Publications by authors named "Lina Tian"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Evaluation of the acute toxic effects of crude oil on intertidal mudskipper (Boleophthalmus pectinirostris) based on antioxidant enzyme activity and the integrated biomarker response.

Environ Pollut 2021 Oct 9;292(Pt A):118341. Epub 2021 Oct 9.

School of Marine Sciences, University of Maine, Orono, 04469, USA.

With the development of marine oil industry, oil spill accidents will inevitably occur, further polluting the intertidal zone and causing biological poisoning. The muddy intertidal zone and Boleophthalmus pectinirostris were selected as the research objects to conduct indoor acute exposure experiments within 48 h of crude oil pollution. Statistical analysis was used to reveal the activity changes of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in the gills and liver of mudskipper. Then, integrated biomarker response (IBR) indicators were established to comprehensively evaluate the biological toxicity. The results showed that the activities of SOD, CAT and GST in livers were higher than those in gills, and the maximum induction multipliers of SOD, CAT and GPx in livers appeared earlier than those in gills. Both SOD and GPx activities were induced at low pollutant concentrations and inhibited at high pollutant concentrations. For the dose-effect, the change trends of CAT and SOD were roughly inversed. There was substrate competition between GPx and CAT, with opposite trends over time. The activating mechanism of GST was similar to that of GPx, and the activation time was earlier than that of GPx. In terms of dose-effect trends, the IBR showed that the antioxidant enzymes activities in biological tissues were induced by low and inhibited by high pollutant concentrations. Overall, SOD and GPx in gills and CAT and GST in livers of the mudskippers were suitable as representative markers to comprehensively analyze and evaluate the biotoxicity effects of oil pollution in the intertidal zone. The star plots and IBR values obtained after data standardization were consistent with the enzyme activity differences, which can be used as valid supplementary indexes for biotoxicity evaluation. These research findings provide theoretical support for early indicators of biological toxicity after crude oil pollution in intertidal zones.
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October 2021

Chlorogenic Acid Exerts Beneficial Effects in 6-Hydroxydopamine-Induced Neurotoxicity by Inhibition of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress.

Med Sci Monit 2019 Jan 15;25:453-459. Epub 2019 Jan 15.

Department of Neurology, No.1 People's Hospital of Jining City, Jining, Shandong, China (mainland).

BACKGROUND Chlorogenic acid (CGA), a dietary polyphenol derived from many plants, has been previously reported to exert neuroprotective properties. However, its pharmacological role in Parkinson's disease (PD) and the underlying mechanisms are unclear. MATERIAL AND METHODS In the present study, we investigated the beneficial effects of CGA against the toxicity of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in animal and cellular models. One week after 6-OHDA administration, the behavioral activities of rats were determined by rotarod test and apomorphine-induced rotational test. The viability and apoptosis of SH-SY5Y cells following 6-OHDA exposure were determined by MTT assay and annexin V-FITC/PI double staining, respectively. The activities of antioxidant enzymes in the rat striatal tissues and SH-SY5Y cells were detected by ELISA. RESULTS The results demonstrated that 6-OHDA-induced PD-like behavioral impairments of rats were significantly forestalled by CGA administration. The increased apoptosis and reduced activities of antioxidant enzymes in the striatum of 6-OHDA-lesioned rats were also attenuated by CGA. Moreover, in an in vitro experiment, the impaired viability and enhanced apoptosis of 6-OHDA-injured SH-SY5Y cells were significantly restored by CGA pretreatment. In addition, CGA also obstructed 6-OHDA-induced ROS production and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in SH-SY5Y cells. CONCLUSIONS Taken together, these data show that CGA might be an effective neuroprotective compound that mitigates oxidative stress and ER stress in PD.
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January 2019

Rural residents in China are at increased risk of exposure to tick-borne pathogens Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia chaffeensis.

Biomed Res Int 2014 30;2014:313867. Epub 2014 Apr 30.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of Anhui Province, Hefei 650022, China.

As emerging tick born rickettsial diseases caused by A. phagocytophilum and E. chaffeensis, anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis have become a serious threat to human and animal health throughout the world. In particular, in China, an unusual transmission of nosocomial cases of human granulocytic anaplasmosis occurred in Anhui Province in 2006 and more recent coinfection case of A. phagocytophilum and E. chaffeensis was documented in Shandong Province. Although the seroprevalence of human granulocytic anaplasmosis (former human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, HGE) has been documented in several studies, these data existed on local investigations, and also little data was reported on the seroprevalence of human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME) in China. In this cross-sectional epidemiological study, indirect immunofluorescence antibody assay (IFA) proposed by WHO was used to detect A. phagocytophilum and E. chaffeensis IgG antibodies for 7,322 serum samples from agrarian residents from 9 provinces/cities and 819 urban residents from 2 provinces. Our data showed that farmers were at substantially increased risk of exposure. However, even among urban residents, risk was considerable. Seroprevalence of HGA and HME occurred in diverse regions of the country and tended to be the highest in young adults. Many species of ticks were confirmed carrying A. phagocytophilum organisms in China while several kinds of domestic animals including dog, goats, sheep, cattle, horse, wild rabbit, and some small wild rodents were proposed to be the reservoir hosts of A. phagocytophilum. The broad distribution of vector and hosts of the A. phagocytophilum and E. chaffeensis, especially the relationship between the generalized susceptibility of vectors and reservoirs and the severity of the disease's clinical manifestations and the genetic variation of Chinese HGA isolates in China, is urgently needed to be further investigated.
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February 2015

[Typing and subtyping avian influenza virus using DNA microarrays].

Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao 2008 Jul;48(7):935-40

Animal Influenza Laboratory of Ministry of Agriculture and National Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology of Harbin Veterinary Research Institute of CAAS, Harbin 150001, China.

Objective: Outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus has caused great economic loss to the poultry industry and resulted in human deaths in Thailand and Vietnam since 2004. Rapid typing and subtyping of viruses, especially HPAI from clinical specimens, are desirable for taking prompt control measures to prevent spreading of the disease. We described a simultaneous approach using microarray to detect and subtype avian influenza virus (AIV).

Methods: We designed primers of probe genes and used reverse transcriptase PCR to prepare cDNAs of AIV M gene, H5, H7, H9 subtypes haemagglutinin genes and N1, N2 subtypes neuraminidase genes. They were cloned, sequenced, reamplified and spotted to form a glass-bound microarrays. We labeled samples using Cy3-dUTP by RT-PCR, hybridized and scanned the microarrays to typing and subtyping AIV.

Results: The hybridization pattern agreed perfectly with the known grid location of each probe, no cross hybridization could be detected. Examinating of HA subtypes 1 through 15, 30 infected samples and 21 field samples revealed the DNA microarray assay was more sensitive and specific than RT-PCR test and chicken embryo inoculation.

Conclusion: It can simultaneously detect and differentiate the main epidemic AIV. The results show that DNA microarray technology is a useful diagnostic method.
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July 2008

Immunological mechanisms and clinical implications of regulatory T cell deficiency in a systemic autoimmune disorder: roles of IL-2 versus IL-15.

Eur J Immunol 2008 Jun;38(6):1664-76

Department of Pathology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

Regulatory T cell deficiency is evident in patients with lupus, but the casual [corrected] relationship and underlying mechanism leading to Treg deficiency are unclear. We analyzed the Treg profile, induction and functions of Treg in a lupus mouse model. A characteristic age-dependent biphasic change of Treg frequency was observed in the MRL/lpr mice, which developed a spontaneous lupus-like disease. After an early increase, Treg frequency in the peripheral lymphoid organs rapidly declined with age. Functionally, Treg from both young and old MRL/lpr mice were fully competent in suppressing the wild-type MRL/+ T effector cell (Teff) responses. Adoptive transfer of MRL/+ Treg markedly suppressed clinical disease in the MRL/lpr mice. We demonstrated that the reduced Treg frequency was a result of insufficient peripheral Treg expansion due to defective MRL/lpr Teff in IL-2 production, and the associated defects in dendritic cells, which could be fully restored by exogenous IL-2. In the absence of IL-2, MRL/lpr Teff but not MRL/lpr Treg were highly responsive to IL-15 and could expand rapidly due to enhanced IL-15R expression and IL-15 synthesis. These findings thus provide a clear causal relationship and immunological mechanism underlying Treg deficiency and systemic autoimmunity.
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June 2008

Increased iNOS-expressing macrophage in long-term surviving rat small-bowel grafts.

Am J Surg 2007 Aug;194(2):248-54

Division of Pediatric Surgery, Department of Surgery, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR, PRC.

Background: Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) produces nitric oxide and modulates many biologic processes critical in the development of rejection; however, its role in chronic rejection (CR) in small-bowel transplantation (SBT) is largely unknown.

Methods: FK506 prevented acute rejection (AR); however, recipients eventually lost their bowel grafts to CR. Combined FK506 and rapamycin treatment prevented CR, thus leading to long-term graft survival. We investigated iNOS expression in our rat orthotopic SBT CR model.

Results: Histologically, mesentery vascular occlusion and fibrosis, which are hallmarks of CR, were apparent in bowel grafts in an FK506 single-treatment group. In contrast, patients with long-term surviving grafts receiving FK506 and rapamycin developed mild vascular occlusion and fibrosis. Unlike in AR, low iNOS expression, which is associated with decreased macrophage infiltration, was observed in CR grafts. However, iNOS expression and macrophage infiltration was higher in long-term-surviving grafts than CR grafts. Immunofluorescence staining revealed that the majority of macrophages expressed iNOS in long-term surviving grafts.

Comments: Sequential treatment combining FK506 and rapamycin prolonged survival of SBT animals with decreased vasculopathy and collagen deposition of the intestinal grafts. iNOS may play opposing roles in AR and CR in SBT.
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August 2007

Rosiglitazone suppresses cyclosporin-induced chronic transplant dysfunction and prolongs survival of rat cardiac allografts.

Transplantation 2007 Jun;83(12):1602-10

Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine Building, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong, SAR China.

Background: The lack of effective treatment for chronic transplant dysfunction restricts the long-term survival of solid organ allografts. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ligands can suppress vascular inflammation. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of rosiglitazone on chronic transplant dysfunction in a rat cardiac transplant model.

Methods: Inbred male Fisher 344 (F344, RT1lvl) and Lewis (LEW, RT1(1)) rats were subjected to heterotopic abdominal heart transplantation according to standard procedures. Cyclosporine A was administered intraperitoneally to cover acute rejection, and rosiglitazone was administered orally by gavage daily from 3 days before the operation to the end of experiments.

Results: Rosiglitazone significantly prolonged the survival of cardiac allografts in rats (F344 to LEW) that had received a 10-day course of cyclosporin A compared to treatment with immunosuppressant alone. Analysis of allografts at 120 days posttransplantation showed that rosiglitazone reduced the inflammatory cell infiltrate in both the vessels and graft parenchyma as were neointimal formation, vascular occlusion, and fibrosis. Expression of transforming growth factor-beta and related proteins was less abundant after cyclosporin A/rosiglitazone treatment.

Conclusions: The findings reported here demonstrate that rosiglitazone given under the cover of short-term treatment with cyclosporin A prolongs cardiac allograft survival and reduces the severity of chronic transplant dysfunction. This may be mediated in part through the downregulation of transforming growth factor-beta and related proteins. The combined effects of rosiglitazone and immunosuppressive drugs are potentially beneficial to patients receiving organ transplants.
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June 2007

Inhibition of sonic hedgehog signaling reduces chronic rejection and prolongs allograft survival in a rat orthotopic small bowel transplantation model.

Transplantation 2007 May;83(10):1351-7

Division of Paediatric Surgery, Department of Surgery, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR, PR China.

Background: Although acute graft rejection can be successfully controlled by immunosuppressive agents, chronic rejection (CR), which is characterized by arteriosclerosis in the donor organ vessels, is a major hurdle to long-term allograft survival. Sonic hedgehog (Shh), a morphogen critical in embryogenesis, also promotes peripheral immunity, which prompted us to investigate if inhibition of Shh signaling could reduce CR and thereby enhance allograft survival.

Methods: In a rat orthotopic small bowel transplantation model, FK506 prevented acute rejection; however, recipients eventually lost their grafts by CR. Anti-Shh antibody or isotype control were administered to animals at day 30 postoperatively. Graft survival, tissue fibrosis, vascular occlusion, and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were investigated.

Results: Immunostaining revealed that Shh and the Hedgehog receptor Patched 1 (Ptc1) are strongly expressed in CR grafts and that Ptc1 expression partially overlapped with that of ED-1, a macrophage marker. In contrast, only minimal expression of Shh and Ptc1 was detected in syngeneic grafts. Grafts survival was significantly prolonged after anti-Shh antibody treatment compared with the immunoglobulin G control (116 vs. 77.5 days). Collagen deposition and vascular occlusion in the mesentery were markedly reduced in recipients of the anti-Shh antibody. Specific transcripts and protein expression for VEGF, which was present mainly in the blood vessels, were reduced.

Conclusion: In a rat small bowel transplantation model, anti-Shh antibody treatment reduced CR and prolonged graft survival. These beneficial effects of Shh treatment may occur partly by reducing VEGF expression in the blood vessels of the allografts.
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May 2007

Sonic hedgehog promotes CD4+ T lymphocyte proliferation and modulates the expression of a subset of CD28-targeted genes.

Int Immunol 2006 Dec 27;18(12):1627-36. Epub 2006 Sep 27.

Department of Surgery, University of Hong Kong Medical Centre, K-15 Queen Mary Hospital, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong SAR, China.

Sonic hedgehog (Shh) is a crucial morphogen in the development of numerous tissues and organs, including the nervous system, gastrointestinal tract and lung. Recent findings suggest that Shh plays an important role in thymocyte development and peripheral T cell function. Here we report that the Shh receptors, patched and smoothened, are expressed in resting and activated T cells and their expression is regulated upon T cell activation. Shh protein is also detected on the surface of freshly isolated T cells. Although exogenous Shh alone does not activate resting T cells, it exhibits co-stimulatory activity which is reflected in its ability to potentiate CD3-mediated proliferation and cytokine production by CD4(+) T cells. The co-stimulatory effect is most prominent at sub-optimal TCR stimulation level. Gene expression analysis reveals that Shh signaling in CD4(+) T cells modulates a different set of transcriptional targets from that in neuronal cells. Furthermore, Shh co-stimulation modulates the expression of a subset of CD28-responsive genes, including cyclin A and B cell translocation gene 2.
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December 2006

Systemic autoimmune disease induced by dendritic cells that have captured necrotic but not apoptotic cells in susceptible mouse strains.

Eur J Immunol 2005 Nov;35(11):3364-75

Department of Pathology, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disorder of a largely unknown etiology. Anti-double-stranded (ds) DNA antibodies are a classic hallmark of the disease, although the mechanism underlying their induction remains unclear. We demonstrate here that, in both lupus-prone and normal mouse strains, strong anti-dsDNA antibody responses can be induced by dendritic cells (DC) that have ingested syngeneic necrotic (DC/nec), but not apoptotic (DC/apo), cells. Clinical manifestations of lupus were evident, however, only in susceptible mouse strains, which correlate with the ability of DC/nec to release IFN-gamma and to induce the pathogenic IgG2a anti-dsDNA antibodies. Injection of DC/nec not only accelerated disease progression in the MRL/MpJ-lpr/lpr lupus-prone mice but also induced a lupus-like disease in the MRL/MpJ-+/+ wild-type control strain. Immune complex deposition was readily detectable in the kidneys, and the mice developed proteinuria. Strikingly, female MRL/MpJ-+/+ mice that had received DC/nec, but not DC/apo, developed a 'butterfly' facial lesion resembling a cardinal feature of human SLE. Our study therefore demonstrates that DC/nec inducing a Th1 type of responses, which are otherwise tightly regulated in a normal immune system, may play a pivotal role in SLE pathogenesis.
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November 2005

Acceleration of apoptosis in CD4+CD8+ thymocytes by rapamycin accompanied by increased CD4+CD25+ T cells in the periphery.

Transplantation 2004 Jan;77(2):183-9

Division of Paediatric Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Hong Kong Medical Centre, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong SAR, People's Republic of China.

Background: Rapamycin (Rapa) is an immunosuppressant that is used in patients and animal models to control allograft rejection. Its mechanisms of action are not fully understood. In this article, the authors have investigated the effects of therapeutic doses of Rapa on both thymic and peripheral T-cell populations in the adult rat.

Methods: The therapeutic dosage of Rapa was optimized using cardiac transplantation between LEW and DA rats. Thymic morphology was assessed by hematoxylin-eosin staining. Flow cytometric analysis was performed to analyze T-cell phenotype and apoptosis. T-cell receptor (TCR)-mediated T-cell responsiveness was evaluated by 3[H]-thymidine deoxyribose incorporation.

Results: Rapa induced atrophy in the thymus but not in peripheral lymphoid organs. Moreover, fibrosis occurred in thymus that was long-lasting after Rapa withdrawal. In animals treated with Rapa, there was a significant reduction in CD4+CD8+ thymocytes caused by accelerated apoptosis, whereas CD4-CD8-, CD4+CD8-, and CD8+CD4- populations remained unaffected. In contrast, the cellularity of the periphery lymphoid organs was not altered. Within the CD4+ thymocyte population, CD4+CD25+ thymocytes were resistant to Rapa-accelerated apoptosis, and in the periphery, the ratio of CD4+CD25+ to CD4+CD25- T cells was increased. Notably, the peripheral CD4+CD25+ T cells were hyporesponsive to TCR-mediated activation.

Conclusions: The resistance of the peripheral CD4+CD25+ T cells to Rapa treatment might contribute to its immunosuppressive action. The long-term effects of Rapa on thymus atrophy and thymocyte development requires consideration with respect to its clinical application.
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January 2004

Comparative study of allograft survival of heterotopic and orthotopic small bowel transplantation in rat.

Transplantation 2003 Jun;75(11):1895-7

Division of Paediatric Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Hong Kong Medical Centre, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong SAR, P.R. China.

Background: Small bowel allografts can either be placed heterotopically or orthotopically. In heterotopic small bowel transplantation (H-SBT), the host small intestine containing a substantial amount of gut-associated lymphoid tissue is removed, whereas in conventional orthotopic small bowel transplantation (O-SBT) it is retained. This study compared the allograft survival of H-SBT and O-SBT and evaluated the effect of retaining the host intestine in O-SBT in an altered O-SBT (AO-SBT) model.

Methods: SBT was performed in a high-responder rat stain combination (blood group D Agouti --> Lewis). Immunosuppressive treatment consisting of a short course of FK506 (2 mg/kg/day IM for 3 days before transplantation and 0.3 mg/kg/day for 14 days after transplantation) was used.

Results: Survival (mean +/- SD) of H-, O-, and AO-SBT untreated animals was 6.25+/-0.58 days, 6.5+/-0.58 days, and 6.7+/-0.25 days, respectively. With FK506 immunosuppression, survival of H-SBT animals was 49.3+/-13.17 days, whereas 75% (12/16) and 80% (4/5), respectively, of O-SBT and AO-SBT animals achieved indefinite survival (>120 days) with functioning grafts.

Conclusion: Our data suggest that heterotopic placement of intestinal allografts results in a more severe graft rejection than orthotopic placement. The indefinite survival of O-SBT is not due to of the removal of host intestine carrying a heavy load of gut-associated lymphoid tissue.
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June 2003

Regulation of cellular adhesion molecule expression in murine oocytes, peri-implantation and post-implantation embryos.

Cell Res 2002 Dec;12(5-6):373-83

Department of Pathology, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.

Expression of the adhesion molecules, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, NCAM, CD44, CD49d (VLA-4, alpha chain), and CD11a (LFA-1, alpha chain) on mouse oocytes, and pre- and peri-implantation stage embryos was examined by quantitative indirect immunofluorescence microscopy. ICAM-1 was most strongly expressed at the oocyte stage, gradually declining almost to undetectable levels by the expanded blastocyst stage. NCAM, also expressed maximally on the oocyte, declined to undetectable levels beyond the morula stage. On the other hand, CD44 declined from highest expression at the oocyte stage to show a second maximum at the compacted 8-cell/morula. This molecule exhibited high expression around contact areas between trophectoderm and zona pellucida during blastocyst hatching. CD49d was highly expressed in the oocyte, remained significantly expressed throughout and after blastocyst hatching was expressed on the polar trophectoderm. Like CD44, CD49d declined to undetectable levels at the blastocyst outgrowth stage. Expression of both VCAM-1 and CD11a was undetectable throughout. The diametrical temporal expression pattern of ICAM-1 and NCAM compared to CD44 and CD49d suggest that dynamic changes in expression of adhesion molecules may be important for interaction of the embryo with the maternal cellular environment as well as for continuing development and survival of the early embryo.
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December 2002

Association of the CD134/CD134L costimulatory pathway with acute rejection of small bowel allograft.

Transplantation 2002 Jul;74(1):133-8

Division of Paediatric Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Hong Kong Medical Center, Queen Mary Hospital, PR China.

Background: The CD134/CD134L interaction provides a strong costimulatory signal that is CD28-independent. The CD134/CD134L pathway has been studied in inflammatory, autoimmune diseases, and graft-versus-host disease, but no information exists on the involvement of CD134/CD134L interactions in solid organ transplantation.

Methods: CD134/CD134L costimulation was studied in a rat model of small bowel transplantation. Immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry were used to analyze the expression and localization of CD134/CD134L. Mixed lymphocyte culture and quantitative RT-PCR were used to measure the effect on T proliferation and T helper cell cytokine transcripts of single or combined CD134 and CD28 costimulatory blockade.

Results: CD134 and CD134L molecules were strongly expressed in acutely rejected small bowel allografts. This expression was significantly suppressed by FK506. Interruption of the CD134 and CD28 costimulatory pathways resulted in an pronounced increase in expression of interleukin-10 transcripts.

Conclusion: These results present the first evidence that the CD134/CD134L interaction is associated with acute allograft rejection. Combined CD134/CD134L blockade may be an effective treatment to both prevent acute allograft rejection and promote the induction of cells with regulatory capacity.
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July 2002