Publications by authors named "Lina Greenberg"

10 Publications

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A troponin T variant linked with pediatric dilated cardiomyopathy reduces the coupling of thin filament activation to myosin and calcium binding.

Mol Biol Cell 2021 08 23;32(18):1677-1689. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110.

Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a significant cause of pediatric heart failure. Mutations in proteins that regulate cardiac muscle contraction can cause DCM; however, the mechanisms by which molecular-level mutations contribute to cellular dysfunction are not well understood. Better understanding of these mechanisms might enable the development of targeted therapeutics that benefit patient subpopulations with mutations that cause common biophysical defects. We examined the molecular- and cellular-level impacts of a troponin T variant associated with pediatric-onset DCM, R134G. The R134G variant decreased calcium sensitivity in an in vitro motility assay. Using stopped-flow and steady-state fluorescence measurements, we determined the molecular mechanism of the altered calcium sensitivity: R134G decouples calcium binding by troponin from the closed-to-open transition of the thin filament and decreases the cooperativity of myosin binding to regulated thin filaments. Consistent with the prediction that these effects would cause reduced force per sarcomere, cardiomyocytes carrying the R134G mutation are hypocontractile. They also show hallmarks of DCM that lie downstream of the initial insult, including disorganized sarcomeres and cellular hypertrophy. These results reinforce the importance of multiscale studies to fully understand mechanisms underlying human disease and highlight the value of mechanism-based precision medicine approaches for DCM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1091/mbc.E21-02-0082DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8684737PMC
August 2021

Mechanical dysfunction of the sarcomere induced by a pathogenic mutation in troponin T drives cellular adaptation.

J Gen Physiol 2021 05;153(5)

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO.

Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), a leading cause of sudden cardiac death, is primarily caused by mutations in sarcomeric proteins. The pathogenesis of HCM is complex, with functional changes that span scales, from molecules to tissues. This makes it challenging to deconvolve the biophysical molecular defect that drives the disease pathogenesis from downstream changes in cellular function. In this study, we examine an HCM mutation in troponin T, R92Q, for which several models explaining its effects in disease have been put forward. We demonstrate that the primary molecular insult driving disease pathogenesis is mutation-induced alterations in tropomyosin positioning, which causes increased molecular and cellular force generation during calcium-based activation. Computational modeling shows that the increased cellular force is consistent with the molecular mechanism. These changes in cellular contractility cause downstream alterations in gene expression, calcium handling, and electrophysiology. Taken together, our results demonstrate that molecularly driven changes in mechanical tension drive the early disease pathogenesis of familial HCM, leading to activation of adaptive mechanobiological signaling pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1085/jgp.202012787DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8054178PMC
May 2021

SARS-CoV-2 Infects Human Engineered Heart Tissues and Models COVID-19 Myocarditis.

JACC Basic Transl Sci 2021 Apr 26;6(4):331-345. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.

There is ongoing debate as to whether cardiac complications of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) result from myocardial viral infection or are secondary to systemic inflammation and/or thrombosis. We provide evidence that cardiomyocytes are infected in patients with COVID-19 myocarditis and are susceptible to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. We establish an engineered heart tissue model of COVID-19 myocardial pathology, define mechanisms of viral pathogenesis, and demonstrate that cardiomyocyte severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection results in contractile deficits, cytokine production, sarcomere disassembly, and cell death. These findings implicate direct infection of cardiomyocytes in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 myocardial pathology and provides a model system to study this emerging disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacbts.2021.01.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7909907PMC
April 2021

SARS-CoV-2 Infects Human Engineered Heart Tissues and Models COVID-19 Myocarditis.

bioRxiv 2020 Nov 5. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

Epidemiological studies of the COVID-19 pandemic have revealed evidence of cardiac involvement and documented that myocardial injury and myocarditis are predictors of poor outcomes. Nonetheless, little is understood regarding SARS-CoV-2 tropism within the heart and whether cardiac complications result directly from myocardial infection. Here, we develop a human engineered heart tissue model and demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 selectively infects cardiomyocytes. Viral infection is dependent on expression of angiotensin-I converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and endosomal cysteine proteases, suggesting an endosomal mechanism of cell entry. After infection with SARS-CoV-2, engineered tissues display typical features of myocarditis, including cardiomyocyte cell death, impaired cardiac contractility, and innate immune cell activation. Consistent with these findings, autopsy tissue obtained from individuals with COVID-19 myocarditis demonstrated cardiomyocyte infection, cell death, and macrophage-predominate immune cell infiltrate. These findings establish human cardiomyocyte tropism for SARS-CoV-2 and provide an experimental platform for interrogating and mitigating cardiac complications of COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2020.11.04.364315DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7654892PMC
November 2020

Disrupted mechanobiology links the molecular and cellular phenotypes in familial dilated cardiomyopathy.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 09 19;116(36):17831-17840. Epub 2019 Aug 19.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110

Familial dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a leading cause of sudden cardiac death and a major indicator for heart transplant. The disease is frequently caused by mutations of sarcomeric proteins; however, it is not well understood how these molecular mutations lead to alterations in cellular organization and contractility. To address this critical gap in our knowledge, we studied the molecular and cellular consequences of a DCM mutation in troponin-T, ΔK210. We determined the molecular mechanism of ΔK210 and used computational modeling to predict that the mutation should reduce the force per sarcomere. In mutant cardiomyocytes, we found that ΔK210 not only reduces contractility but also causes cellular hypertrophy and impairs cardiomyocytes' ability to adapt to changes in substrate stiffness (e.g., heart tissue fibrosis that occurs with aging and disease). These results help link the molecular and cellular phenotypes and implicate alterations in mechanosensing as an important factor in the development of DCM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1910962116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6731759PMC
September 2019

Computational Tool to Study Perturbations in Muscle Regulation and Its Application to Heart Disease.

Biophys J 2019 06 7;116(12):2246-2252. Epub 2019 May 7.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri. Electronic address:

Striated muscle contraction occurs when myosin thick filaments bind to thin filaments in the sarcomere and generate pulling forces. This process is regulated by calcium, and it can be perturbed by pathological conditions (e.g., myopathies), physiological adaptations (e.g., β-adrenergic stimulation), and pharmacological interventions. Therefore, it is important to have a methodology to robustly determine the impact of these perturbations and statistically evaluate their effects. Here, we present an approach to measure the equilibrium constants that govern muscle activation, estimate uncertainty in these parameters, and statistically test the effects of perturbations. We provide a MATLAB-based computational tool for these analyses, along with easy-to-follow tutorials that make this approach accessible. The hypothesis testing and error estimation approaches described here are broadly applicable, and the provided tools work with other types of data, including cellular measurements. To demonstrate the utility of the approach, we apply it to elucidate the biophysical mechanism of a mutation that causes familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. This approach is generally useful for studying muscle diseases and therapeutic interventions that target muscle contraction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpj.2019.05.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6588827PMC
June 2019

RhoGAP68F controls transport of adhesion proteins in Rab4 endosomes to modulate epithelial morphogenesis of Drosophila leg discs.

Dev Biol 2015 Mar 21;399(2):283-95. Epub 2015 Jan 21.

Department of Developmental, Molecular and Chemical Biology, Program in Cell, Molecular and Developmental Biology, Program in Genetics, Sackler School of Graduate Biomedical Sciences, Tufts University School of Medicine, 150 Harrison Avenue, Boston, MA 02111, USA. Electronic address:

Elongation and invagination of epithelial tissues are fundamental developmental processes that contribute to the morphogenesis of embryonic and adult structures and are dependent on coordinated remodeling of cell-cell contacts. The morphogenesis of Drosophila leg imaginal discs depends on extensive remodeling of cell contacts and thus provides a useful system with which to investigate the underlying mechanisms. The small Rho GTPase regulator RhoGAP68F has been previously implicated in leg morphogenesis. It consists of on an N-terminal Sec14 domain and a C-terminal GAP domain. Here we examined the molecular function and role of RhoGAP68F in epithelial remodeling. We find that depletion of RhoGAP68F impairs epithelial remodeling from a pseudostratified to simple, while overexpression of RhoGAP68F causes tears of lateral cell-cell contacts and thus impairs epithelial integrity. We show that the RhoGAP68F protein localizes to Rab4 recycling endosomes and forms a complex with the Rab4 protein. The Sec14 domain is sufficient for localizing to Rab4 endosomes, while the activity of the GAP domain is dispensable. RhoGAP68F, in turn, inhibits the scission and movement of Rab4 endosomes involved in transport the adhesion proteins Fasciclin3 and E-cadherin back to cell-cell contacts. Expression of RhoGAP68F is upregulated during prepupal development suggesting that RhoGAP68F decreases the transport of key adhesion proteins to the cell surface during this developmental stage to decrease the strength of adhesive cell-cell contacts and thereby facilitate epithelial remodeling and leg morphogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ydbio.2015.01.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4352398PMC
March 2015

Systematic expression and loss-of-function analysis defines spatially restricted requirements for Drosophila RhoGEFs and RhoGAPs in leg morphogenesis.

Mech Dev 2011 Jan-Feb;128(1-2):5-17. Epub 2010 Sep 17.

Department of Anatomy and Cellular Biology, Program in Cell, Molecular and Developmental Biology, Tufts University School of Medicine, 136 Harrison Avenue, Boston, MA 02111, USA.

The Drosophila leg imaginal disc consists of a peripheral region that contributes to adult body wall, and a central region that forms the leg proper. While the patterning signals and transcription factors that determine the identity of adult structures have been identified, the mechanisms that determine the shape of these structures remain largely unknown. The family of Rho GTPases, which consists of seven members in flies, modulates cell adhesion, actomyosin contractility, protrusive membrane activity, and cell-matrix adhesion to generate mechanical forces that shape adult structures. The Rho GTPases are ubiquitously expressed and it remains unclear how they orchestrate morphogenetic events. The Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factors (RhoGEFs) and Rho GTPase activating proteins (RhoGAPs), which respectively activate and deactivate corresponding Rho GTPases, have been proposed to regulate the activity of Rho signaling cascades in specific spatiotemporal patterns to orchestrate morphogenetic events. Here we identify restricted expression of 12 of the 20 RhoGEFs and 10 of the 22 Rho RhoGAPs encoded in Drosophila during metamorphosis. Expression of a subset of each family of RhoGTPase regulators was restricted to motile cell populations including tendon, muscle, trachea, and peripodial stalk cells. A second subset was restricted either to all presumptive joints or only to presumptive tarsal joints. Depletion of individual RhoGEFs and RhoGAPs in the epithelium of the disc proper identified several joint-specific genes, which act downstream of segmental patterning signals to control epithelial morphogenesis. Our studies provide a framework with which to understand how Rho signaling cascades orchestrate complex morphogenetic events in multi-cellular organisms, and evidence that patterning signals regulate these cascades to control apical constriction and epithelial invagination at presumptive joints.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mod.2010.09.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3029487PMC
June 2011

Essential roles for lines in mediating leg and antennal proximodistal patterning and generating a stable Notch signaling interface at segment borders.

Dev Biol 2009 Jun 24;330(1):93-104. Epub 2009 Mar 24.

Program in Cell, Molecular, and Developmental Biology, Tufts University School of Medicine, 150 Harrison Avenue, Boston, MA, USA.

The Drosophila leg imaginal disc provides a paradigm with which to understand the fundamental developmental mechanisms that generate an intricate appendage structure. Leg formation depends on the subdivision of the leg proximodistal (PD) axis into broad domains by the leg gap genes. The leg gap genes act combinatorially to initiate the expression of the Notch ligands Delta (Dl) and Serrate (Ser) in a segmental pattern. Dl and Ser induce the expression of a set of transcriptional regulators along the segment border, which mediate leg segment growth and joint morphogenesis. Here we show that Lines accumulates in nuclei in the presumptive tarsus and the inter-joints of proximal leg segments and governs the formation of these structures by destabilizing the nuclear protein Bowl. Across the presumptive tarsus, lines modulates the opposing expression landscapes of the leg gap gene dachshund (dac) and the tarsal PD genes, bric-a-brac 2 (bab), apterous (ap) and BarH1 (Bar). In this manner, lines inhibits proximal tarsal fates and promotes medial and distal tarsal fates. Across proximal leg segments, lines antagonizes bowl to promote Dl expression by relief-of-repression. In turn, Dl signals asymmetrically to stabilize Bowl in adjacent distal cells. Bowl, then, acts cell-autonomously, together with one or more redundant factors, to repress Dl expression. Together, lines and bowl act as a binary switch to generate a stable Notch signaling interface between Dl-expressing cells and adjacent distal cell. lines plays analogous roles in developing antennae, which are serially homologous to legs, suggesting evolutionarily conserved roles for lines in ventral appendage formation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ydbio.2009.03.014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2917052PMC
June 2009

Reciprocal roles for bowl and lines in specifying the peripodial epithelium and the disc proper of the Drosophila wing primordium.

Development 2008 Sep 13;135(18):3031-41. Epub 2008 Aug 13.

Program in Cell, Molecular and Developmental Biology, 150 Harrison Avenue, Boston, MA 02111, USA.

Central to embryonic development is the generation of molecular asymmetries across fields of undifferentiated cells. The Drosophila wing imaginal disc provides a powerful system with which to understand how such asymmetries are generated and how they contribute to formation of a complex structure. Early in development, the wing primordium is subdivided into a thin layer of peripodial epithelium (PE) and an apposing thickened layer of pseudostratified columnar epithelium (CE), known as the disc proper (DP). The DP gives rise to the wing blade, hinge and dorsal mesothorax, whereas the PE makes only a minor contribution to the ventral hinge and pleura. The mechanisms that generate this major asymmetry and its contribution to wing development are poorly understood. The Lines protein destabilizes the nuclear protein Bowl in ectodermal structures. Here, we show that Bowl accumulates in the PE from early stages of wing development and is absent from the DP. Broad inhibition of Bowl in the PE resulted in the replacement of the PE with a mirror image duplication of the DP. The failure to generate the PE severely compromised wing growth and the formation of the notum. Conversely, the activation of bowl in the DP (by removal or inhibition of lines function) resulted in the transformation of the DP into PE. Thus, we provide evidence that bowl and lines act as a binary switch to subdivide the wing primordium into PE and DP, and assign crucial roles for this asymmetry in wing growth and patterning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/dev.020800DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2910904PMC
September 2008
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