Publications by authors named "Linda Drury"

5 Publications

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Providing Intensive Palliative Care on an Inpatient Unit: A Full-Time Job.

J Adv Pract Oncol 2016 Jan-Feb;7(1):60-64. Epub 2016 Jan 1.

Dana-Farber Cancer Institute/Brigham and Women's Hospital, Palliative Care Unit, Boston, Massachusetts.

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January 2016

Establishment of antitumor memory in humans using in vitro-educated CD8+ T cells.

Sci Transl Med 2011 Apr;3(80):80ra34

Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 450 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, USA.

Although advanced-stage melanoma patients have a median survival of less than a year, adoptive T cell therapy can induce durable clinical responses in some patients. Successful adoptive T cell therapy to treat cancer requires engraftment of antitumor T lymphocytes that not only retain specificity and function in vivo but also display an intrinsic capacity to survive. To date, adoptively transferred antitumor CD8(+) T lymphocytes (CTLs) have had limited life spans unless the host has been manipulated. To generate CTLs that have an intrinsic capacity to persist in vivo, we developed a human artificial antigen-presenting cell system that can educate antitumor CTLs to acquire both a central memory and an effector memory phenotype as well as the capacity to survive in culture for prolonged periods of time. We examined whether antitumor CTLs generated using this system could function and persist in patients. We showed that MART1-specific CTLs, educated and expanded using our artificial antigen-presenting cell system, could survive for prolonged periods in advanced-stage melanoma patients without previous conditioning or cytokine treatment. Moreover, these CTLs trafficked to the tumor, mediated biological and clinical responses, and established antitumor immunologic memory. Therefore, this approach may broaden the availability of adoptive cell therapy to patients both alone and in combination with other therapeutic modalities.
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April 2011

CpG oligodeoxynucleotides alter lymphocyte and dendritic cell trafficking in humans.

Clin Cancer Res 2008 Sep;14(17):5626-34

Department of Hematology/Oncology, Children's Hospital, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

Purpose: CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODN) are being investigated as cancer vaccine adjuvants because they mature plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDC) into potent antigen-presenting cells. CpG-ODN also induce PDC to secrete chemokines that alter lymphocyte migration. Whether CpG-ODN TLR signals enhance antigen-specific immunity and/or trafficking in humans is unknown.

Experimental Design: We conducted a phase I study of CpG-ODN (1018 ISS) given as a vaccine adjuvant with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) to induce T-cell immunity to a peptide vaccine from the tumor-associated antigen hTERT.

Results: The adjuvant effect was limited; only 1 of 16 patients showed a high-frequency hTERT-specific tetramer CD8(+) T-cell response. However, CpG-ODN induced marked, transient peripheral blood lymphopenia. Biopsies showed dense lymphocytic infiltration at the vaccine site clustered around activated PDC. In vitro, CpG-ODN-treated PDC induced T-cell migration, showing that CpG-ODN stimulation of human PDC was sufficient to chemoattract T cells.

Conclusions: Our results show that (a) CpG-ODN with GM-CSF may not be an effective adjuvant strategy for hTERT peptide vaccines but (b) GM-CSF/CpG-ODN causes a PDC-mediated chemokine response that recruits T-cell migration to the peripheral tissues. These findings suggest a novel therapeutic role for targeted injections of CpG-ODN to direct lymphocyte migration to specific sites such as the tumor bed.
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September 2008

High-throughput gene expression profiling of memory differentiation in primary human T cells.

BMC Immunol 2008 Aug 1;9:44. Epub 2008 Aug 1.

Department of Pediatric Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 44 Binney Street, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

Background: The differentiation of naive T and B cells into memory lymphocytes is essential for immunity to pathogens. Therapeutic manipulation of this cellular differentiation program could improve vaccine efficacy and the in vitro expansion of memory cells. However, chemical screens to identify compounds that induce memory differentiation have been limited by 1) the lack of reporter-gene or functional assays that can distinguish naive and memory-phenotype T cells at high throughput and 2) a suitable cell-line representative of naive T cells.

Results: Here, we describe a method for gene-expression based screening that allows primary naive and memory-phenotype lymphocytes to be discriminated based on complex genes signatures corresponding to these differentiation states. We used ligation-mediated amplification and a fluorescent, bead-based detection system to quantify simultaneously 55 transcripts representing naive and memory-phenotype signatures in purified populations of human T cells. The use of a multi-gene panel allowed better resolution than any constituent single gene. The method was precise, correlated well with Affymetrix microarray data, and could be easily scaled up for high-throughput.

Conclusion: This method provides a generic solution for high-throughput differentiation screens in primary human T cells where no single-gene or functional assay is available. This screening platform will allow the identification of small molecules, genes or soluble factors that direct memory differentiation in naive human lymphocytes.
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August 2008

Long-lived antitumor CD8+ lymphocytes for adoptive therapy generated using an artificial antigen-presenting cell.

Clin Cancer Res 2007 Mar;13(6):1857-67

Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

Purpose: Antitumor lymphocytes can be generated ex vivo unencumbered by immunoregulation found in vivo. Adoptive transfer of these cells is a promising therapeutic modality that could establish long-term antitumor immunity. However, the widespread use of adoptive therapy has been hampered by the difficulty of consistently generating potent antitumor lymphocytes in a timely manner for every patient. To overcome this, we sought to establish a clinical grade culture system that can reproducibly generate antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL).

Experimental Design: We created an off-the-shelf, standardized, and renewable artificial antigen-presenting cell (aAPC) line that coexpresses HLA class I, CD54, CD58, CD80, and the dendritic cell maturation marker CD83. We tested the ability of aAPC to generate tumor antigen-specific CTL under optimal culture conditions. The number, phenotype, effector function, and in vitro longevity of generated CTL were determined.

Results: Stimulation of CD8(+) T cells with peptide-pulsed aAPC generated large numbers of functional CTL that recognized a variety of tumor antigens. These CTLs, which possess a phenotype consistent with in vivo persistence, survived ex vivo for prolonged periods of time. Clinical grade aAPC(33), produced under current Good Manufacturing Practices guidelines, generated sufficient numbers of CTL within a short period of time. These CTL specifically lysed a variety of melanoma tumor lines naturally expressing a target melanoma antigen. Furthermore, antitumor CTL were easily generated in all melanoma patients examined.

Conclusions: With clinical grade aAPC(33) in hand, we are now poised for clinical translation of ex vivo generated antitumor CTL for adoptive cell transfer.
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March 2007