Publications by authors named "Lin Zhu"

1,545 Publications

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All-sealed paper-based electrochemiluminescence platform for on-site determination of lead ions.

Biosens Bioelectron 2021 Jul 21;192:113524. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan, 250022, PR China. Electronic address:

Lab-on-paper (LOP) devices are urgently required for the rapid development of point-of-care diagnoses and environmental assays. Herein, an all-sealed paper-based electrochemiluminescence (ECL) platform was developed to achieve lead ions (Pb) sensitive analysis via incorporating convenient plastic package technology. Benefiting from transparent plastic encapsulation, the sealed devices effectively avoided the interference of O. Meanwhile, myrica rubra-like Pt nanomaterials (MPNs) prepared by an economical and easy-to-operate ultrasound method were employed to catalyze HO decomposition. With the help of Pb-specific DNAzymes, the oligonucleotide probe functionalized via MPNs could be detached from the device in the presence of target, resulting in the reduced ECL intensity. Moreover, the combination of modified paper electrode with functional regions separated by multiple layers of wax enhanced the practicability of the LOP device for rapid detection. Under the optimal conditions, the all-sealed platform achieved wide linear relationship ranging from 0.01 nM to 0.05 μM with a low detection limit of 0.004 nM for sensitive detecting Pb. It is believed that this platform could provide a robust, simple and versatile strategy for sensitive determination of heavy metal ions, and be applied in on-site contamination analysis in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2021.113524DOI Listing
July 2021

Several miRNAs derived from serum extracellular vesicles are potential biomarkers for early diagnosis and progression of Parkinson's disease.

Transl Neurodegener 2021 Jul 28;10(1):25. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Experimental Surgery, Tangdu Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, 710038, China.

Background: Blood-based test for predicting disease progression and early diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) is an unmet need in the clinic. The profiles of microRNAs (miRNAs) are regarded as potential diagnostic biomarkers for human diseases, whereas miRNAs in the periphery are susceptible to the influence of various components. MiRNAs enriched in serum extracellular vesicles (EVs) have demonstrated disease-specific advantages in diagnosis due to their high abundance, stability and resistance to degradation. This study was aimed to screen differentially expressed EV-derived miRNAs between healthy controls and PD patients to aid in diagnosis of PD.

Methods: A total of 31 healthy controls and 72 patients with a diagnosis of PD at different Hoehn and Yahr stages in Tangdu Hospital were included. In total, 185 differentially expressed miRNAs were obtained through RNA sequencing of serum EVs as well as edgeR and t-test analyses. Subsequently, the weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) was utilized to identify the commonly expressed miRNAs in all stages of PD by constructing connections between modules, and specifically expressed miRNAs in each stage of PD by functional enrichment analysis. After aligning these miRNAs with PD-related miRNAs in Human miRNA Disease Database, the screened miRNAs were further validated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) using peripheral blood EVs from 40 more participants.

Results: WGCNA showed that 4 miRNAs were commonly associated with all stages of PD and 13 miRNAs were specifically associated with different stages of PD. Of the 17 obtained miRNAs, 7 were validated by ROC curve analysis and 7 were verified in 40 more participants by qRT-PCR. Six miRNAs were verified by both methods, which included 2 miRNAs that were commonly expressed in all stages of PD and 4 miRNAs that were specifically expressed in different stages of PD.

Conclusions: The 6 serum EV-derived miRNAs, hsa-miR-374a-5p, hsa-miR-374b-5p, hsa-miR-199a-3p, hsa-miR-28-5p, hsa-miR-22-5p and hsa-miR-151a-5p, may potentially be used as biomarkers for PD progression and for early diagnosis of PD in populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40035-021-00249-yDOI Listing
July 2021

Correlation analysis of sacrococcygeal pressure and operation time in patients undergoing general anesthesia in the supine position.

J Int Med Res 2021 Jul;49(7):300060520984595

Department of Nursing, Chengdu Wuhou District Yulin Community Health Service Center, Chengdu, China.

Objective: This prospective study was performed to explore the change in sacrococcygeal pressure during an operation under general anesthesia in the supine position and identify the correlation between pressure injury and body mass index.

Methods: This study involved 99 patients who underwent general anesthesia. Sacrococcygeal pressure was measured and recorded at seven time points: before general anesthesia, 5 minutes after general anesthesia, and 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 hours after the beginning of the operation. The pressure change at each time point was compared, and the factors affecting the pressure were analyzed.

Results: The correlation analysis showed that the operation time was significantly and positively associated with the occurrence of pressure injury.

Conclusion: Perioperative management should be strengthened to speed up the surgical process and shorten the operation time, which will help to reduce the occurrence of intraoperative pressure injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0300060520984595DOI Listing
July 2021

The Role of TRPC6 in Renal Ischemia/Reperfusion and Cellular Hypoxia/Reoxygenation Injuries.

Front Mol Biosci 2021 8;8:698975. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Department of Anatomy, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), a major cause of acute kidney injury (AKI), is a serious clinical event in patients during post-renal transplantation. I/R is associated with renal dysfunction and tubular apoptosis, and calcium (Ca) overload has been reported to be a crucial factor on tubular apoptosis in I/R injury (IRI). The canonical transient receptor potential channel 6 (TRPC6), a type of non-selective Ca channel, is involved in many renal diseases. Our earlier study identified that TRPC6-mediated Ca influx plays a novel role in suppressing cytoprotective autophagy triggered by oxidative stress in primary tubular epithelial cells (TECs). This study explored the potential beneficial impact of TRPC6 knockout (TRPC6) and the relevant cellular mechanisms against I/R-induced AKI in mice. Measuring changes of renal function, apoptotic index, and autophagy in mouse kidneys that suffered 24 h reperfusion after 40 min ischemia and working with TECs that suffered 24 h reoxygenation after 24 h hypoxia, we found that 1) IRI tissues had increased TRPC6 expression and TRPC6 knockout significantly ameliorated renal damage induced by IRI; 2) TRPC6 knockout enhanced the level of autophagy and alleviated the depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential (ψm, MMP) and apoptotic changes upon IRI; and 3) IRI tissues had increased p-AKT and p-ERK1/2 expressions, while TRPC6 knockout could markedly reduce the phosphorylation of AKT and ERK1/2. These discoveries suggest that, by reducing Ca overload, the underlying protective mechanism of TRPC6 may be involved in down-regulation of PI3K/AKT and ERK signaling, which is likely to provide a new avenue for future AKI therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmolb.2021.698975DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8295989PMC
July 2021

Cerebroprotein Hydrolysate-I Inhibits Hippocampal Neuronal Apoptosis by Activating PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway in Vascular Dementia Mice.

Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2021 17;17:2359-2368. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Department of Neurology, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong, 266003, People's Republic of China.

Introduction: Vascular dementia (VaD), one of the brain injuries, is difficult to be cured, so it is important to take active neuroprotective treatment after its occurrence. Many studies have shown that apoptosis serves an important role in VaD occurrence; therefore, inhibition of apoptosis may contribute to the recovery of neurological function after VaD occurrence. Cerebroprotein hydrolysate-I (CH-I), a neuropeptide preparation which consists of several amino acids and small molecular peptides as the main active constituent, is extracted using a method similar to cerebrolysin (CBL) which has neuroprotective and neurotrophic effects.

Methods: In the present study, a VaD model which was constructed using bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) in Kunming mice was applied to examine the neuroprotective effects of CH-I.

Results: The results show that CH-I treatment could attenuate the decrease of learning and memory ability, cell apoptosis in the hippocampal CA1 region and inhibit the activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9 in VaD mice. Furthermore, CH-I treatment could also upregulate Bcl-2 protein levels and activate PI3K and Akt.

Discussion: We speculate that CH-I may induce a neuroprotective effect activating PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in VaD mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S311760DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8297406PMC
July 2021

Exposure levels of mycophenolic acid are associated with comorbidities in children with systemic lupus erythematosus.

Lupus 2021 Jul 26:9612033211034555. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy, National Children's Medical Center, Children's Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Introduction: Little is known about the relationship between exposure levels of mycophenolic acid (MPA), the active metabolite of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), and comorbidities of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in children. This study aims to explore this association.

Methods: Longitudinal data from SLE children, who were taking MMF for immunosuppression and under therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM), were retrospectively collected. Area under the concentration-time curve of mycophenolic acid (MPA) over 24 hours (AUC) was estimated with Bayesian methods. Logistic regression and random forest models were used to explore the association between comorbidities and MPA exposure levels.

Results: This study included 107 children with 358 times of follow-up (median age 169.02 months). The incidence of diabetes, acute kidney injury (AKI), or pneumonia was significantly associated with AUC (odds ratio [OR] 0.991, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.982-0.999), SLE duration (OR 1.012, 95% CI 1.002-1.022), lymphocyte percentage (OR 0.959, 95% CI 0.925-0.991), plasma albumin levels (OR 0.891, 95% CI 0.843-0.940), use of aspirin (OR 0.292, 95% CI 0.126-0.633) and hydroxychloroquine (OR 0.407, 95% CI 0.184-0.906). The random forest model showed that albumin and AUC were two important predictors. The case group (with the three comorbidities) had a mean AUC of 73.63 mg · h/L, while the control group had a mean AUC of 100.39 mg · h/L.

Conclusions: Increased levels of MPA exposure are associated with decreased incidence odds of diabetes, AKI or pneumonia in SLE children. An AUC of 100.39 mg · h/L or an AUC of 50.20 mg · h/L could be used as the targeted exposure level for clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/09612033211034555DOI Listing
July 2021

A panel of differentially methylated regions enable prognosis prediction for colorectal cancer.

Genomics 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Epidemiology, College of Public Health, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150081, Heilongjiang Province, PR China. Electronic address:

We aim to identify a panel of differentially methylated regions (DMRs) for predicting survival outcomes for patients with CRC from the TCGA (n = 393). Four DMRs (MUC12, TBX20, CHN2, and B3GNT7) were selected as candidate prognostic markers for CRC. The prediction potential of selected DMRs was validated by the targeted bisulfite sequencing method in an independent cohort with 251 Chinese CRC patients. DMR methylation scores (DMSs) were constructed to evaluate the prognosis of CRC. Results of the validation cohort confirmed that higher DMSs were associated with poor overall survival (OS) of CRC, with hazard ratio (HR) value ranged from 1.445 to 2.698 in multivariable Cox models. Patients in the high prognostic index (high-PI) group showed a markedly unfavorable prognosis compared to the low-PI group in both TCGA discovery cohort (HR = 3.508, 95%CI: 2.196-5.604, P < 0.001) and independent validation cohort (HR = 1.912, 95%CI: 1.258-2.907, P = 0.002).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygeno.2021.07.010DOI Listing
July 2021

Neuroprotective effect of minocycline on rat retinal ischemia-reperfusion injury.

Mol Vis 2021 8;27:438-456. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Institute of Advanced Materials for Nano-Bio Applications, School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, China.

Purpose: To examine the neuroprotective effect of minocycline on retinal ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury in rats and investigate its possible mechanism of action.

Methods: Retinal IR injury was established by increasing the intraocular pressure in rats up to 110 mmHg for 60 min. The animals with retinal IR injury were intraperitoneally injected with 22.5 mg/kg minocycline twice a day for 14 days. The control group received the same amount of saline. Subsequently, funduscopic examination, retinal thickness measurement, retinal microvascular morphology, full-field electroretinography (ERG), retinal apoptotic cell count, and remaining retinal ganglion cell (RGC) count were performed. The expression of iNOS, Bax, Bcl2, IL-1α, IL-6, TNF-α, caspase-3, GFAP, Iba-1, Hif-1α, and Nrf2 was examined with real-time PCR and western blotting.

Results: Minocycline treatment prevented IR-induced rat retinal edema and retinal cells apoptosis at the early stage and alleviated retina atrophy, blood vessel tortuosity, functional photoreceptor damage, and RGC degeneration at the late stage of the IR injury. At the molecular level, minocycline affected retinal gene and protein expression induced by IR.

Conclusions: The results suggested that minocycline has a neuroprotective effect on rat retinal IR injury, possibly through anti-inflammation, antiapoptosis, antioxidation, and inhibition of microglial activation.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8279698PMC
July 2021

Effects of aerobic exercise on obese children with metabolic syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Research Center for Physical Fitness and Health Promotion of Adolescent, Guangzhou Sport University, Guangzhou, China.

Objectives: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is systemic metabolic disease that results from insulin resistance or obesity. Numerous meta-analyses have investigated the effect of exercise on different populations, but none were aimed at the effect of aerobic exercise alone on obese children. This review systematically assessed and performed a meta-analysis on the effect of aerobic exercise on obese children with MetS.

Content: MEDLINE via PubMed, Embase, SPORTDiscus, and the Cochrane library were searched and screened from inception to 20 October 2020 for randomized controlled trials. The inclusion criteria were obese children who met the criteria for MetS and aged 5-19 years old in an aerobic exercise group. The meta-analysis included eight trials with a total of 197 participants. Aerobic exercise significantly improved the waist circumference (mean difference [MD]=-3.97; 95% confidence interval [CI]=-6.12 to -1.83; p<0.01), body mass index (standardized MD [SMD]=-0.5; 95% CI=-0.70 to -0.29; p<0.01), triglyceride (SMD=-24.6; 95% CI=-33.85 to -15.35; p<0.01), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (SMD=2.36; 95% CI=0.44 to 4.27; p<0.01), and systolic blood pressure (SMD=-6.90; 95% CI=-10.46 to -3.35; p<0.01).

Summary: Based on the results of this meta-analysis, during the intervention period of the included studies, aerobic exercise alone mainly affected the lipoprotein, blood pressure, and body dimensions but cannot completely cure the MetS of obese children.

Outlook: The effects of different types of aerobic exercise on obese children with MetS and exercise dose to cure the MetS of obese children needs to be further studied.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/jpem-2021-0295DOI Listing
July 2021

Association between autoimmune encephalitis and epilepsy: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

Seizure 2021 Jul 12;91:346-359. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Neurology, First Affiliated Hospital, Kunming Medical University, 295 Xi Chang Road, Kunming, Yunnan 650032, PR China. Electronic address:

Background: Diverse neuronal antibodies are related to autoimmune encephalitis (AE) and AE-related epilepsy. However, the epidemiological characteristics of AE, AE-associated antibodies, and AE-related seizures are still unclear.

Aims: This research evaluated the relationship between AE, AE-related seizures, and neuronal antibodies, as well as the morbidity of AE with early incidence.

Methods: The PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, and Web of Science databases were searched. Pooled estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random-effects model.

Results: Of the 4,869 citations identified, 100 articles were reviewed in full, and 42 subgroups were analyzed. The overall incidence of AE patients with seizures was 42% (95% CI: 0.40-0.44), and among them, the incidence of epilepsy in anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis patients was 73% (95% CI: 0.70-0.77). Subsequently, we found that the prevalence of AE as the cause of epilepsy within the pooled period was 1% (95% CI: 0.01-0.02), while the overall positive rate of neuronal antibodies in epilepsy patients was 4% (95% CI: 0.03-0.05). Additionally, the detection rates of different antibodies among epilepsy patients were as follows: anti-NMDAR, 1%; anti-leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1 (LGI1), 1%; anti-contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CASPR2), 2%.

Conclusion: Based on our findings, neuronal antibodies may serve as a bridge to study AE and immune-related epilepsy. To further understand the differences in outcomes following different treatment measures, and to provide more information for public health policy and prevention, more research is needed to improve the accuracy of estimations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.seizure.2021.07.005DOI Listing
July 2021

sp. nov. and sp. nov., isolated from salt lake and saline soil.

Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2021 Jul;71(7)

School of Food and Biological Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, PR China.

Two halophilic archaeal strains, Gai3-2 and NJ-3-1, were isolated from salt lake and saline soil samples, respectively, collected in PR China. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of the two strains were 97.5% similar to each other. Strains Gai3-2 and NJ-3-1 had the highest sequence similarities to '' G22 (96.7 and 97.8%, respectively), and displayed similarities of 91.5-93.5% and 92.3-94.7%, respectively, to members. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the two strains formed different branches and clustered tightly with '' G22 and members. The average nucleotide identity (ANI), in silico DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH) and amino acid identity (AAI) values between the two strains were 83.1, 26.9 and 77.9%, respectively, much lower than the threshold values proposed as a species boundary. These values between the two strains and '' G22 (ANI 77.9-78.2%, DDH 22.5-22.6% and AAI 68.8-69.3%) and members (ANI 77.53-77.63%, DDH 21.8-22.3% and AAI 68.4-69.4%) were almost identical, and much lower than the recommended threshold values for species delimitation. These results suggested that strains Gai3-2 and NJ-3-1 represent two novel species of . Based on phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic properties, strains Gai3-2 (=CGMCC 1.16080=JCM 33550) and NJ-3-1 (=CGMCC 1.16040=JCM 33552) represent two novel species of the genus , for which the name sp. nov. and sp. nov. are proposed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/ijsem.0.004900DOI Listing
July 2021

Matrine treatment induced an A2 astrocyte phenotype and protected the blood-brain barrier in CNS autoimmunity.

J Chem Neuroanat 2021 Jul 17;117:102004. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Department of Pharmacy, the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, 450052, Henan, China. Electronic address:

Type 1 astrocytes (A1), which are highly proinflammatory and neurotoxic, are prevalent in multiple sclerosis (MS). In addition, in MS and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), immune cells must cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and infiltrate into the parenchyma of the central nervous system (CNS) in order to induce neurological deficits. We have previously reported that treatment of EAE with matrine (MAT), a quinazine alkaloid derived from Sophorae Flavescens, effectively inhibited CNS inflammation and promoted neuroregeneration. However, the impact of MAT treatment on astrocyte phenotype is not known. In the present study, we showed that MAT treatment inhibited the generation of neurotoxic A1 astrocytes and promoted neuroprotective A2 astrocytes in the CNS of EAE, most likely by inhibiting production of the A1-inducing cytokine cocktail. MAT also downregulated the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) and upregulated tight junction proteins Claudin 5 and Occludin, thus protecting the BBB from CNS inflammation-induced damage. Moreover, MAT treatment promotes the formation of astrocyte tight junctions at glia limitans, thereby limiting parenchymal invasion of the CNS by immune cells. Taken together, the inhibition of A1 astrogliogenesis, and the dual effects on the BBB and astrocytic glia limitans, may be the mechanisms whereby MAT significantly improves EAE clinical scores and neuroprotection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jchemneu.2021.102004DOI Listing
July 2021

Identifying Mild Cognitive Impairment in Parkinson's Disease With Electroencephalogram Functional Connectivity.

Front Aging Neurosci 2021 1;13:701499. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Neurology, Shenzhen People's Hospital, The Second Clinical Medical College, Jinan University, Shenzhen, China.

Objective: Cognitive impairment occurs frequently in Parkinson's disease (PD) and negatively impacts the patient's quality of life. However, its pathophysiological mechanism remains unclear, hindering the development of new therapies. Changes in brain connectivity are related to cognitive impairment in patients with PD, with the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) being considered the essential region related to PD cognitive impairment. Nevertheless, few studies have focused on the global connectivity responsible for communication with the DLPFC node, the posterior division of the middle frontal gyrus (PMFG) in patients with PD; this was the focus of this study.

Methods: We applied resting-state electroencephalography (EEG) and calculated a reliable functional connectivity measurement, the debiased weighted phase lag index (dWPLI), to examine inter-regional functional connectivity in 68 patients with PD who were classified into two groups according to their cognitive condition.

Results: We observed that altered left and right PMFG-based functional connectivity associated with cognitive impairment in patients with PD in the theta frequency bands under the eyes closed condition ( = -0.426, < 0.001 and = -0.437, < 0.001, respectively). Exploratory results based on the MoCA subdomains indicated that poorer visuospatial function was associated with higher right PMFG-based functional connectivity ( = -0.335, = 0.005), and poorer attention function was associated with higher left and right PMFG-based functional connectivity ( = -0.380, = 0.001 and = -0.256, = 0.035, respectively). Further analysis using logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves found that this abnormal functional connectivity was an independent risk factor for cognitive impairment [odds ratio (OR): 2.949, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.294-6.725, = 0.01 for left PMFG; OR: 11.278, 95% CI: 2.578-49.335, = 0.001 for right PMFG, per 0.1 U], and provided moderate classification power to discriminate between cognitive abilities in patients with PD [area under the ROC curve (AUC) = 0.770 for left PMFG; AUC = 0.809 for right PMFG].

Conclusion: These preliminary findings indicate that abnormal PMFG-based functional connectivity patterns associated with cognitive impairment in the theta frequency bands under the eyes closed condition and altered functional connectivity patterns have the potential to act as reliable biomarkers for identifying cognitive impairment in patients with PD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2021.701499DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8281812PMC
July 2021

Rheumatoid arthritis treatment using hydroxychloroquine and methotrexate co-loaded nanomicelles: In vivo results.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2021 Jun 29;206:111952. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission, Nuclear Engineering Institute, Laboratory of Nanoradiopharmaceuticals and Synthesis of Novel Radiopharmaceuticals, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Zona Oeste State University, Laboratory of Radiopharmacy and Nanoradiopharmaceuticals, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Electronic address:

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most common inflammatory rheumatic disease, affecting almost 1% of the world population. It is a long-lasting autoimmune disease, which mainly affects the joints causing inflammation and swelling of the synovial joint. RA has a significant impact on the ability to perform daily activities including simple work and household chores. Nonetheless, due to the long periods of pain and the continuous use of anti-inflammatory drugs, RA can debilitate the quality of life and increases mortality. Current therapeutic approaches to treat RA aim to achieve prolonged activity and early and persistent remission of the disease, with the gradual adoption of different drugs available. In this study, we developed a novel hydroxychloroquine and methotrexate co-loaded Pluronic® F-127 nanomicelle and evaluated its therapeutic effects against RA. Our results showed that drug-loaded nanomicelles were capable of modulating the inflammatory process of RA and reducing osteoclastogenesis, edema, and cell migration to the joint. Overall, compared to the free drugs, the drug-loaded nanomicelles showed a 2-fold higher therapeutic effect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfb.2021.111952DOI Listing
June 2021

Coordinated transcriptomics and peptidomics of central nervous system identify neuropeptides and their G protein-coupled receptors in the oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta.

Comp Biochem Physiol Part D Genomics Proteomics 2021 Jul 10;40:100882. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Department of Entomology and MOA Key Lab of Pest Monitoring and Green Management, College of Plant Protection, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China. Electronic address:

The oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta is a cosmopolitan pest of orchard, which causes serious economic losses to the fruit production. Neuropeptides and their specific receptors (primarily G protein-coupled receptors, GPCRs) regulate multiple biological functions in insects and represent promising next-generation pest management strategy. Here, we generated a transcriptome of the central nervous system (CNS) of G. molesta. Overall, 57 neuropeptide precursor genes were identified and 128 various mature peptides were predicted from these precursors. Using peptidomic analysis of CNS of G. molesta, we identified total of 28 mature peptides and precursor-related peptides from 16 precursors. A total of 41 neuropeptide GPCR genes belonging to three classes were also identified. These GPCRs and their probable ligands were predicted. Additionally, expression patterns of these 98 genes in various larval tissues were evaluated using quantitative real-time PCR. Taken together, these results will benefit further investigations to determine physiological functions and pharmacological characterization of neuropeptides and their GPCRs in G. molesta; and to develop specific neuropeptide-based agents for this tortricid fruit pest control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbd.2021.100882DOI Listing
July 2021

LACTB2 renders radioresistance by activating PINK1/Parkin-dependent mitophagy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

Cancer Lett 2021 Jul 13;518:127-139. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Institute of Radiation Medicine, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200032, China. Electronic address:

Radiotherapy is a standard and conventional treatment strategy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC); however, radioresistance remains refractory to clinical outcomes. Understanding the molecular mechanism of radioresistance is crucial for advancing the efficacy of radiotherapy and improving the prognosis of NPC. In this study, β-lactamase-like-protein 2 (LACTB2) was identified as a potential biomarker for radioresistance using tandem mass tag proteomic analysis of NPC cells, gene chip analysis of NPC tissues, and differential gene analysis between NPC and normal nasopharyngeal tissues from the Gene Expression Omnibus database GSE68799. Meanwhile, LACTB2 levels were elevated in the serum of patients with NPC after radiotherapy. Inhibiting LACTB2 levels and mitophagy can sensitize NPC cells to ionizing radiation. In NPC cells, LACTB2 was augmented at the transcription and protein levels after radiation rather than nucleus-cytoplasm-mitochondria transposition to activate PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) and mitophagy. In addition, LACTB2 was first authenticated to co-locate with PINK1 by interacting with its N-terminal domain. Together, our findings indicate that overexpressed LACTB2 provoked PINK1-dependent mitophagy to promote radioresistance and thus might serve as a prognostic biomarker for NPC radiotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2021.07.019DOI Listing
July 2021

A New Highly Deuterated [F]AV-45, [F]D15FSP, for Imaging β-Amyloid Plaques in the Brain.

ACS Med Chem Lett 2021 Jul 21;12(7):1086-1092. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Five Eleven Pharma Inc., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, United States.

[F]AV-45 (florbetapir f18, Amyvid) is an FDA-approved PET imaging agent targeting Aβ plaques in the brain for diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Its metabolites led to a high background in the brain and large bone uptake of [F]F, produced from dealkylation of the PEG chain. To slow down the in vivo metabolism, we report the design, synthesis, and evaluation of a highly deuterated derivative, [F]D15FSP, and compared it with -methyl-deuterated [F]D3FSP and nondeuterated [F]AV-45. D15FSP displayed excellent binding affinity ( = 7.52 nM) to Aβ aggregates. In vitro autoradiography of [F]D15FSP, [F]D3FSP, and [F]AV-45 showed excellent binding to Aβ plaques in human AD brain sections. Biodistribution studies displayed lower bone uptake at 120 min for [F]D15FSP compared to that for [F]D3FSP and [F]AV-45 (1.44 vs 4.23 and 4.03%ID/g, respectively). As the highly deuterated [F]D15FSP displayed excellent Aβ binding affinity, high initial brain penetration, and lower bone retention, it might be suitable for PET imaging in detecting Aβ plaques.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsmedchemlett.1c00062DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8274066PMC
July 2021

Cerebroprotein hydrolysate-I protects senescence-induced by D-galactose in PC12 cells and mice.

Food Sci Nutr 2021 Jul 17;9(7):3722-3731. Epub 2021 May 17.

Institute of Cerebrovascular Diseases Taishan Scholars Construction Project Excellent Innovative Team of Shandong Province Medical Research Center The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University Qingdao China.

Cerebroprotein hydrolysate-I (CH-I),a mixture of peptides extracted from porcine brain tissue,has shown a neuroprotective effect, but its role in brain senescence is unclear. In the present study, we established a senescence model of PC12 cells and mice to investigate the effect of CH-I on brain senescence via JAK2/STAT3 pathway. The results showed that CH-I could improve cell viability, inhibit the apoptosis of cells, and reduce the senescence-positive cells induced by D-galactose. In , CH-I improved the learning ability and memory of aging mice, reduced neuronal damage in mice hippocampus. Mechanism studies showed that CH-I could adjust BDNF protein expressions, activate JAK2/STAT3 pathway, and finally enhance telomerase activity. All these findings indicated that CH-I showed a neuroprotective effect against brain senescence. These results might provide further reference and support for the application of CH-I in delaying aging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.2333DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8269606PMC
July 2021

The Classification and Basic Processes of Autophagy.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1208:3-16

Department of Experimental Surgery, Tangdu Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China.

Autophagy is a general term for the process of the lysosomal degradation of intracellular components, a process occurring exclusively in eukaryotic cells. Based on the way that intracellular substrates are transported to lysosomes, autophagy in mammalian cells can be divided into three main types: macroautophagy, microautophagy, and chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA). Each type has its unique molecular machinery and is tightly regulated by various cellular signals, helping cells adapt to a changing environment. Autophagy can also be divided into two categories based on cargo selectivity: selective autophagy and nonselective autophagy. Nonselective autophagy refers to the bulk transport of organelles or other cytoplasmic components to lysosomes, while selective autophagy refers to the degradation of a specific substrate. Autophagy plays an essential role in maintaining cellular homeostasis, and dysregulation of it may participate in the pathological process of many human diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-16-2830-6_1DOI Listing
July 2021

Climate warming will increase chances of hybridization and introgression between two lizards (Lacertidae).

Ecol Evol 2021 Jul 11;11(13):8573-8584. Epub 2021 May 11.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Biodiversity and Biotechnology College of Life Sciences Nanjing Normal University Nanjing China.

Coexisting species may experience population and range changes alone or jointly in response to environmental change. Here, we used six climate variables and ten modeling algorithms to predict the distribution of two species (.  and . ) in China. We identified the sympatric and allopatric areas by comparing projections between the two species based on habitat suitability under present and future climate scenarios. We constructed the hypervolumes of six climate variables for the two species and then evaluated overlaps between hypervolumes. From this study, we know the following. First, minimum temperature of coldest month contributes the most to the prediction of habitat suitability. Second, habitats suitable for the two species will shift northward in response to climate warming. Third, the range of will expand across the four future time intervals before 2,100, namely the 2021-2040, 2041-2060, 2061-2080, and 2081-2100 intervals, under both Shared socioeconomic pathway (SSP) 245 and SSP585 scenarios, and the range of will also expand in the future except at the 2081-2100 interval under the SSP585 scenario. Fourth, the sympatric areas will contract or expand under the SSP245 scenario and expand across the four future time intervals before 2,100 under the SSP585 scenario. Fifth, the niche hypervolumes of the two species partially overlapped, and the differences in niche centroid show some degree of niche differentiation between the two species. These results allow to conclude that climate warming will not only drive the northward drift of sympatric areas but also increase the size of these areas if nothing is done to limit the emission of greenhouse gases. Given the existence of hybridization and introgression between and in the field where they coexist, we also conclude that climate warming will increase chances of hybridization and introgression between the two species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.7671DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8258214PMC
July 2021

The MERS-CoV N Protein Regulates Host Cytokinesis and Protein Translation via Interaction With EF1A.

Front Microbiol 2021 23;12:551602. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Beijing Institute of Biotechnology, Army Institute of Military Medical Sciences, Academy of Military Sciences, Beijing, China.

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), a pathogen causing severe respiratory disease in humans that emerged in June 2012, is a novel beta coronavirus similar to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV). In this study, immunoprecipitation and proximity ligation assays revealed that the nucleocapsid (N) protein of MERS-CoV interacted with human translation elongation factor 1A (EF1A), an essential component of the translation system with important roles in protein translation, cytokinesis, and filamentous actin (F-actin) bundling. The C-terminal motif (residues 359-363) of the N protein was the crucial domain involved in this interaction. The interaction between the MERS-CoV N protein and EF1A resulted in cytokinesis inhibition due to the formation of inactive F-actin bundles, as observed in an actin polymerization assay and in MERS-CoV-infected cells. Furthermore, the translation of a CoV-like reporter mRNA carrying the MERS-CoV 5'UTR was significantly potentiated by the N protein, indicating that a similar process may contribute to EF1A-associated viral protein translation. This study highlights the crucial role of EF1A in MERS-CoV infection and provides new insights into the pathogenesis of coronavirus infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.551602DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8261062PMC
June 2021

Assessment on chronic and transgenerational toxicity of methamphetamine to Caenorhabditis elegans and associated aquatic risk through toxicity indicator sensitivity distribution (TISD) analysis.

Environ Pollut 2021 Jul 2;288:117696. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

MOE Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin, 300350, PR China.

Evidence about the adverse effects of methamphetamine (METH) on invertebrates is scarce. Hence, C. elegans, a representative invertebrate model, was exposed to METH at environmental levels to estimate chronic and transgenerational toxicity. The results of chronic exposure were integrated into an underlying toxicity framework of METH in invertebrates (e.g., benthos) at environmentally relevant concentrations. The induction of cellular oxidative damage-induced apoptosis and fluctuation of ecologically important traits (i.e., feeding and locomotion) might be attributed by the activation of the longevity regulating pathway regulated by DAF-16/FOXO, and detoxification by CYP family enzymes. The adverse effects to the organism level included impaired viability and decreased fecundity. The results from transgenerational exposure elucidated the cumulative METH-induced damage in invertebrates. Finally, a new risk assessment method named toxicity indicator sensitivity distribution (TISD) analysis was proposed by combining multiple toxicity indicator test data (EC) to derive the hazardous concentration for 10% indicators (C) of one species. The risk quotient (RQ) values calculated by measured environmental concentrations and C in southern China, southeastern Australia, and the western US crossed the alarm line (RQ = 5), suggesting a need for long-term monitoring.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.117696DOI Listing
July 2021

Adaptive nonsingular fixed-time sliding mode control for uncertain robotic manipulators under actuator saturation.

ISA Trans 2021 May 25. Epub 2021 May 25.

CAS Key Laboratory of On-orbit Manufacturing and Integration for Space Optics System, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130033, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China; Institute of Applied Physics, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena, Germany.

This paper describes an adaptive nonsingular fixed-time sliding mode control (ANFSMC) scheme under actuator saturation that can track the trajectory of a robotic manipulator under external disturbances and inertia uncertainties. First, a novel NFSMC that offers rapid convergence and avoids singularities is proposed for ensuring robotic manipulators global approximate fixed-time convergence. An ANFSMC is then developed for which the bound of the coupling uncertainty is not necessary to know in advance. The controller exhibits small absolute tracking errors and consumes little energy. An actuator saturation compensator is designed and shown to minimize the chattering of the system while accelerating the trajectory tracking. The proposed schemes are analyzed using Lyapunov stability theory, and their effectiveness and superiority are demonstrated through numerical simulations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isatra.2021.05.011DOI Listing
May 2021

COVID-19 pandemic in BRICS countries and its association with socio-economic and demographic characteristics, health vulnerability, resources, and policy response.

Infect Dis Poverty 2021 Jul 8;10(1):97. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Peking University, Haidian District, No. 38, Xueyuan Road, Beijing, 100191, China.

Background: Little attention has been paid to the comparison of COVID-19 pandemic responses and related factors in BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa) countries. We aimed at evaluating the association of daily new COVID-19 cases with socio-economic and demographic factors, health vulnerability, resources, and policy response in BRICS countries.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study using data on the COVID-19 pandemic and other indicators of BRICS countries from February 26, 2020 to April 30, 2021. We compared COVID-19 epidemic in BRICS countries and analyzed related factors by log-linear Generalized Additive Model (GAM) models.

Results: In BRICS countries, India had the highest totally of confirmed cases with 18.76 million, followed by Brazil (14.45 million), Russia (4.81 million), and South Africa (1.58 million), while China (0.10 million) had the lowest figure. South Africa had the lowest rate of administered vaccine doses (0.18 million) among BRICS countries as of April 30, 2021. In the GAM model, a 1 unit increase in population density and policy stringency index was associated with a 5.17% and 1.95% growth in daily new COVID-19 cases (P < 0.001), respectively. Exposure-response curves for the effects of policy stringency index on daily new cases showed that there was a rapid surge in number of daily new COVID-19 cases when the index ranged from 0 to 45. The number of infections climbed slowly when the index ranged from 46 to 80, and decreased when the index was above 80 (P < 0.001). In addition, daily new COVID-19 cases (all P < 0.001) were also correlated with life expectancy at birth (-1.61%), extreme poverty (8.95%), human development index (-0.05%), GDP per capita (-0.18%), diabetes prevalence (0.66%), proportion of population aged 60 and above (2.23%), hospital beds per thousand people (-0.08%), proportion of people with access to improved drinking water (-7.40%), prevalence of open defecation (0.69%), and annual tourist/visitor arrivals (0.003%), after controlling other confounders. Different lag structures showed similar results in the sensitivity analysis.

Conclusions: Strong policy response is crucial to control the pandemic, such as effective containment and case management. Our findings also highlighted the importance of reducing socio-economic inequalities and strengthening the resilience of health systems to better respond to public health emergencies globally.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40249-021-00881-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8264992PMC
July 2021

Interaction mechanism of kafirin with ferulic acid and tetramethyl pyrazine: Multiple spectroscopic and molecular modeling studies.

Food Chem 2021 Jun 5;363:130298. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Food Nutrition and Human Health, Beijing Technology and Business University, Beijing 100048, China; Beijing Laboratory of Food Quality and Safety, Beijing Technology and Business University, Beijing 100048, China; Key Laboratory of Brewing Molecular Engineering of China Light Industry, Beijing Technology and Business University, Beijing 100048, China.

Ferulic acid (FA) and tetramethyl pyrazine (TMP) are intrinsic bioactive compounds in baijiu, and kafirin is the major protein of sorghum, which is the raw material of baijiu. In this study, the interactions of kafirin-FA and kafirin-TMP were investigated by multiple spectroscopic and molecular modeling techniques. Fluorescence spectra showed that intrinsic fluorescence of kafirin drastically quenched because of the formations of kafirin-FA and kafirin-TMP complexes. The CD studies indicated that the combination with FA or TMP decreased the α-helix content of kafirin slightly. The shifts and intensity changes of UV-Vis, FTIR and fluorescence spectra confirmed the formations of complexes. Moreover, the molecular docking and molecular dynamics studies showed that hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds played major roles in the formations of kafirin-FA and kafirin-TMP complexes, and the formations of complexes made kafirin structures more compact. This work is of great importance for further quality improvement in baijiu and alcoholic beverages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.130298DOI Listing
June 2021

A Multilevel Intervention to Increase HPV Vaccination among Asian American Adolescents.

J Community Health 2021 Jul 7. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

School of Public Health, University of Maryland, 4200 Valley Dr, College Park, MD, 20742, USA.

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the US. HPV vaccine is a viable source of prevention against high-risk strains that are likely to cause cancer. However, particularly among racial and ethnic minorities such as Chinese Americans, HPV vaccination rates are suboptimal. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of a culturally tailored intervention on HPV vaccine uptake in Chinese Americans. We designed and implemented a multilevel longitudinal pilot study to examine the efficacy of the HPV intervention among Chinese American parents/guardians. We recruited 180 participants from federally qualified health center and community-based clinics that serve predominantly low-income Chinese Americans in Philadelphia. Participants were randomized into an intervention group (n = 110) or a control group (n = 70). The intervention group received an HPV specific intervention, while the control group received a general health intervention. The primary outcome was medical record-confirmed receipt of first shot and completion of HPV vaccine within six months of receiving the interventions. Repeated measure ANOVA was utilized to examine the intervention effect on knowledge between intervention and control groups. Knowledge differed significantly, with participants in the intervention group demonstrating the greatest improvement following the intervention. A multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the association between HPV vaccine initiation and study group assignment. There was a significant effect of provider recommendation, parent's gender, and health insurance status on HPV vaccine uptake. This study demonstrated positive impact of a culturally tailored intervention on HPV vaccination uptake among Chinese Americans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10900-021-01013-zDOI Listing
July 2021

[Synthesis of zwitterionic dual-functional metal-organic framework nanocomposite with ultra-hydrophilicity for selective enrichment of glycopeptides].

Se Pu 2021 Mar;39(3):205-210

State Key Laboratory of Environmental and Biological Analysis, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong 999077, China.

Protein glycosylation is a ubiquitous and important biological process involved in various molecular functions and biological pathways. It also yields important biomarkers for clinical diagnoses. However, glycopeptide analysis is challenging due to low abundance, low ionization efficiency, and glycan heterogeneity. In the present study, a method based on hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) was developed for the selective enrichment of glycopeptides using a novel metal-organic framework (MOF) nanocomposite (AuGC/ZIF-8). Dual functionalization with glutathione and cysteine has resulted in an ultra-hydrophilic MOF, with synergistic effects and lower steric hindrance, providing more affinity sites for the glycopeptide enrichment. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was used as a model glycoprotein, and AuGC/ZIF-8 was used to enrich glycopeptides prior to analysis by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). AuGC/ZIF-8 displayed outstanding performance at enriching HRP glycopeptides, with high enrichment capacity (250 μg/mg), high selectivity in mixtures containing bovine serum albumin (BSA) (HRP-BSA (1∶200, mass ratio)), and high sensitivity at very low content (0.3 ng/μL). Thus this MOF holds promise for in-depth, comprehensive glycoproteomic and related analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3724/SP.J.1123.2020.11006DOI Listing
March 2021

Methylphenidate and atomoxetine treatment negatively affect physical growth indexes of school-age children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2021 Jul 1;208:173225. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Growth, Development, and Mental Health Center of Children and Adolescents, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400014, China; Chongqing Key Laboratory of Child Health and Nutrition, Chongqing 400014, China; Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorder, Chongqing 400014, China; China International Science and Technology Cooperation base of Child Development and Critical Disorders, Chongqing 400014, China; National Clinical Research Center for Child Health and Disorders, Chongqing 400014, China. Electronic address:

Aim: To determine the effects of drug therapy on the physical growth of school-age children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Method: The medical records of 86 participants (average age: 8.9 ± 2.2 years) with ADHD prescribed methylphenidate (MPH) or atomoxetine (ATX) for ≥24 weeks from the Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University were analysed.

Results: The Z-scores of height, weight and body mass index (BMI) of children with ADHD decreased significantly over the first six months of MPH treatment (P < 0.001). The slopes of the fitting lines after the first six months of MPH (-0.18, -0.58 and -0.69, respectively) returned over the entire treatment (the slopes changed to -0.027, -0.26 and -0.20, respectively). For ATX, the Z-scores of height of children decreased significantly over the first six months (P < 0.001), but the Z-scores of weight and BMI did not (P > 0.05). The slopes of the fitting lines after the first six months of ATX (-0.058, -0.032 and 0.0094, respectively) changed over the entire treatment (slopes were 0.16, 0.52 and 0.26, respectively). Children taking MPH were more likely to report decreased appetite (P < 0.05). The weight and BMI of the children receiving MPH were significantly correlated with decreased appetite (P < 0.01).

Conclusion: The physical growth indexes (PGIs) of school-age children and adolescents with ADHD were negatively affected while taking MPH, and these effects were gradually mitigated with continued treatment. ATX hardly had negative effects on weight and BMI. Neither MPH nor ATX had a significant negative effect on the height of children in long-term ADHD treatment. It is necessary for clinicians to consider children's diet during treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pbb.2021.173225DOI Listing
July 2021

Dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes in swimming pools and implication for human skin.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 25;794:148693. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Department of Environmental Engineering, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China. Electronic address:

Swimming pools are crowd-gathering places that are associated with numerous outbreaks of water-borne diseases. Herein, we investigated the distribution of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and bacterial communities in swimming pools and determined the influencing factors and potential human exposure. Sixteen swimming pools with different bather loads (0.01-0.16 person/m·h) were investigated. Water samples were collected, before opening and after closing of the facilities, from six swimming pools, and skin samples were collected from volunteers. Comprehensive approaches, high-throughput qPCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, were used. The results showed that swimming pools contained a higher relative abundance (0.62 gene copies/16S rRNA) and absolute abundance (6.57×10 gene copies/L) of ARGs on average. Bather loads contributed to the increase of core ARGs, and the absolute abundance of ARGs significantly increased by 1.47-1.94 orders of magnitude when the bather load was more than 0.1 person/m·h. Dermal contact was estimated as the main exposure route of ARGs. Eighteen ARGs that were not detected before swimming were found on human skin and remained after showering. Furthermore, the event intake burden of ARGs via dermal contact was higher than that via ingestion when swimming. This study provides an assessment of ARGs and antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) in swimming pools and helps to define the health risks to swimmers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.148693DOI Listing
June 2021

Comparison of Left Atrial Appendage Occlusion versus Non-Vitamin-K Antagonist Oral Anticoagulation in High-Risk Atrial Fibrillation: An Update.

J Cardiovasc Dev Dis 2021 Jun 11;8(6). Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Cardioangiologisches Centrum Bethanien (CCB), Kardiologie, Medizinische Klinik III, Agaplesion Markus Krankenhaus, Akademisches Lehrkrankenhaus der Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main, 60431 Frankfurt am Main, Germany.

Transcatheter left atrial appendage occlusion (LAAO) is non-inferior to vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) in preventing thromboembolic events in atrial fibrillation (AF). Non-vitamin K antagonists (NOACs) have an improved safety profile over VKAs; however, evidence regarding their effect on cardiovascular and neurological outcomes relative to LAAO is limited. Up-to-date randomized trials or propensity-score-matched data comparing LAAO vs. NOACs in high-risk patients with AF were pooled in our study. A total of 2849 AF patients (LAAO: 1368, NOACs: 1481, mean age: 75 ± 7.5 yrs, 63.5% male) were enrolled. The mean CHA2DS2-VASc score was 4.3 ± 1.7, and the mean HAS-BLED score was 3.4 ± 1.2. The baseline characteristics were comparable between the two groups. In the LAAO group, the success rate of device implantation was 98.8%. During a mean follow-up of 2 years, as compared with NOACs, LAAO was associated with a significant reduction of ISTH major bleeding ( = 0.0002). There were no significant differences in terms of ischemic stroke ( = 0.61), ischemic stroke/thromboembolism ( = 0.63), ISTH major and clinically relevant minor bleeding ( = 0.73), cardiovascular death ( = 0.63), and all-cause mortality ( = 0.71). There was a trend toward reduction of combined major cardiovascular and neurological endpoints in the LAAO group (OR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.64-1.11, = 0.12). In conclusion, for high-risk AF patients, LAAO is associated with a significant reduction of ISTH major bleeding without increased ischemic events, as compared to "contemporary NOACs". The present data show the superior role of LAAO over NOACs among high-risk AF patients in terms of reduction of major bleeding; however, more randomized controlled trials are warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcdd8060069DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8230807PMC
June 2021
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