Mb interstitial deletion within 9q21.32q21.33 detected by aCGH. Her clinical presentation included dysmorphic craniofacial features, cleft palate, atrial septal defect, bicornuate uterus, bilateral hip dislocation, hypotonia, and recurrent pneumonia. Parental aCGH studies were negative for copy loss in this region. To our knowledge, no similar deletions have been reported in available databases or published literature. This deletion encompasses 12 genes, and prediction algorithms as well as experimental data suggest that a subset is likely to be haploinsufficient. Included are a neurotrophin receptor (NKG2D), a gene implicated in cilia function (KIF27), an adaptor protein important for ubiquitin-dependent protein quality control (UBQLN1), a gene important for transcription and signaling (HNRNPK), and a gene involved in maintaining genomic stability (RMI1). Identifying additional patients with similar copy losses and further study of these genes will contribute to a better understanding of the pathophysiology of multiple congenital anomalies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.36230DOI Listing
January 2014

Lipodermoid in a patient with Emanuel syndrome.

J AAPOS 2013 Apr 22;17(2):211-3. Epub 2013 Mar 22.

Department of Ophthalmology, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA.

We report an 8-month-old boy with Emanuel syndrome who also had the clinical features of Goldenhar syndrome. At birth, he was observed to have bilateral microtia with multiple auricular pits, retrognathia, and a unilateral lipodermoid. Further testing revealed cardiac defects. The finding of a lipodermoid in Emanuel syndrome demonstrates phenotypic overlap between Goldenhar and Emanuel syndromes and suggests a role for genetic analysis in all patients with clinical features that include ear anomalies and lipodermoids. Correct identification of patients with Emanuel syndrome is important for determining whether there is risk of long-term neurodevelopmental disability, and genetic testing can determine parental carrier status to aid in family planning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaapos.2012.11.011DOI Listing
April 2013

2p16.3 microdeletion with partial deletion of the neurexin-1 gene in a female with developmental delays, short stature, and a congenital diaphragmatic hernia.

Clin Dysmorphol 2013 Jan;22(1):22-4

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Genetics, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143-0748, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCD.0b013e32835b8df2DOI Listing
January 2013
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