Publications by authors named "Linda Andes"

19 Publications

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Trends in Nontraumatic Lower-Extremity Amputation Among Privately Insured Adults With Diabetes in the U.S., 2004-2018.

Diabetes Care 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Division of Diabetes Translation, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc21-0072DOI Listing
April 2021

Trends in the incidence of diagnosed diabetes: a multicountry analysis of aggregate data from 22 million diagnoses in high-income and middle-income settings.

Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2021 04 23;9(4):203-211. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Science Programs Department, Kaiser Permanente Center for Health Research, Portland, OR, USA.

Background: Diabetes prevalence is increasing in most places in the world, but prevalence is affected by both risk of developing diabetes and survival of those with diabetes. Diabetes incidence is a better metric to understand the trends in population risk of diabetes. Using a multicountry analysis, we aimed to ascertain whether the incidence of clinically diagnosed diabetes has changed over time.

Methods: In this multicountry data analysis, we assembled aggregated data describing trends in diagnosed total or type 2 diabetes incidence from 24 population-based data sources in 21 countries or jurisdictions. Data were from administrative sources, health insurance records, registries, and a health survey. We modelled incidence rates with Poisson regression, using age and calendar time (1995-2018) as variables, describing the effects with restricted cubic splines with six knots for age and calendar time.

Findings: Our data included about 22 million diabetes diagnoses from 5 billion person-years of follow-up. Data were from 19 high-income and two middle-income countries or jurisdictions. 23 data sources had data from 2010 onwards, among which 19 had a downward or stable trend, with an annual estimated change in incidence ranging from -1·1% to -10·8%. Among the four data sources with an increasing trend from 2010 onwards, the annual estimated change ranged from 0·9% to 5·6%. The findings were robust to sensitivity analyses excluding data sources in which the data quality was lower and were consistent in analyses stratified by different diabetes definitions.

Interpretation: The incidence of diagnosed diabetes is stabilising or declining in many high-income countries. The reasons for the declines in the incidence of diagnosed diabetes warrant further investigation with appropriate data sources.

Funding: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Diabetes Australia Research Program, and Victoria State Government Operational Infrastructure Support Program.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2213-8587(20)30402-2DOI Listing
April 2021

National and State-Level Trends in Nontraumatic Lower-Extremity Amputation Among U.S. Medicare Beneficiaries With Diabetes, 2000-2017.

Diabetes Care 2020 10 28;43(10):2453-2459. Epub 2020 Jul 28.

Division of Diabetes Translation, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA.

Objective: Diabetes is a leading cause of nontraumatic lower-extremity amputation (NLEA) in the U.S. After a period of decline, some national U.S. data have shown that diabetes-related NLEAs have recently increased, particularly among young and middle-aged adults. However, the trend for older adults is less clear.

Research Design And Methods: To examine NLEA trends among older adults with diabetes (≥67 years), we used 100% Medicare claims for beneficiaries enrolled in Parts A and B, also known as fee for service (FFS). NLEA was defined as the highest-level amputation per patient per calendar year. Annual NLEA rates were estimated from 2000 to 2017 and stratified by age-group, sex, race/ethnicity, NLEA level (toe, foot, below-the-knee amputation [BKA], or above-the-knee amputation [AKA]), and state. All rates were age and sex standardized to the 2000 Medicare population. Trends over time were assessed using Joinpoint regression and annual percent change (APC) reported.

Results: NLEA rates (per 1,000 people with diabetes) decreased by half from 8.5 in 2000 to 4.4 in 2009 (APC -7.9, < 0.001). However, from 2009 onward, NLEA rates increased to 4.8 (APC 1.2, < 0.01). Trends were similar across most age, sex, and race/ethnic groups, but absolute rates were highest in the oldest age-groups, Blacks, and men. By NLEA type, overall increases were driven by increases in rates of toe and foot NLEAs, while BKA and AKA continued to decline. The majority of U.S. states showed recent increases in NLEA, similar to national estimates.

Conclusions: This study of the U.S. Medicare FFS population shows that recent increases in diabetes-related NLEAs are also occurring in older populations but at a less severe rate than among younger adults (<65 years) in the general population. Preventive foot care has been shown to reduce rates of NLEA among adults with diabetes, and the findings of the study suggest that those with diabetes-across the age spectrum-could benefit from increased attention to this strategy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc20-0586DOI Listing
October 2020

Prevalence of Prediabetes Among Adolescents and Young Adults in the United States, 2005-2016.

JAMA Pediatr 2020 02 3;174(2):e194498. Epub 2020 Feb 3.

National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Diabetes Translation, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Importance: Individuals with prediabetes are at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and cardiovascular disease. The incidence and prevalence of type 2 diabetes in the US adolescent population have increased in the last decade. Therefore, it is important to monitor the prevalence of prediabetes and varying levels of glucose tolerance to assess the future risk of type 2 diabetes in the youngest segment of the population.

Objective: To examine the prevalence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and increased glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels in US adolescents (aged 12-18 years) and young adults (aged 19-34 years) without diabetes.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This cross-sectional analyses of the 2005-2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey assessed a population-based sample of adolescents and young adults who were not pregnant, did not have diabetes, and had measured fasting plasma glucose, 2-hour plasma glucose after a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test, and HbA1c levels. Analysis began in April 2017.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Impaired fasting glucose was defined as fasting plasma glucose of 100 mg/dL to less than 126 mg/dL, IGT as 2-hour plasma glucose of 140 mg/dL to less than 200 mg/dL, and increased HbA1c level as HbA1c level between 5.7% and 6.4%. The prevalence of IFG, isolated IFG, IGT, isolated IGT, increased HbA1c level, isolated increased HbA1c level, and prediabetes (defined as having IFG, IGT, or increased HbA1c level) were estimated. Fasting insulin levels and cardiometabolic risk factors across glycemic abnormality phenotypes were also compared. Obesity was defined as having age- and sex-specific body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) in the 95th percentile or higher in adolescents or 30 or higher in young adults.

Results: Of 5786 individuals, 2606 (45%) were adolescents and 3180 (55%) were young adults. Of adolescents, 50.6% (95% CI, 47.6%-53.6%) were boys, and 50.6% (95% CI, 48.8%-52.4%) of young adults were men. Among adolescents, the prevalence of prediabetes was 18.0% (95% CI, 16.0%-20.1%) and among young adults was 24.0% (95% CI, 22.0%-26.1%). Impaired fasting glucose constituted the largest proportion of prediabetes, with prevalence of 11.1% (95% CI, 9.5%-13.0%) in adolescents and 15.8% (95% CI, 14.0%-17.9%) in young adults. In multivariable logistic models including age, sex, race/ethnicity, and body mass index, the predictive marginal prevalence of prediabetes was significantly higher in male than in female individuals (22.5% [95% CI, 19.5%-25.4%] vs 13.4% [95% CI, 10.8%-16.5%] in adolescents and 29.1% [95% CI, 26.4%-32.1%] vs 18.8% [95% CI, 16.5%-21.3%] in young adults). Prediabetes prevalence was significantly higher in individuals with obesity than in those with normal weight (25.7% [95% CI, 20.0%-32.4%] vs 16.4% [95% CI, 14.3%-18.7%] in adolescents and 36.9% [95% CI, 32.9%-41.1%] vs 16.6% [95% CI, 14.2%-19.4%] in young adults). Compared with persons with normal glucose tolerance, adolescents and young adults with prediabetes had significantly higher non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, systolic blood pressure, central adiposity, and lower insulin sensitivity (P < .05 for all).

Conclusions And Relevance: In the United States, about 1 of 5 adolescents and 1 of 4 young adults have prediabetes. The adjusted prevalence of prediabetes is higher in male individuals and in people with obesity. Adolescents and young adults with prediabetes also present an unfavorable cardiometabolic risk profile, putting them both at increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2019.4498DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6902249PMC
February 2020

Diabetes Prevalence and Incidence Among Medicare Beneficiaries - United States, 2001-2015.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2019 Nov 1;68(43):961-966. Epub 2019 Nov 1.

Diabetes affects approximately 12% of the U.S. adult population and approximately 25% of adults aged ≥65 years. From 2009 to 2017, there was no significant change in diabetes prevalence overall or among persons aged 65-79 years (1). However, these estimates were based on survey data with <5,000 older adults. Medicare administrative data sets, which contain claims for millions of older adults, afford an opportunity to explore both trends over time and heterogeneity within an older population. Previous studies have shown that claims data can be used to identify persons with diagnosed diabetes (2). This study estimated annual prevalence and incidence of diabetes during 2001-2015 using Medicare claims data for beneficiaries aged ≥68 years and found that prevalence plateaued after 2012 and incidence decreased after 2006. In 2015 (the most recent year estimated) prevalence was 31.6%, and incidence was 3.0%. Medicare claims can serve as an important source of data for diabetes surveillance for the older population, which can inform prevention and treatment strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6843a2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6822811PMC
November 2019

Trends in cancer mortality among people with vs without diabetes in the USA, 1988-2015.

Diabetologia 2020 01 12;63(1):75-84. Epub 2019 Sep 12.

Division of Diabetes Translation, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Hwy NE, Mailstop F75, Atlanta, GA, 30341, USA.

Aims/hypothesis: Cancer-related death is higher among people with vs without diabetes. However, it is not known if this excess risk has changed over time or what types of cancer may be driving these changes.

Methods: To estimate rates of site-specific cancer mortality in adults with vs without self-reported diagnosed diabetes, we used data from adults aged ≥18 years at the time of the interview who participated in the 1985-2012 National Health Interview Survey. Participants' data were linked to the National Death Index by the National Center for Health Statistics to determine vital status and cause of death through to the end of 2015. Cancer deaths were classified according to underlying cause of death. Death rates for five time periods (1988-1994, 1995-1999, 2000-2004, 2005-2009, 2010-2015) were estimated using discrete Poisson regression models adjusted for age, sex and race/ethnicity with p for linear trend reported (p). Site-specific cancer mortality rates were stratified by diabetes status and period, and total cancer mortality rates were additionally stratified by sex, race/ethnicity, education and BMI status.

Results: Among adults with diabetes, age-adjusted cancer mortality rates (per 10,000 person-years) declined 25.5% from 39.1 (95% CI 30.1, 50.8) in 1988-1994 to 29.7 (26.6, 33.1) in 2010-2015, p < 0.001. Among adults without diabetes, rates declined 25.2% from 30.9 (28.6, 33.4) in 1988-1994 to 23.2 (22.1, 24.2) in 2010-2015, p < 0.01. Adults with diabetes remained approximately 30% more likely to die from cancer than people without diabetes, and this excess risk did not improve over time. In adults with diabetes, cancer mortality rates did not decline in some population subgroups (including black people, people with lower levels of education and obese people), and the excess risk increased for obese adults with vs without diabetes. Declines in total cancer mortality rates in adults with diabetes appear to be driven by large relative declines in cancers of the pancreas (55%) and breast (65%), while for lung cancer, declines are modest (7%).

Conclusions/interpretation: Declines in cancer mortality rates were observed in adults with and without diabetes. However, adults with diabetes continue to be more likely to die from cancer than people without diabetes. This study highlights the continued need for greater cancer risk-factor mitigation, especially in adults with diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00125-019-04991-xDOI Listing
January 2020

Changes in cigarette prices, affordability, and brand-tier consumption after a tobacco tax increase in Thailand: Evidence from the Global Adult Tobacco Surveys, 2009 and 2011.

Prev Med 2017 Dec 1;105S:S4-S9. Epub 2017 Jun 1.

US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta, GA, USA.

Despite the 2009 implementation of a tobacco tax increase in Thailand, smoking rates remained unchanged between 2009 and 2011. Prior evidence has linked cigarette tax increases to compensatory behaviours aimed at lowering the cost of smoking, such as switching to lower-priced cigarette brands. Using data from 2009 and 2011 Global Adult Tobacco Surveys in Thailand, we estimated unadjusted changes in cigarette prices paid, cigarette affordability, and consumption of cigarettes in three price categories classified as upper-, middle-, and lower-priced brand tiers (or price tertiles). We used ordered logit regression to analyse the correlates of price-tier choice and to estimate the change in price-tier consumption adjusted for demographic and region characteristics. Between 2009 and 2011, real cigarette prices increased, but the affordability of cigarettes remained unchanged overall. There was a significant reduction in the consumption of cigarette brands in the top price-tier overall, accompanied by increases in the consumption of brands in the bottom and middle price-tiers, depending on the region. Adjusted estimates from the logit models indicate that, on average, the proportion of smokers selecting brands from upper- and middle price-tiers decreased while consumption of lower price-tier brands increased during the study period. The estimated shifts in consumption from more expensive to less expensive cigarette brands and the overall lack of change in cigarette affordability in Thailand between 2009 and 2011 are both factors that may have contributed to the observed lack of change in smoking rates after the 2009 tax increase.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2017.05.027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5711621PMC
December 2017

Secondhand smoke exposure at home among one billion children in 21 countries: findings from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS).

Tob Control 2016 12 11;25(e2):e95-e100. Epub 2016 Feb 11.

Tobacco Free Initiative, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.

Objective: Children are vulnerable to secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure because of limited control over their indoor environment. Homes remain the major place where children may be exposed to SHS. Our study examines the magnitude, patterns and determinants of SHS exposure in the home among children in 21 countries (19 low-income and middle-income countries and 2 high-income countries).

Methods: Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) data, a household survey of people 15 years of age or older. Data collected during 2009-2013 were analysed to estimate the proportion of children exposed to SHS in the home. GATS estimates and 2012 United Nations population projections for 2015 were also used to estimate the number of children exposed to SHS in the home.

Results: The proportion of children younger than 15 years of age exposed to SHS in the home ranged from 4.5% (Panama) to 79.0% (Indonesia). Of the approximately one billion children younger than 15 years of age living in the 21 countries under study, an estimated 507.74 million were exposed to SHS in the home. China, India, Bangladesh, Indonesia and the Philippines accounted for almost 84.6% of the children exposed to SHS. The prevalence of SHS exposure was higher in countries with higher adult smoking rates and was also higher in rural areas than in urban areas, in most countries.

Conclusions: A large number of children were exposed to SHS in the home. Encouraging of voluntary smoke-free rules in homes and cessation in adults has the potential to reduce SHS exposure among children and prevent SHS-related diseases and deaths.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2015-052693DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5488799PMC
December 2016

A Cross Sectional Study of Kretek Smoking in Indonesia as a Major Risk to Public Health.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2015 ;16(16):6883-8

Global Tobacco Control Branch, Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, CDC, Atlanta, Georgia, US E-mail :

Background: Tobacco smoking is a major cause of preventable disease and death worldwide. Kreteks are clove-flavored cigarettes made from a combination of tobacco and ground-clove mixed with a sauce, smoked widely in Indonesia. Because health and social consequences of kretek smoking are potentially as great as those of traditional cigarettes, this study examines the prevalence of kretek smoking in Indonesia and associated risk factors.

Materials And Methods: The study used nationally representative Indonesia Global Adult Tobacco Survey data. Multiple logistic regression analysis was employed to identify correlates of kretek smoking.

Results: One- third of Indonesian adults smoked tobacco of which about 90.0% smoked kreteks. Prevalence of kretek smoking among men (60.9%) was more than 25 times the rate among women (2.3%). Overall, the highest prevalence of kretek use was in the age group 45-54 years (36.5%), followed by 34-44 (35.1%), 25-34 (34.2 %), and 55-64 years (32.8%). By wealth index, prevalence of kreteks smoking among those in the middle index was almost 50% above the rate for the wealthiest group (36.4% vs 24.8% respectively). Logistic regression results showed that being male, being older, having less education, and being less wealthy were significant predictors of kretek smoking, while urban vs rural residence was not.

Conclusions: Kretek smoking is common in Indonesia and is entrenched in the sociocultural fabric of the country. However, potential consequences of kretek smoking, particularly as risks for noncommunicable diseases, underscore the importance of a comprehensive approach to tobacco control as outlined in the World Health Organization's MPOWER strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7314/apjcp.2015.16.16.6883DOI Listing
August 2016

Warning about the harms of tobacco use in 22 countries: findings from a cross-sectional household survey.

Tob Control 2016 07 7;25(4):393-401. Epub 2015 May 7.

Global Tobacco Control Branch, Office on Smoking and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Background: Knowledge about the harms of tobacco use deters initiation and is associated with cessation. Most studies on this knowledge in the general population have been in high-income countries, but the tobacco use burden is increasing in low-income and middle-income countries. We sought to estimate levels of knowledge about tobacco-related diseases in 22 countries and determine the factors associated with differences in knowledge.

Methods: We used data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS), a nationally representative survey of persons aged ≥15 years. GATSs were conducted from 2008 to 2013 in 22 low-income and middle-income countries. Information was gathered on tobacco-related knowledge and noticing of antismoking mass media messages and health warning labels on cigarette packages. We constructed a four-point knowledge scale and performed multivariate regression analyses.

Results: Median country values for the proportion of adults who believed smoking causes a specific illness were 95.9% for lung cancer, 82.5% for heart attack and 74.0% for stroke. Knowledge scores ranged from 2.1 to 3.8. In multivariate regressions, adults scored significantly higher on the knowledge scale if they noticed antismoking media messages (22 countries) or health warning labels (17 countries). Significantly higher knowledge scores occurred in all 9 countries with pictorial health warning labels compared with only 8 out of 13 countries with text-only warning labels.

Conclusions: Antismoking media messages appear effective for warning the public about the harms from tobacco use in all 22 countries, while warning labels are effective in the majority of these countries. Our findings suggest opportunities to motivate smoking cessation globally.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2014-052047DOI Listing
July 2016

Cigarette prices and smoking prevalence after a tobacco tax increase--Turkey, 2008 and 2012.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2014 May;63(21):457-61

Raising the price of tobacco products has been shown to reduce tobacco consumption in the United States and other high-income countries, and evidence of this impact has been growing for low- and middle-income countries as well. Turkey is a middle-income country surveyed by the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) twice in a 4-year period, in 2008 and 2012. During this time, the country introduced a policy raising its Special Consumption Tax on Tobacco and implemented a comprehensive tobacco control program banning smoking in public places, banning advertising, and introducing graphic health warnings. The higher tobacco tax took effect in early 2010, allowing sufficient time for subsequent changes in prices and smoking to be observed by the time of the 2012 GATS. This report uses data from GATS Turkey to examine how cigarette prices changed after the 2010 tax increase, describe the temporally associated changes in smoking prevalence, and learn whether this smoking prevalence changed more in some demographic groups than others. From 2008 to 2012, the average price paid for cigarettes increased by 42.1%, cigarettes became less affordable, and smoking prevalence decreased by 14.6%. The largest reduction in smoking was observed among persons with lower socioeconomic status (SES), highlighting the potential role of tax policy in reducing health disparities across socioeconomic groups.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5779463PMC
May 2014

Methodology of the Global Adult Tobacco Survey - 2008-2010.

Glob Health Promot 2016 Jun 16;23(2 Suppl):3-23. Epub 2013 Sep 16.

World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.

In 2008, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the World Health Organization developed the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS), an instrument to monitor global tobacco use and measure indicators of tobacco control. GATS, a nationally representative household survey of persons aged 15 years or older, was conducted for the first time during 2008-2010 in 14 low- and middle-income countries. In each country, GATS used a standard core questionnaire, sample design, and procedures for data collection and management and, as needed, added country-specific questions that were reviewed and approved by international experts. The core questionnaire included questions about various characteristics of the respondents, their tobacco use (smoking and smokeless), and a wide range of tobacco-related topics (cessation; secondhand smoke; economics; media; and knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions). In each country, a multistage cluster sample design was used, with households selected proportionate to the size of the population. Households were chosen randomly within a primary or secondary sampling unit, and one respondent was selected at random from each household to participate in the survey. Interviewers administered the survey in the country's local language(s) using handheld electronic data collection devices. Interviews were conducted privately, and same-sex interviewers were used in countries where mixed-sex interviews would be culturally inappropriate. All 14 countries completed the survey during 2008-2010. In each country, the ministry of health was the lead coordinating agency for GATS, and the survey was implemented by national statistical organizations or surveillance institutes. This article describes the background and rationale for GATS and includes a comprehensive description of the survey methods and protocol.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1757975913499800DOI Listing
June 2016

Exposure to secondhand smoke among adults - Philippines, 2009.

Glob Health Promot 2016 Jun 16;23(2 Suppl):48-57. Epub 2013 Sep 16.

CDC Foundation, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Introduction: We assessed the differences in exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) among adults at home, in indoor workplaces, and in various public places in the Philippines across various socio-demographic groups.

Methods: Data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey conducted in 2009 in the Philippines were used. The data consist of survey answers from 9705 respondents from a nationally representative, multistage probability sample of adults aged 15 years or older. We considered that respondents were exposed to SHS if during the previous 30 days they reported that they lived in a home, worked in a building, or visited a public place where people smoked. The public places included in our analysis were indoor workplaces, public transportation vehicles, restaurants, government buildings or offices, and healthcare facilities. The differences in various socioeconomic and demographic groups' exposure to SHS in these places were also examined.

Results: Of respondents who reported working indoors, 36.8% were exposed to SHS. Men (43.3% [95% CI 39.7-46.9]) were more likely than women (28.8% [95% CI 25.4-32.4]) to be exposed to SHS (p < 0.001). Of those working in sites where smoking was not allowed, 13.9% were exposed to SHS, whereas 66.5% were exposed where smoking is allowed in some enclosed areas, and 90.7% were exposed where smoking is allowed everywhere. During the 30 days preceding the survey, more than 50% of those who took public transportation were exposed to SHS; exposure for those who visited public buildings was 33.6% in restaurants, 25.5% in government buildings or offices, and 7.6% in healthcare facilities.

Conclusion: Despite a national law passed and several local government ordinances that have promulgated smoke-free workplaces, schools, government offices, and healthcare facilities, our findings show that a large proportion of adults were exposed to SHS at work and in public places, which offers opportunities to strengthen and improve enforcement of the smoke-free initiatives and ordinances in the Philippines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1757975913501530DOI Listing
June 2016

Exposure to anti- and pro-tobacco advertising, promotions or sponsorships: Turkey, 2008.

Glob Health Promot 2016 Jun 16;23(2 Suppl):58-67. Epub 2013 Sep 16.

CDC Foundation, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Introduction: In 2008, Turkey became one of 26 countries with a complete ban on all forms of direct and indirect tobacco marketing. We assessed the level of exposure to anti- and pro-cigarette advertising and to cigarette promotions and sponsorships among various demographic groups in Turkey.

Methods: We used the data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS), conducted in November 2008 in Turkey. The data consist of answers to GATS questions by 9030 respondents from a nationally representative, multistage probability sample of adults 15 years of age or older. To find differences in exposure to the advertising by sex, age, education level and smoking status, we analyzed responses to GATS questions about cigarette advertisements and anti-cigarette smoking information in various forms and through various advertising channels, during the 30 days before the survey, using bivariate analysis.

Results: Overall, 13.3% of respondents aged 15 years or older noticed some type of cigarette marketing during the 30 days before the survey: 7.1% saw advertisements, 5.3% saw promotions and 3.3% saw sports sponsorships. Men were more likely than women to have seen cigarette promotions (7.8% versus 3.0%) and sports sponsorships (5.3% versus 1.4%). Respondents aged 15-24 years were more likely than those aged 25 years or older to have seen cigarette advertisements (10.2% versus 6.2%), promotions (8.7% versus 4.4%) and sponsorships (6.6% versus 2.3%), respectively. Respondents were most likely to have seen cigarette advertisements on television (3.4%) or in shops (2.7%). In addition, 2.8% of respondents reported seeing a clothing item with a brand name or logo, 2.5% reported that they received free samples of cigarettes and 0.3% received gifts along with the purchase of cigarettes. Almost 9 of 10 survey respondents (88.8%) reported having noticed some anti-cigarette information during the 30 days before the survey. Most anti-cigarette information was seen on television (85.5%). The anti-cigarette information was seen by slightly more cigarette smokers (91.6%) than nonsmokers (87.6%). Persons with less than a primary education were less likely to notice anti-cigarette information than those with a higher level of education, in all examined media channels.

Conclusions: Our findings showed a low prevalence of noticing cigarette marketing, which indicates high compliance with the Turkish law banning such marketing. GATS data provide an in-depth understanding of the level of exposure to pro- and anti-cigarette information in 2008 and they are of practical assistance to those who implement policies to reduce the demand for tobacco. The challenge now is to maintain rigorous enforcement. To do so requires ongoing surveillance to produce data on the effectiveness of the enforcement efforts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1757975913502369DOI Listing
June 2016

Prevalence of tobacco use among adults in Egypt, 2009.

Glob Health Promot 2016 Jun 16;23(2 Suppl):38-47. Epub 2013 Sep 16.

CDC Foundation, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Introduction: We assessed the differences in overall use of tobacco and in the use of various tobacco products, by sex and by frequency of use across various demographic groups.

Methods: We used data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS), conducted in 2009 in Egypt. The data consist of answers to GATS by 20,924 respondents from a nationally representative, multistage probability sample of adults aged 15 years or older from all regions of Egypt. Current tobacco use was defined as current smoking or use of smokeless tobacco products, either daily or occasionally. We analyzed the differences in current cigarette, shisha, and smokeless tobacco use by sex and frequency of use (daily or occasional); and by demographic characteristics that included age, region, education level and employment status.

Results: Overall, 19.7% of the Egyptian population currently use some form of tobacco. Men (38.1% [95% confidence interval (CI) 36.8-39.4]) are much more likely than women (0.6% [95% CI 0.4-0.9]) to use tobacco. Almost 96% of men who use tobacco, do so daily. Men are more likely to use manufactured cigarettes (31.8% [95% CI 30.6-33.1]) than shisha (6.2% [95% CI 5.6-6.9]) or smokeless tobacco (4.1% [95% CI 3.4-4.8]). Few women use tobacco (cigarettes (0.2%), shisha (0.3%) and smokeless tobacco (0.3%)); however, all women who currently smoke shisha, do so daily. Lower educational status, being between ages 25-64 and being employed predicted a higher use of tobacco.

Conclusion: Egypt has implemented several initiatives to reduce tobacco use. The World Health Organization (WHO) MPOWER technical package, which aims to reverse the tobacco epidemic, is implemented at various levels throughout the country. Our findings show that there is significant variation in the prevalence of tobacco use and types of tobacco used by adult men and women in Egypt. GATS data can be used to better understand comparative patterns of tobacco use by adults, which in turn can be used to develop interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1757975913499801DOI Listing
June 2016

Current manufactured cigarette smoking and roll-your-own cigarette smoking in Thailand: findings from the 2009 Global Adult Tobacco Survey.

BMC Public Health 2013 Mar 27;13:277. Epub 2013 Mar 27.

Bureau of Tobacco Control, Department of Disease Control, Ministry of Public Health, Nonthaburi, Thailand.

Background: Current smoking prevalence in Thailand decreased from 1991 to 2004 and since that time the prevalence has remained flat. It has been suggested that one of the reasons that the prevalence of current smoking in Thailand has stopped decreasing is due to the use of RYO cigarettes. The aim of this study was to examine characteristics of users of manufactured and RYO cigarettes and dual users in Thailand, in order to determine whether there are differences in the characteristics of users of the different products.

Methods: The 2009 Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS Thailand) provides detailed information on current smoking patterns. GATS Thailand used a nationally and regionally representative probability sample of 20,566 adults (ages 15 years and above) who were chosen through stratified three-stage cluster sampling and then interviewed face-to-face.

Results: The prevalence of current smoking among Thai adults was 45.6% for men and 3.1% for women. In all, 18.4% of men and 1.0% of women were current users of manufactured cigarettes only, while 15.8% of men and 1.7% of women were current users of RYO cigarettes only. 11.2% of men and 0.1% of women used both RYO and manufactured cigarettes. Users of manufactured cigarettes were younger and users of RYO were older. RYO smokers were more likely to live in rural areas. Smokers of manufactured cigarettes appeared to be more knowledgeable about the health risks of tobacco use. However, the difference was confounded with age and education; when demographic variables were controlled, the knowledge differences no longer remained. Smokers of manufactured cigarettes were more likely than dual users and those who used only RYO to report that they were planning on quitting in the next month. Users of RYO only appeared to be more addicted than the other two groups as measured by time to first cigarette.

Conclusions: There appears to be a need for product targeted cessation and prevention efforts that are directed toward specific population subgroups in Thailand and include information on manufactured and RYO cigarettes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-13-277DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3621680PMC
March 2013

A cross-country study of cigarette prices and affordability: evidence from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey.

Tob Control 2014 Jan 25;23(1):e3. Epub 2012 Aug 25.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Objective: To describe the characteristics of two primary determinants of cigarette consumption: cigarette affordability and the range of prices paid for cigarettes (and bidis, where applicable) in a set of 15 countries. From this cross-country comparison, identify places where opportunities may exist for reducing consumption through tax adjustments.

Data: Self-response data from 45,838 smokers from 15 countries, obtained from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) 2008-2011.

Design: Using self-response data on individual cigarette expenditure and consumption, we construct a measure of the average cigarette price smokers pay for manufactured cigarettes (and bidis, where applicable) in 15 countries. We use these prices to evaluate cigarette affordability and the range of prices available in each country. These survey-derived measures of cigarette price and affordability are uniquely suited for cross-country comparison because they represent each country's distinctive mix of individual consumption characteristics such as brand choice, intensity of consumption, and purchasing behavior.

Results: In this sample of countries, cigarettes are most affordable in Russia, which has the most room for tobacco tax increase. Affordability is also relatively high in Brazil and China for cigarettes, and in India and Bangladesh for bidis. Although the affordability of cigarettes in India is relatively low, the range of cigarette prices paid is relatively high, providing additional evidence to support the call for simplifying the existing tax structure and reducing the width of price options. China has both high affordability and wide price ranges, suggesting multiple opportunities for reducing consumption through tax adjustments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2011-050413DOI Listing
January 2014

Social determinants of health and tobacco use in thirteen low and middle income countries: evidence from Global Adult Tobacco Survey.

PLoS One 2012 16;7(3):e33466. Epub 2012 Mar 16.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America.

Background: Tobacco use has been identified as the single biggest cause of inequality in morbidity. The objective of this study is to examine the role of social determinants on current tobacco use in thirteen low-and-middle income countries.

Methodology/principal Findings: We used nationally representative data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) conducted during 2008-2010 in 13 low-and-middle income countries: Bangladesh, China, Egypt, India, Mexico, Philippines, Poland, Russian Federation, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, Uruguay, and Viet Nam. These surveys provided information on 209,027 respondent's aged 15 years and above and the country datasets were analyzed individually for estimating current tobacco use across various socio-demographic factors (gender, age, place of residence, education, wealth index, and knowledge on harmful effects of smoking). Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to predict the impact of these determinants on current tobacco use status. Current tobacco use was defined as current smoking or use of smokeless tobacco, either daily or occasionally. Former smokers were excluded from the analysis. Adjusted odds ratios for current tobacco use after controlling other cofactors, was significantly higher for males across all countries and for urban areas in eight of the 13 countries. For educational level, the trend was significant in Bangladesh, Egypt, India, Philippines and Thailand demonstrating decreasing prevalence of tobacco use with increasing levels of education. For wealth index, the trend of decreasing prevalence of tobacco use with increasing wealth was significant for Bangladesh, India, Philippines, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, Uruguay and Viet Nam. The trend of decreasing prevalence with increasing levels of knowledge on harmful effects of smoking was significant in China, India, Philippines, Poland, Russian Federation, Thailand, Ukraine and Viet Nam.

Conclusions/significance: These findings demonstrate a significant but varied role of social determinants on current tobacco use within and across countries.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0033466PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3306395PMC
August 2012

Exposure to tobacco smoke among adults in Bangladesh.

Indian J Public Health 2011 Jul-Sep;55(3):210-9

Office on Smoking and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Objective: To examine exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) at home, in workplace, and in various public places in Bangladesh.

Materials And Methods: Data from 2009 Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) conducted in Bangladesh was analyzed. The data consists of 9,629 respondents from a nationally representative multi-stage probability sample of adults aged 15 years and above. Exposure to second-hand smoke was defined as respondents who reported being exposed to tobacco smoke in the following locations: Indoor workplaces, homes, government building or office, health care facilities, public transportation, schools, universities, restaurants, and cafes, coffee shops or tea houses. Exposure to tobacco smoke in these places was examined by gender across various socioeconomic and demographic sub-groups that include age, residence, education and wealth index using SPSS 17.0 for complex samples.

Results: The study shows high prevalence of SHS exposure at home and in workplace and in public places. Exposure to SHS among adults was reported high at home (54.9%) (male-58.2% and female-51.7%), in workplace (63%) (male-67.8% and female-30.4%), and in any public place (57.8%) (male-90.4% and female-25.1%) 30 days preceding the survey. Among the public places examined exposure was low in the educational institutions (schools-4.3%) and health care facilities (5.8%); however, exposure was high in public transportation (26.3%), and restaurants (27.6%). SHS exposure levels at home, in workplace and public places were varied widely across various socioeconomic and demographic sub-groups.

Conclusions: Exposure was reported high in settings having partial ban as compared to settings having a complete ban. Following the WHO FCTC and MPOWER measures, strengthening smoke-free legislation may further the efforts in Bangladesh towards creating and enforcing 100% smoke-free areas and educating the public about the dangers of SHS. Combining these efforts can have a complementary effect on protecting the people from hazardous effect of SHS as well as reducing the social acceptance of smoking both at home and in public and workplaces. Ongoing surveillance in Bangladesh is necessary to measure progress towards monitoring SHS exposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0019-557X.89942DOI Listing
February 2012